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Fire & Water – Cleanup & Restoration™ Employee Training Program Carpet and Upholstery Certification.

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Presentation on theme: "Fire & Water – Cleanup & Restoration™ Employee Training Program Carpet and Upholstery Certification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fire & Water – Cleanup & Restoration™ Employee Training Program Carpet and Upholstery Certification

2 Basics of Cleaning

3 Levels of Clean Sterile: For an environment to be sterile, it is completely free of contamination. Operating rooms must be sterile. To get a sterile level of clean, you must use special products, equipment, and processes. It is VERY hard to reach this level of clean. Disinfected: An area is disinfected when at least 99% of the contaminants are removed. The disinfected level of clean is also very hard to reach. Disinfectant cleaning products can disinfect some nonporous surfaces. Sanitary: In the sanitary level of clean, enough contaminants are removed to protect general health. The soil and contamination in the environment are at acceptable levels. SERVPRO cleaning should reach the sanitary level of clean.

4 Types of Clean When we talk about something being clean, we are really talking about six factors: Looks Clean Smells Clean Feels Clean Stays Clean Dries Fast Is Sanitary

5 Vacuuming Vacuuming uses air to pick up more than half of the soils in upholstery and draperies and 79% of the soils in carpet. This is why it is ALWAYS important to vacuum first.

6 Like Dissolves Like Water dissolves water- based soils, and solvents dissolve oil-based soils.

7 Cleaning Steps There are THREE steps when dissolving soils. The steps are the same whether you are using a water or a solvent. WASH RINSE DRY

8 Dissolving and Suspending Soils Some soils are not loose particles. To remove soils attached to surfaces, we must first dissolve them in a cleaning product. After being dissolved, the soils are suspended in the cleaning product so they can be removed by extracting.

9 Like Dissolves Like HYDRO means WATER PHILIC means LOVE LIPO means OIL PHOBIC means FEAR

10 Put the parts together to define the terms below: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Lipophilic Lipophobic = Water-Loving = Water-Fearing = Oil-Loving = Oil-Fearing

11 Now remember that oil and water don’t mix. If a substance loves water, it also hates oil. This means that if something is hydrophilic, it is also lipophobic, and if something is hydrophobic, it is also lipophilic.

12 Oil and water don’t mix, but by using a detergent, a connecting link is made between oil and water molecules allowing them to be evenly distributed in the cleaning solution. This is called EMULSION.

13 Solvent Safety When using solvents, wear proper PPE including goggles, gloves, and a respirator with an organic vapor cartridge. Make sure all people, plants, and animals (especially birds) are out of the environment.

14 The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. Pure water is neutral. Neutral Acid Alkaline

15 F.Y.I. Acids are substances with a pH less than 7. Acids are normally thought of as sour. MOST soils and spots are slightly acidic. MOST cleaning agents are alkaline. Soap has a pH of about 9, making it a mild alkali. A general rule of thumb is to not use a pH greater than 10 on synthetic fibers. Solvents do not have a pH. A substance must contain water to have a pH. This means that substances like oil and grease don’t have a pH.

16 Polarity Anionic molecules are negatively charged. These molecules are effective when trying to emulsify oils and have a tendency to foam. Anionic solutions are the most compatible with the soil protectants used on fabrics and carpet fibers. MOST laundry detergents are typically anionic, as are most carpet shampoos and pre-sprays. Alkalis are typically anionic also. Cationic molecules are positively charged. Cationics are most often found in deodorants, fabric softeners, anti-static formulations, biocides, and disinfectants. Cationics CANNOT be mixed with and anionic. Acids are typically cationic. Nonionic molecules have no electrical charge. Nonionics are usually compatible with anionic and cationic agents. - Anionic + Cationic o Nonionic

17 Polarity and Cleaning Solutions Polarity helps explain the power of cleaning solutions. Most cleaning involves soils dissolving into cleaning solutions. Polarity (the electrical charges of molecules) make it possible for one substance to dissolve in another substance.

18 Surfactants A surfactant lowers the surface tension of the water, allowing the water to penetrate better into a surface. By lowering the water’s surface tension, soils are better able to mix with water. An Expression used in the industry says “Surfactants make water wetter.”

19 Basics of Cleaning Review Questions 1. What level of clean is typically achieved by SERVPRO cleaning methods? 2. What are six types of clean? 3. What percent of soils will pre-vacuuming pick up on upholstery? On carpet? 4. Define lipophilic and hydrophobic. 5. What is an emulsion? 6. What is a surfactant? 7. What are the safety steps you should take when using solvents? 8. What is pH? Which numbers reflect neutral? Acidic? Alkaline? 9. Can you mix anionics with nonionics? Cationics with nonionics? Cationics with anionics?

20 Textiles: Fibers and Materials

21 Types of Fibers Natural Fibers: come from plants or animals. Cellulosic Fibers: come specifically from plants. Examples include: cotton, linen, jute, and sisal. Protein Fibers: come from animals only. Examples include: wool and silk.

22 Types of Fibers cont… Man-made Fibers (or semi-synthetic) Start as natural substances and are processed to create a usable fiber. For example: Rayon is created by putting wood pulp through a chemical process to make a soft, silk like fiber. Synthetic Fibers Used in 98% of carpets manufactured today They are also blended into many upholstery fabrics The are made by combining by-products of the energy industry in the form of thermal plastic resin To simplify it, just think of tiny plastic pellets that get melted down.

23 How Fibers are Made Natural fibers are Staple fibers (with the exception of fibers created by silkworm) Staple fibers are short fibers that must be spun or twisted into yarn. For example: the wool on a sheep will only grow to a certain length, so wool is ALWAYS a staple fiber. Staple fibers must be combed to untangle them, blended to thoroughly mix the fibers, and drafted(pulled into long ropes) to spin them into longer threads.

