How to construct a passive sentence Dangerous driving causes many accidents. SubjectVerbDirect Object Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving
Rules 1. Direct object of the active sentence becomes subject of the passive Dangerous driving causes many accidents. Direct Object Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving. Subject
Rules 2. The verb-form of the passive is TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Dangerous driving causes many accidents. Verb Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving
Rules 3. The subject of the active sentence can become a BY - PHRASE Dangerous driving causes many accidents. Subject Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving
Passive and the tenses He cleans the room He is cleaning the room He has cleaned the room He will clean the room He will have cleaned the room He cleaned the room He was cleaning the room He had cleaned the room The room is cleaned The room is being cleaned The room has been cleaned The room will be cleaned The room will have been cleaned The room was cleaned The room was being cleaned The room had been cleaned ACTIVEPASSIVE Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect
Note: sentences with Indirect Object The editor gives her a book every year. SubjectVerbDO She is given a book every year. IO Rule: the indirect object becomes subject of the passive!
Note: sentences with Prepositional Object They talked about her. SubjectVerb She was talked about. Prep.object Rule: the prepositional object becomes subject of the passive!
Idiomatic passive voice structures 1. People believe that the Belgian girl will win the game. They believe It is believed that the Belgian girl will win. The Belgian girl is believed to win the game.
2. We are supposed to be present. with “suppose” an obligation is expressed 3. Don’ let people see you. Don’t let yourself be seen.