Presentation on theme: "Carolina Center for ABA and Autism Treatment, Inc. Reinforcement."— Presentation transcript:
Carolina Center for ABA and Autism Treatment, Inc. Reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement Positive ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement Stimuli is added following a behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again under the same conditions in the future. Unwanted stimuli is removed in an attempt to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again in the future.
What is Positive Reinforcement? A positive reinforcer is something that is delivered, following a behavior, that would increase the likelihood of that behavior occurring again under the same conditions. Behavior Desired stimuli delivered
What is negative Reinforcement? An aversive stimuli is removed in an attempt to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring. Behavior Stimuli removed
Examples Positive ReinforcementNegative Reinforcement Behavior to increase: room cleaning Chad cleans his room, his father allows him to watch his favorite show before dinner. Behavior to increase: room cleaning Chad cleans his room, his father tells him he is no longer grounded.
Factors that Affect Reinforcement SatiationDeprivation
Satiation Satiation by definition is having had enough or more than enough. Satiation on a particular reinforcer decreases the value of that reinforcer. Single Reinforcer Motivation
Deprivation Deprivation by definition is not having any or enough of something Deprivation of a single reinforcer increases the value of that reinforcer. Single Reinforcer Motivation
Example Abby had just eaten 3 pieces of chocolate cake before she arrived to therapy. Her therapist offered her chocolate cake as a promise to complete her homework. Abby is not likely to complete the homework quickly. Abby has not had chocolate cake in two weeks. She loves chocolate cake. Her therapist offered her chocolate cake as a promise to complete her homework. She is more likely to be motivated to complete the homework.
Using Satiation/Deprivation in Teaching Preventing Satiation Mix and vary reinforcement within session Use planned deprivation of highly valued “special” motivators Schedule reinforcement Deprivation Restrict free access to preferred toys and selected edible treats Use bins or closets to remove toys and edibles from easy reach Schedule reinforcement
Schedules of Positive Reinforcement When and how often a behavior is reinforced has an impact on the strength and rate of the response. There are two types of schedules : Continuous Reinforcement Partial Reinforcement
Continuous Positive Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement is when a desired response is reinforced every time it occurs. Continuous reinforcement is most often used to increase the rate of a new behavior. Once the new behavior is occurring frequently, the reinforcement is faded to a partial schedule.
Partial Reinforcement Partial reinforcement is when a desired behavior is reinforced on a schedule, or not every time it occurs. Schedules of reinforcement: Fixed ratio Fixed interval Variable ratio Variable interval
Ratio Schedules FixedVariable A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement is when reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of responses. This type of schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer. A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement is when reinforcement is provided after a varying, unpredictable, amount of responses. This type of schedule produces a high, steady rate of response
Interval Schedules FixedVariable A fixed interval schedule is when reinforcement is provided after a set amount of time has passed. A higher rate of responding is noted at the end of the interval, followed by a slow rate of response after the passing of the interval. A variable interval schedule is when reinforcement if provided after an unpredictable amount of time. This schedule provides a slow, steady rate of response.
Reinforcement Matches Deman, Reinforcement should match work load in the eyes of the worker. Carolina Center for ABA and Autism Treatment, Inc. ReinforcementTask Write 3 lines of a story Two spelling worksheets 5 min of free time
Immediacy of Reinforcement Behavior Reinforcement within 3-5 seconds Increase Behavior