24 How Fibers are Made Cont. Synthetic fibers take many different steps to make and are made by humans Small plastic pellets are melted down in a large vat using heat or chemicals The melted mixture is forced down through a Spinneret (a lot like a shower head) The plastic comes out of the holes and cools, or the chemicals evaporate and the plastic solidifies The result is a long continuous filament or long fibers. The whole process is called Extrusion.

25 Fiber Dying In the Solution Dying method, the dye is mixed in with the plastic pellets before the fibers are extruded through the spinnerets. In this way, dye becomes a part of the fiber itself. Solution dyes are the most permanent colors, but this process can be used only for synthetic fibers.

26 Topical Treatments Soil Repellents The primary purpose of soil repellents is to delay the absorption of soils into the fibers. Delaying the soil absorption allows more time to remove the soils before they become permanent stains. Soil repellents coat the outside of the fibers. Soil Release Agents Soil release agents are the opposite of soil repellents. Soil repellents make fabrics very hydrophobic—they resist water penetration. Soil release agents make fabrics hydrophilic—they readily absorb more water. By making a fabric more absorptive, detergent solutions can more easily penetrate the fabric and release the soils. Hydrophilic=Water loving Hydrophobic=Water Fearing

27 Fiber Terms Bleeding: If the dye is not set properly, it may become unstable when wet and run into the fibers or material next to it. Color Loss: When dyes are loosened during cleaning, they can be washed out of the fabric. Crocking: If there is too much dye in a fabric or carpet, the dyes can transfer from one material to another, even when the fabric is dry. Staple fiber: A natural or synthetic fiber that is a relatively short length and must be spun or twisted into yarn. It is the opposite of continuous filaments which could go on forever, where staple fibers are short.

28 Natural Fibers: Cotton Strengths of Cotton Strong Normally very colorfast Withstands high cleaning temperatures and many types of bleaches Weaknesses of Cotton Most absorbent fiber Will absorb up to 20% of its weight in moisture before it even feels wet to the touch It will take longer to dry

29 Natural Fibers: Linen Linen is a cellulosic fiber that comes from the stem of a flax plant Strengths of Linen 20% stronger when wet Dries quickly Withstand high cleaning temperatures Weaknesses of Linen The fibers will split at creases in heavily worn areas Fibers have a string wicking action— meaning that stains are absorbed deep into the fiber and are hard to remove.

30 Natural Fibers: Sisal Sisal comes from the agave plant and is often used to make rope and door mats, and is the face fiber in some rugs and carpets Strengths of Sisal Stronger when wet Weaknesses of Sisal Cellulosic browning Easily stained Easily damaged by wet cleaning processes

31 Natural Fibers: Jute Jute comes from the stalk of the jute plant found primarily in India. Jute used to be a common carpet backing material and can also be found as the widthwise yarns in woven carpets, but today is used in only 1% of carpets and rugs. You may find jute in older homes. Strengths of Jute Strong when dry Stretches well during carpet installation Weaknesses of Jute Shrinks when wet Weak when wet Contains tannin, a dye that will bleed into face fibers and cause browning Acts as a food source for mold

32 Natural Fibers: Wool Wool comes for the fleece of sheep Strengths of Wool Can be stretched 30% without breaking Has an outer membrane that repels water Weaknesses of Wool Will dissolve in chlorine bleaches pH of cleaning solutions must be between 4.5 and 8.5 Because wool is so absorbent, over wetting is a potential problem.

33 Natural Fibers: Silk Silk is produced by silkworms Strengths of Silk Strong Easily dyed Weaknesses of Silk The texture may change after wetting Damaged by high alkalinity Strong acids and chlorine bleaches will also damage silk

34 Man-Made Fibers: Rayon Rayon does not have the strengths or durability to be used in carpets, but occasionally you will find rayon in upholstery or in an area rug. When cleaning rayon, treat it like a cellulosic fiber. Strengths of Rayon Resistant to mildew Weaknesses of Rayon Mats easily. Pile fabrics are extremely sensitive and must be groomed immediately after cleaning If stretched, rayon will not return to its original shape Damaged by strong alkalis, acids and bleaches Easily damaged by aggressive agitation during cleaning. Weakest fiber when wet. It loses up to 70% of it’s strength.

35 Synthetic Fibers: Nylon Nylon is now the most commonly used synthetic fiber and can be found in carpet, upholstery and draperies. Nylon wears better than any other synthetic fiber. You will often find nylon blends that mix the strengths of nylon with the appearance of another fiber. To create 5 th generation nylon, scientists added something called acid dye blockers. Acid dye blockers are simply large, colorless dye molecules that have a negative charge. Acid dye blockers fill the dye sites on the fibers that are not already filled with regular, colored dye and repel other dyes with a negative charge. Most food eyes have a negative charge, so the acid dye blockers reduce the chance of the stains becoming permanent. When dealing with 5 th generation nylon, we have to be more careful about what products we use. Highly alkaline products can cause yellowing. Cationic products like disinfectants can produce a sticky jelly-like buildup. Also, applying a cationic can void the manufacturer’s warranty on stain resistant carpets.

36 Synthetic Fibers: Polypropylene Olefin is a generic term used to refer to polyethylene and polypropylene materials. Polypropylene is the primary olefin material used in textiles. Polypropylene is used in conventional indoor carpets as well as in outdoor carpets.

37 Textiles: Fibers and Materials Review Questions 1.What is the difference between celluolsic fibers and protein fibers? 2.Explain the process of how synthetic fibers are made. 3.What is the difference between a soil release agent and a soil repellent? 4.What is the difference between crocking and bleeding? 5.Which fiber is the most absorbent? 6.Which fiber is the weakest when wet? 7.What advances were made in the 5 generations of nylon? 8.What is the most common carpet face fiber? 9. What is solution dyeing process? 10.What is the difference between a staple fiber and a continuous filament?

38 Pretesting

39 Pretesting is required on every job. You need to know what you are cleaning, how your cleaning products will affect a textile, and if your cleaning method will work. Pretesting will answer these questions.

40 Pretesting is important to the customer. It establishes your credibility. Involve the customer and explain what you are looking for.

41 Pretesting Video eLearning Video

42 Burn Testing Technique: While burning fibers, observe the ODOR and characteristics of the ASH and the color of the FLAME to identify the type of fiber. Compare the results to the Burn Test Chart. The key question you want to answer is whether the fiber is natural or synthetic.

43 Chemical Testing Technique Fiber:Dissolves in: Cotton Strong Acids. Nylon Formic Acid. Nylon fibers dissolve in 15 – 60 seconds. If they don not dissolve, they are NOT nylon. If they partially dissolve, the sample may be a blended fabric. Wool Chlorine Bleach. Wool will dissolve in regular Chlorine Bleach (like Clorox), but the process may take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. Wool fibers will dissolve, but blended fibers will be unaffected. Acetate Acetone. A strong acid will also dissolve acetate. Olefin Dehydronaphalene (Naphtha). You can buy Naphtha at most hardware stores.

44 Specific Gravity Test Olefin is the only synthetic fiber with a specific gravity of less than one (this means it floats on water).

45 Shrinkage Test This test is meant for upholstery and drapery cleaning only. Select an unexposed place to perform the test (the skirt and the cushions are typically the spots on upholstery that are most likely to shrink). Hold a small furniture pad(measuring 2 ½” by 2 ½”) against the fabric and insert a straight pin at each corner to outline the area. Use straight pins with bright colored plastic heads to make them more visible. Take the furniture pad away, leaving the pins in place. Use a salt and shampoo mix (2 oz. table salt and 2 oz. Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo per gallon of water) and a clean white towel to saturate the fabric within the square made by the pins. Also saturate about ½ inch outside of the pins. (Mixing salt with the shampoo helps prevent bleeding.) Work the solution into the fabric. If the solution beads up, this indicates the fabric has been treated with a soil and stain retardant.

46 Shrinkage Test cont… Wait 10 minutes (15 if the solution beads) for the area to dry. Using a hair dryer to speed up the results may give you faulty information. Place the same furniture pad back into place between the pins. If the pad doesn’t fit, the fabric has shrunk. A very small amount of shrinkage inside the shrink test area can equal several inches over the entire area of an upholstery or drapery item. Always remove the pins from the fabric after completing the shrink test. Some pins will rust if left in place, and they can be a safety hazard for the customer. If the fabric shrinks, do NOT risk wet cleaning. Dry clean the fabric.

47 Colorfastness Tests Test in an inconspicuous area. To test for bleeding, use a highly alkaline solution (such as Blood and Stain Remover) to saturate the test area. If colors do not bleed with this product, they shouldn’t bleed during the proper cleaning. Wait for the area to dry completely (many times bleeding will not occur until the final stages of drying). NOTE: If you are doing a spot removal, test with each product before you use it. If bleeding occurs, neutralize the area with a low pH fabric rinse and test the textile again with a mild cleaning solution (such as Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo having pH close to 7). Test for crocking by rubbing a clean white towel against the dry material. If there is a color transfer, you may want to use a dry cleaning process.

48 Pre-Existing Conditions Look for the following pre-existing conditions: Carpet stretched in poorly. Heavy wear patterns and matting. Deeply soiled carpets and upholstery may have permanent damage that regular restorative cleaning will not take care of. Permanent stains cannot be removed without removing textile dyes. Physical damages: torn seams, holes, rips, delamination, dry rot, mildew damage, burns, frays, damaged tips, sun fading/fume fading. Upholstery can have structural damage such as deterioration of foam padding in the cushions (check for ink marks on the inside cushion foam as well), damaged zippers, loose or missing buttons, stability of the frame or springs, and missing arm covers.

49 Questions One of the biggest complaints of customers is poor communication. Know what to discuss with customers, then everyone involved will be happier. The following questions are good to ask:  Has the carpet/upholstery been cleaned before and how was it cleaned?  Are there any spots or stains that I need to be aware of?  Is the carpet/upholstery under warranty?  How old is the carpet/upholstery?  Are there special drying time requirements?  What type of carpet/upholstery is it? Are there tags or labels that came with the product? Use these questions, plus the information you find while pretesting to document any problems that you have identified. For carpet, document problems on the invoice and ask the customer and ask the customer to initial the statements to indicate he or she is aware of the conditions. For upholstery or draperies, use the Upholstery, Textile and Drapery Condition Report.

50 Pretesting Review Questions 1.Which fiber will dissolve in Chlorine Bleach? 2.Why is the Upholstery, Textile and Drapery Condition Report used? 3.Which synthetic fiber floats on water? 4.Why do you pretest? 5.How do you perform a shrinkage test? 6.How do you test for crocking? 7.How do you test for bleeding? 8.What do you look for when doing a burn test? 9.What is the point of doing a burn test? 10.What type of things should you look for when inspecting carpet? Upholstery?

51 Carpet Construction

52 Types of Backings Synthetic Backings Synthetic backing material is made from polypropylene. Synthetic backings are much more common in today’s carpets. Jute Backings Jute tends to shrink after wetting and can cause brown tannin dyes to bleed into the carpet face yarns as it dries. This staining is called cellulosic browning.

53 How Tufted Carpet is Created The tufting machine used in making carpet has rows of needles above the primary backing with yarn threaded through the eyes of the needles. Devices called loopers are underneath the primary backing. The needles punch through the primary backing, bringing the yarn with them. As the needles come through the primary backing, loopers slide through the loops of yarn and hold them as the needles are pulled back up through the primary backing. The primary backing advances like a conveyor belt and pulls the loop of yarn off the looper. In loop pile carpets, the loop is left uncut and becomes the finished tuft for the face of the carpet.

54 Cut Pile Pile tips which are trimmed or cut are known at cut pile. Cut pile carpets have many different styles, but one thing remains the same: The tufted ends are cut not looped.

55 4 Main Types of Cut Pile Carpets Velvet Plush cut piles have very little twist in the yarns. Frieze cut piles are very tightly twisted. Saxony Plush has a appearance between velvet plush and frieze. Shag carpets are cut pile, but the tufts are much longer than in other types of cut pile.

56 Loop Pile In Level Loop carpets, pile loops are all the same height, and the loops are not cut. This makes a smooth and level surface that offers good wearing qualities. In Multi-Level loop carpets there are 2 or more heights of loops. Some other types of loop pile is Berber and Cut and Loop. Combining cut pile with loop pile can create a mixture of surface textures

57 Woven Carpets Warp and Weft Warp yarns are the yarns that run lengthwise in a woven carpet. These are the yarns that are initially loaded into a loom. Weft yarns (also called filler yarns) run across the width of a woven carpet. These are the yarns that are woven into the already existing warp yarns.

58 Types of Weaves Wilton Weaves To identify a Wilton weave, examine a cut edge from a Wilton woven carpet. Note the buried yarns that alternate with surface colors. The pile will be denser and the carpet tighter than other constructions. Axminster Weave To identify an Axminster carpet, look for the stiff fibers (sometimes referred to as “wires”) that create an easily identifiable heavy-ridged backing. Try rolling the carpet in a sidewise direction and in a lengthwise direction. If the carpet is difficult to roll sidewise but rolls easily lengthwise, it is likely that it is an Axminster carpet. Almost all other carpets can be rolled easily in either direction.

59 Other Types of Carpet Construction

60 Needlepunched Carpets Needlepunched carpet is made by first laying down many strands of carpet fiber in loose random fashion until the layer reaches a specific height. A solid sheet of polypropylene is then placed over this blanket of fibers, and more layers of fibers are placed on top of this sheet. A machine with thousands of needles punch through these layers of carpet fibers on the top and bottom of the polypropylene sheet. As the needles punch through the polypropylene sheet, they pull fibers with them. The fibers are interlocked with each other and with the sheet. More layers of fiber are spread on top and bottom of the polypropylene sheet, and the needlepunch process is repeated. This process is repeated until the carpet reaches the thickness desired.

61 Fusion Bonded Carpets In fusion bonded carpets, the thick back- coating of thermoplastic or PVC rubberized material is used in place of a secondary backing. These are most commonly a level loop type carpet. They are designed for glue-down installations without carpet padding.

62 Carpet Pad Rebond is made from multicolored chunks of foam rubber that are glued together to form a pad. Foam padding is a solid sheet of foam rubber material. Waffle padding is so named because it has a pattern of mountains and valleys that look like a waffle.

63 Carpet Installations Tackless Direct glue-down Double glue-down In a tackless installation, the pad is cut to fit the room, taped to the floor, and then the seams in the pad are taped. The carpet is not attached to the pad, it is simply stretched over the top and attached to tackless strips around the edges of the room. The smooth side of the pad faces up to make installation easier. This is the installation type that you will find most often in homes. In a direct glue-down installation, the carpet is cut to fit the room, adhesive is applied to the floor, and the carpet is glued directly to the floor. This is the type of installation you will find most often in commercial buildings. In a double glue-down, the pad is glued to the floor and the carpet is glued to the pad. This type of installation is also found in commercial buildings.

64 Carpet construction Review Questions 1.What are the 4 components used to make tufted carpets? 2.When you encounter a jute carpet backing, what are two things you should be aware of? 3.What is a fusion bonded carpet? 4.How is a loop pile carpet made? How is a cut pile made? 5.What is the difference between a weft yarn and a warp yarn? 6.What are the different types of cut-pile carpets? 7.How do you identify a Wilton weave? An Axminster weave? 8.How is a needle-punched carpet made? 9.What are the 3 major types of carpet pad? 10.What is the difference between tackless installations, direct glue-down installations, and double glue-down installations?

65 Carpet Cleaning Methods Regular Vacuuming 79% of soils are removed by vacuuming!

66 Steps Necessary in All Carpet Cleaning Jobs Vacuuming Pilating Pre-Spotting Moving Furniture

67 Safety and General Precautions It is necessary to have a current MSDS on the van for each product on the van Always mix product by using a measuring cup! Take special precautions to protect children and pets. Do not lay hoses on top of plants or shrubbery. Heat from the solution hoses can damage plants. If possible, lay hoses on the sidewalk. Wrap a cleaning towel around metal hose fittings to protect the carpet. For maximum safety, personal protective equipment (PPE) needed for carpet and upholstery cleaning includes splash goggles, vapor/particle respirator (especially if you are dealing with solvents), and chemical resistant gloves.

68 Carpet Cleaning Job Overview

69 Meet and greet the customer (if the customer likes your professional and positive approach in the beginning, 90% of the job is done. Preview the area to be cleaned and pretest. Talk about and qualify cleaning results with the customer. Get all paperwork signed. Don’t start work without a signed authorization. Set Retail Spotting Kit and Thank You Card on table or kitchen counter. The Retail Spotting Kit is a great add-on sale. Select an area to set up equipment and mix cleaning agents and get approval from the customer. Makes sure pets and children are kept away from the setup area. Always use a tarp that will protect the floor. Get permission for a location to dispose of cleaning wastes. The preferred location to dispose of cleaning wastes is in a toilet connected to a sanitary sewer line. NEVER DISPOSE OF CLEANING WASTES ON THE CUSTOMER’S LAWN OR DRIVEWAY, IN A SEPTIC TANK OR IN A STORM DRAIN (check local requirements).

70 Set up the room or area to be cleaned. Pilate the carpet to help break up soils and correct matting problems. Vacuum the carpet. Put on personal protective equipment, mix products and test equipment in setup area. Prespot stains and pretreat traffic areas if appropriate. Clean edges around the room by hand. Clean the carpet using the appropriate method. Reset furniture. DO NOT SET FURNITURE ON DAMP CARPETS. Use furniture pads or blocks to prevent stains. Do a walk-through with the customer and fix any problems. Ask the customer to fill out a Thank You Card and sign the Customer Satisfaction Statement. Collect payment for jobs that are not on a scheduled billing system. Load equipment and supplies back onto the van.

71 Carpet Cleaning Methods

72 BONNET Bonnet cleaning is the least aggressive cleaning method and is used when there is light soiling. It is commonly used for maintenance cleaning.

73 Bonnet Cleaning Video eLearning Video

74 SHAMPOO Shampoo cleaning is more aggressive than bonnet cleaning, but it is also more common for maintenance cleaning than for restorative cleaning. Shampoo cleaning works well when there is light to moderate soiling.

75 Hot Water Extraction Hot water extraction is a deep cleaning process. It uses a portable extractor or a truck mount to apply solution and then extract soils, moisture and cleaning product residue.

76 Hot Water Extraction Video eLearning Video

77 DELUXE PRECONDITIONER AND RINSE Deluxe preconditioner and rinse cleans more thoroughly than hot water extraction. In Deluxe preconditioner and rinse, carpet Pre-Spray is sprayed onto the carpet and allowed to work before it is extracted.

78 Deluxe Preconditioner and Rinse Video eLearning Video

79 SHOWCASE CLEANING Showcase cleaning is the most effective cleaning process in the carpet cleaning industry. It is a two-step process--you are basically cleaning the carpet twice. The first step is to shampoo the carpet, mixing showcase cleaner and rinse with the carpet and upholstery shampoo. The second step is to rinse the carpet using an extractor and a clean water rinse or a solution of fabric rinse and color set.

80 Showcase Cleaning Video eLearning Video

81 OTHER CARPET CLEANING METHODS ABSORBENT COMPOUND In absorbent cleaning, a cleaning compound (a damp powder made of cellulosic materials And cleaning agents) Is put onto the carpet and agitated into the fibers with counter rotating or rotary brushes. After it dries, the cleaning compound is vacuumed out of the carpet. Soils are absorbed by the cleaning agents and stick to the cellulosic particles. Very aggressive vacuuming using a vacuum cleaner with beater brushes or bars is required to remove the solid particles from the carpet.

82 Carpet Cleaning Methods Review Questions 1.What percent of soils will dry vacuuming pick up from carpet? 2.What paperwork must you have for each product you take to the job site? 3.What is the maximum amount of PPE needed for carpet cleaning? 4.When you pick a location for your staging area, what three things should you take into consideration? 5.What is the least aggressive carpet cleaning method that SERVPRO offers? 6.What is the most aggressive carpet cleaning method that SERVPRO offers? 7.What is the difference between Shampoo cleaning and Showcase cleaning? 8.What is the difference between Deluxe Preconditioner and Rinse cleaning and Rotary Jet Extraction cleaning? 9.What is Absorbent Compound cleaning? 10.What is the proper way to lay down a wand?

83 Upholstery and Drapery Construction

84 There are two ways to mix the fiber types. Twisting two or more types of fibers together can make a blended yarn. For example, cotton and polyester fibers may be twisted together to make a cotton- polyester yarn. Another way to make blended fabrics is by weaving different types of yarn together. Either way, it is very common for upholstery and drapery fabrics to be made of more than one type of fiber.

85 Weaving Fabrics Warp yarns run across the length of a fabric. Remember, “Warp speed ahead” Weft yarn (or filling yarns) run across the width of a fabric. To remember weft yarns, think “weft to right”

86 Plain Weave Plain weaves are the strongest weaves; they stand up well to wear and use. The strength of plain weave fabrics lets cleaners use more aggressive cleaning methods. Agitation is not likely to damage the fabric.

87 Twill Weave The twill weave has some yarns that pass over two or more yarns running in the opposite direction before passing back under. These yarns are called float yarns.

88 Jacquard Weaves A Jacquard weave is easily recognized since the back side if the fabric will be the “negative” image of the front side.

89 Chintz Chintz fabrics normally has designs printed on a solid background of a plain weave fabric. Then a glaze is applied to give the fabric a sheen. The glaze may come off in cleaning, so dry cleaning is the preferred cleaning method for chintz fabrics.

90 Quilted Quilted fabrics are made by sewing three layers of fabric together in a stitched pattern to create puffed areas.

91 Upholstery Construction

92 Dust Cover The dust cover is the material under the bottom of the piece of upholstery. The dust cover prevents insects and dust from getting inside the piece of furniture. Platform The platform (aka the deck) is the area where the cushions rest. The dyes in fabric covering the platform may not be colorfast. The platform can also easily water mark when wet. You should cover this fabric during cleaning to prevent water stains and to keep dyes from bleeding into other fabrics. If dye bleeding is not a concern, wet the platform evenly to avoid water marks. Put wax paper or plastic over the deck material before setting damp cushions on the deck.

93 Drapery Construction

94 Cornice A cornice is a wood box or fabric covered wood box covering the top of draperies and the draperies and the drapery rod area. Pleat Pleats are gathers of material on the front side of draperies used to form the folded effect at the top of draperies. Pleats may be formed by sewing or by pleater hooks.

95 Upholstery and Drapery Construction Review Questions 1.What is the name of the yarn that runs lengthwise in woven fabrics? 2.What is the name of the yarn that runs across the width of the fabrics? 3.Which type of weave normally produces the strongest fabric? 4.What is the name for the material underneath upholstered furniture that prevents dust from getting inside the piece of furniture? 5.What do you call the gathers of material at the top front of draperies that give a folded effect? 6.What is a float yarn? 7.What should you do to protect the decking on a chair you are cleaning? 8.What are two methods of making a “blended” fabric? 9.What effect might hot cleaning solutions have on Chintz fabrics? 10.How do you identify a Jacquard weave?

96 Upholstery and Drapery Cleaning Methods Upholstery Foam/Shampoo Haitian Cotton Hot Water Extraction Showcase Machine Dry Clean Hand Dry Clean Dry-Wet-Dry Drapery Machine Dry Clean Hot Water Extraction

97 General Precautions Mistake #1—High pH Solutions Mistake #2—Hot Cleaning Solutions with Unstable dyes Mistake #3—Over wetting the Fabric Mistake #4—Uneven Application of Cleaning Solution Mistake #5—Incomplete or Uneven Extraction Mistake #6—Removing Cushion Covers

98 General Precautions Continued… Make sure pets and children can be kept away from the set up area Always use a tarp to protect the floor Test equipment in the set up area Never dispose of cleaning wastes on the customers lawn, driveway, septic tank or storm drain. It must be disposed of at an approved disposal site. When items have a lot of pet hair or soot, use a dry cleaning sponge to remove most of residues before vacuuming.

99 General Procedures on Upholstery Cleaning Always note any furniture defects (rips, tears, etc) on the invoice or Upholstery, Textile and Drapery Conditions Report and have the customer sign before work begins. Always Pretest Always Pre Vacuum Be careful with buttons Solvent Safety

100 Shampoo/Foam Apply the shampoo to the fabric with either a natural sponge or the tampico upholstery brush. Clean cushions first, then clean the inside back and arms of the upholstery. Pilating is done on pile fabrics such as velvets or chenille. Flat weaves do not require pilating.

101 Haitian Cotton The Haitian Cotton cleaning method is very similar to the shampoo method. The biggest difference is the cleaning agent. You use a different cleaning agent for Haitian and Tahitian cotton to prevent cellulosic browning in the fabric. Haitian cotton fibers have unprocessed portions of cottonseeds, stems and other materials that are very sensitive to cleaning agents. Water and cleaning agents can release the dyes in these unprocessed materials that bleed into the fibers and cause the fabric to turn a dingy brown color.

102 Hot Water Extraction Hot water extraction is used on wet cleanable fabrics that are moderately soiled. The cleaning solution is heated and applied using an upholstery cleaning machine, portable extractor, or truck mount. The solution along with dissolved soils is then extracted. Hot water extraction removes more soils from fabrics than the shampoo/foam method.

103 Showcase Showcase cleaning is the most aggressive upholstery cleaning process available. For wet cleanable fabrics that are heavily soiled, Showcase cleaning is the appropriate method. Upholstery that has been contaminated with soot from a fire damage is most often cleaned by the showcase method.

104 Machine Dry Solvent Some fabrics are sensitive to wet cleaning processes and must be cleaned with a solvent. Machine dry cleaning is the most effective way to clean fabrics with a solvent. You can apply more agitation to the fabric with machine dry cleaning than you can with hand dry cleaning. Machine dry cleaning also rinses and vacuums emulsified soils from the fabric. Machine dry cleaning cannot be used with certain fabrics. Fabrics with acrylic backing cannot be dry cleaned. Solvent cleaners may damage the backing and ruin the fabric. Also delicate fabrics can be damaged by the upholstery machine and require hand dry cleaning. Dry cleaning solvents may damage the finish on wood floors, wood furniture, baseboards, chair rails and all finished wood surfaces. Protect finished wood surfaces on upholstered furniture and around the work area. Blot off overspray from wood surfaces with a dry towel. DO NOT RUB! If overspray gets on flat wall paint or on window glass, leave it and let it dry. Dry cleaning solvent leaves no residue. Blotting or wiping these surfaces may damage the finish.

105 Hand Dry Solvent Cleaning Fabrics that are not wet cleanable must be cleaned with solvents. If those same fabrics are also delicate they could be damaged by the upholstery machine. Use the hand dry cleaning method to prevent abrasion and damage to the material. Hand dry cleaner is a solvent based product for use on fabrics that might shrink or bleed if exposed to water based cleaners. This method is effective on light soiling conditions only. Hand dry cleaner will not clean heavy soil as effectively as shampoo, but will improve the appearance of most fabrics.

106 Dry -wet- Dry The dry-wet-dry method is a combination of wet cleaning and dry cleaning. Use this method on fabrics that cannot be cleaned with water based cleaning agents, but are soiled with soils that will not dissolve with solvent cleaners. For example syrup is water soluble and will not dissolve in dry cleaning solutions. If you had a couch with a syrup spill on it, dry cleaning will not remove the syrup. But if the dyes in the fabric bleed in water based solutions you cannot perform a stand wet cleaning process. Dry-wet-dry gives you an option to clean the syrup without damaging the fabric.

107 Upholstery Cleaning Methods Review Questions 1.Who should not have access to the area used for setting up equipment and cleaning agents? 2. What is the preferred location for disposing of normal upholstery cleaning wastes? 3.What is an effective way to remove pet hair from upholstery fabric? 4.Before cleaning upholstery or draperies, the technician should pre-qualify with the customer and note pre-existing conditions on what form? 5.When cleaning upholstery, which areas should be cleaned first? 6.Which type of fabric requires pilating after cleaning? 7.To prevent damages to fabrics before dry cleaning upholstery, what should you always check? 8.If dry cleaning solvent overspray gets on flat wall paint while you’re cleaning upholstery or draperies, what should you do? 9.The Shampoo upholstery cleaning method is MOST effective on what level of soiling? 10.Which upholstery cleaning method is appropriate for heavy soiling and is the most aggressive method?

108 Spot Removal Spot removal is a vital part of all upholstery and carpet cleaning jobs. A job will be judged as a great success when the spots are gone. Sometimes people use the terms spot, stain, and discoloration to mean the same thing. As professional cleaners, we need to know the difference between the terms.

109 Spot- is something that adds body or substance to fibers. Materials such as food, oil, wax, and gum leave residues on fibers that can be felt and seen. Stain- a substance that adds color to fibers. Materials such as ink, wine, fruit juice, and coffee are examples of staining substances. Discoloration-is the loss of color from fibers.

110 Overview of Spot Removal Procedures Step #1: remove excess spotting material. A SERVPRO tech will often deal with older spots. Always try to remove excess spotting material first. Vacuum, scoop or blot as much material as possible before wetting the spot or applying a spotting agent. Step #2: Determine type of soil in the spot or stain Step #3: Determine the type of fiber Step #4: qualify with the customer and never guarantee bold spot removal Step #5: select spotting agent and remember, like dissolves like, start dry and go to wet and start with the least aggressive agent. Step #6: apply the spotting agent Step #7: rinse, extract and neutralize Step #8: dry the area

111 Tips for Successful Spotting Take your time when spotting– spotting agents need time to work, and applying more spotting agents to speed up the process may damage the fibers or backing material. Also, excess spotting agent may stick to surface later and attract soils. Don’t scrub the spot to speed up the process! Too much agitation may damage fibers, making the spot look worse than before. Leaving textiles in a mildly acidic state may help stabilize dyes and reduce potential for bleeding as the textile dries.

112 Examples of Water Soluble Soils Sugar Syrup Starchy foods Candy Water based lipstick and cosmetics

113 Examples of Protein Soils Blood Egg Vomit Urine Feces Milk Ice Cream

114 Examples of Tannin Stains Coffee Tea Soda Beer Fruit juice Mixed drinks

115 Examples of Color Adding Stains Red Wine Fruit Juice Mustard Some Inks

116 Examples of Volatile Solvent-Soluble Soils Light Oils Grease Tar Asphalt Carbon Paper Copier Toner Latex Adhesives Airplane Glue Candle Wax Chewing Gum

117 Examples of Nonvolatile Solvent-Soluble Soils Dried Paint Floor Wax Latex Glue Indelible Ink Crayons Lipstick Nail Polish Varnish

118 Example of Rust Stains Rust

119 Spot Removal Review Questions 1.What are soils classified as when they add substance and can be felt on fabrics? 2.What are soils classified as when they have no texture and cannot be felt on fabrics? 3.What is the first step in spot removal? 4.When qualifying spot removal with a customer, in what situation would you guarantee spot removal results? 5.If you do not know what type of soil is in a spot, should you start with a water-based spotting agent or a dry solvent spotting agent? Why? 6.To remove a spot of shoe polish, should you use a volatile solvent spotting agent, a nonvolatile spotting agent, or a water-based spotting agent? 7.After using a nonvolatile spotting agent, do you rinse with Citric Acid or with a volatile spotting agent? 8.What might happen if you try to speed up the spot removal process by applying a lot of spotting agent? What might happen if you scrub the spot? 9.What part of a spot should you work on first in order to prevent the spot from spreading to a larger area during the spot removal process? 10.When finished removing a spot and rinsing the area, should the surface be left strongly acidic, slightly acidic, slightly alkaline, or strongly alkaline?

120 Troubleshooting Color fading in textiles may be caused by several things. Dye stability, sunlight, wear, fume fading, and spills from bleaching agents are some for the most common reasons for color fading. Some colors can fade in areas exposed to direct sunlight. Fume fading is caused by gases from cooking, heating systems and other gases in the atmosphere. Color loss can occur when bleaching agents contact a textile

121 There is no real solution for color loss or fading. These are typically pre-existing conditions and must be carefully noted on the Upholstery, Textile and Drapery Condition Report. Once colors have been removed or damaged the only way to replace them is to re-dye the fabric.

122 Bleeding Bleeding occurs when dyes are loosened by the cleaning agent and begin to run into other parts of the fabric. The primary way to prevent color bleeding is to pretest. If colors begin to bleed during cleaning, stop and immediately apply a slightly acid rinse like a Fabric Rinse and Color Set product.

123 Yellowing Problems Soiling Soils like animal urine, oils, cigarette smoke, cosmetics, lotions, and do-it-yourself upholstery and carpet cleaning products can cause color change in dyes. If the soil was deposited in a particular spot, yellowing or discoloration is typically in that spot, but discoloration from cigarette smoke and cleaning solutions may be over most of the fabric. Yellowing caused by soils such as cigarette smoke or animal urine may be removed by cleaning.

124 Streaking Problems The way to avoid streaks is to avoid overwetting, to extract the upholstery well, and pilate (especially on velvets).

125 Browning, Spots and Stains Older fabrics, excessive moisture and long drying periods increase the likelihood of browning. Browning from previous cleanings or water damage may sometimes be removed by cleaning upholstery fabric with an upholstery shampoo that contains bleaching agents (such as Haitian Cotton Upholstery Shampoo). If Haitian Cotton Upholstery Shampoo does not work, use Carpet and Upholstery Shampoo mixed with a Brown Out product that removes brown stains Make sure to pretest first –Brown Out can bleach a textile bright white. Regardless of the products you use, limit the amount of moisture on the fabric by using the foam cleaning method.

126 Recurring Spots Spots sometimes reappear quickly after spot removal. The key to preventing spots from reappearing is to remove soils and cleaning agents. Rinsing and extracting are critical. Several rinse and extraction passes may be needed to remove all residues completely. You may also pack the area with Stain Absorb Powder. This will allow soils to wick into the powder instead of drying in the fibers.

127 Latent Stains What do you do when you see no stains as you first examine a piece of carpet or upholstery, but stains appear as you clean and the carpet becomes wet? These stains are called “Latent Stains” and they typically appear as a lighter color (like a spot that has been bleached out). Normally, you can do nothing to reverse these stains. The damage was done before you arrived.

128 Problems Specific to Carpet

129 Filtration Soiling Filtration soiling is caused by air being forced through a carpet, around the edges of carpet, or between doors and carpets. Air contains soils such as smoke, cooking oils, dust, smog and other pollutants. The carpet acts as a filter as air passes through and soils are deposited in the fibers and backings. Filtration soiling looks like sharp, well-defined, dark gray or black lines around the edges of walls, under doors, or even in the middle of the room.

130 Improper Carpet Installation If a carpet is not installed properly, you may come across the following problems: Waves or wrinkles develop in the carpet after cleaning due to poor stretching. Seams come apart and delaminate in the area of the seam. Edges of carpet in the seam were not glued (buttered) before seaming and pile tufts are missing or come out during cleaning. Carpet pile direction is reversed causing the carpet to have different shades of coloring. Carpet is not properly attached to tackless strip or edging strips.

131 Apparent Soils Apparent soils are not actually soils, but conditions that look like soil. Wear actually occurs when there is a loss of fibers from the textile causing other fibers to not stand up properly. Even when pilated, fibers may lay back over quickly. Worn textiles may look matted (even though matting is usually caused by heavy soiling). Cleaning can reverse most matting problems, but cannot reverse wear problems.

132 Troubleshooting Review Questions 1.What is the only way to fix color bleaching or color loss? 2.What can a technician do to avoid bleeding problems? 3.What are some possible causes of yellowing? 4.How can you avoid leaving streaks in fabrics? 5.How can you correct cellulosic browning? 6.How do you fix a recurring spot? 7.What is a latent stain? 8.What types of problems are caused by improper carpet installation? 9.What is wear? 10.What causes filtration soiling?

133 Job Process The overall process for completing an upholstery or carpet cleaning job in a commercial or residential setting is very similar, regardless of the cleaning method being performed. Each job will have unique characteristics, but the basic process is the same.

134 Authorization to Perform Services For basic residential and commercial jobs, the crew chief makes sure the customer signs the authorization to perform services line on the SERVPRO Invoice before beginning work. Never start work without an authorization! The SERVPRO owner will notify you if there is an exception to this rule.

135 INVOICE Do not total the invoice until AFTER all production work has been completed. This allows you an opportunity to write in any add-on services and/or retail sales during the job. Once all changes have been made, total the invoice.

136 Production Guidelines Production guidelines will guide you through the steps of each production process. The crew chief should review the EZ Production Guideline for each type of service being performed.

137 Inventory The crew chief will review the inventory list to be sure everything needed for the day is loaded onto the truck. The inventory list should be used to verify products, equipment, accessories and safety equipment needs.

138 Vehicle Location Do not block the customer’s Vehicle in or park a van Leaking oil on a driveway. Do not park in basement Garages, carports, or Where exhaust can enter a building. When possible, the van should be placed Where neighbors can see it to advertise SERVPRO

139 CREW RULES

140 Follow SERVPRO’S standard production rules and customers will be impressed with SERVPRO’S professionalism. No Smoking: Never smoke or use chewing tobacco on the job site. Uniforms: Always dress in proper uniform at a job site. NEVER take off your shirt and make sure it is tucked in. Safety: Always wear the appropriate PPE and take proper safety measures on the job site. Product and equipment staging areas must be kept out of reach of pets and children. Ask customers to remove pets from the area if necessary. Put lids back on product bottles. Language: Profanity is strictly prohibited. Conversations should be work related; customers do not want to know about our personal business. Telephone: Do not use a customer’s telephone. If a business-related emergency arises, ask permission and be as brief as possible. Never answer a customer’s phone. Privacy/Security: Do not enter areas that are not being cleaned. Always ask permission before opening a closed door.

141 Crew Rules Continued Bathroom Use: Always ask permission to use a customer’s bathroom. Leave the toilet and sink clean. Never use a customer’s towels (use a SEVPRO towel or paper towels). Courtesy: Always listen to the customer with full attention. Treat customers like you would want to be treated. Remember, the customer is the person who makes it possible for us to earn a living! They deserve to receive the best possible service Drug and Alcohol Use: NEVER use drugs or alcohol on the job. Politely refuse if customers offer you drugs or alcohol.

142 Customer Greeting and Job Preview Everyone in the crew should go to the front door and greet the customer.

143 The Security Check With the security check we notify each neighbor for security purposes that SERVPRO is working in their neighborhood. We give each neighbor a SERVPRO Professional Cleaning Services brochure, telling about the services we perform.

144 Pretest and Qualify Pretesting should be done even if the estimator has pretested during the estimate. The crew chief must always pretest. If a helper is on a job, use the pretesting as a training opportunity. If the pretest shows any possible problems, talk to the customer so everyone clearly understands the results. Customers may be disappointed if you promise great results and fall short. Instead – promise less and try to do more for the customer. This means: Under Promise and Over Deliver!

145 Add-On Sales An add-on sale is an attempt to provide additional services to customers who already have work being performed.

146 Tips for Offering Add-ons F eatures What it is A dvantages What it does B enefits What it does for you When offering an add-on service to a customer, offer services that you can complete while you are there. Introduce one add-on service at a time and discuss the Features, Advantages and Benefits (FAB) of that service. Use SERVPRO Specification sheets to outline the FAB. Only offer cleaning services that are truly needed and will be of value to the customer.

147 Customer Walk-Through The customer walk-through is done to make sure the customer is happy with the job. Ask the customer to check the work and verify that furniture and contents have been returned to the proper place. Do the walk-through before breaking down equipment and reloading. This make it much easier if you need to re-clean an area.

148 Job Process Review Questions 1.Why should the SERVPRO invoice not be totaled before the production crew leaves for the job? 2.How does a residential customer give authorization for you to perform services? 3.How can you be sure you have all required cleaning agents, supplies and equipment on the van for a job? 4.When parking the van at a job site,what parking locations should you avoid? 5.When the production crew first arrives at a job site, who should go to the door to greet the customer? 6.What is the purpose of a security check? 7.If an estimator or salesperson has already pretested the items to be cleaned, what must the crew chief do before cleaning? 8.When qualifying cleaning results with the customer, what promises should you make to the customer? 9.What is FAB? 10.Should the customer walk-through be performed before or after resetting furniture? Before or after loading the equipment on the van?


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