Presentation on theme: "Population You should use this PowerPoint in conjunction with your exercise book to help you revise."— Presentation transcript:
1PopulationYou should use this PowerPoint in conjunction with your exercise book to help you revise.
2You need to know…World population growth: where is it growing fastest?Factors affecting birth rates and death ratesNatural increaseOverpopulation: definition and associated problemsPopulation control policies: China’s One Child PolicyTypes of migrationInternational migration: Mexico to the USAAsylum seekersAgeing population in the UK and the pension crisis
3World population growth BBC Bitesize- population distribution- population growth
4Factors affecting birth rates Higher birth ratesLower birth ratesLack of access to contraception: LEDCs tend to have poor access to contraception which results in higher birth rates.Early marriage: early marriage in LEDCs leads to higher birth rates as women have more time to have children .Carrying on family name: boys are prized in many cultures to carry on the family name, families will continue to have children until they have a boy resulting in higher birth rates.Traditional role of women: in many LEDCs women are viewed as homemakers and their role is to look after children.Polygamy: in some cultures e.g. Bedouin tribe multiple marriages can result in higher birth ratesWorkers: more children mean more workers so poorer families have more children to work, support themselves in their old age or to work on the farmHigh infant mortality: poor sanitation and medical care mean that many infants die young so people have more children to compensate.Status: in some countries e.g. Kenya the larger the family, the stronger the man(!) resulting in higher birth rates.Religion: high birth rates as the use of contraception is banned e.g. Catholicism which raises birth rates.Availability of contraception: couples can decide whether or not to have children which decreases the birth rateSex education: people are more aware of contrapcetion methods etc which lowers the birth ratePopulation control strategies: some countries e.g. China restrict birth which lower the birth rate.Career women: in MEDCs many women now work and delay having children thus lowering the birth rate.Finances: some couples decide the limit their family to one or two children as the cost of bringing them up is expensive.Cultural norms: one or two children is seen as a 'normal' family size.
5Factors affecting death rates Access to healthcareNatural disasters e.g. earthquakes, floodsDiseases e.g. HIV/AIDsHuman-induced illnesses e.g. obseity, lung cancer (due to smoking)WarAccess to clean water and sanitationFamine
6Natural IncreaseThis figure shows us how a population is changing according to the number of births and deaths. It does not take migration into consideration.
7OverpopulationOverpopulation: too many people for the resources available.For this section you will need to be able to explain the consequences of overpopulation. Make sure you develop your points fully.e.g. too many people > not enough schools > more people can’t read or write > illiterate population > can’t get highly paid jobs > etc.
8Population control: China’s One Child Policy During the 1970s the Chinese government realised that the country would be heading for disaster unless population growth was dramatically reduced. The one-child policy was introduced in 1979 and it set out that:women could not marry until they were 20 years old and men 22 years old.couples must apply for permission to marry and to try to have a babycouples could only have one successful pregnancy (and therefore, usually only one childpolicy only applied to native (Han) Chinesein rural areas, where sons are essential to work the family land, a second pregnancy was allowed if the first child was a girl, in the hope of having a boysecond children born abroad are not penalised, but they are not allowed to become Chinese citizensIf you didn't follow the one-child policy the pressure to abort a second pregnancy was immense. The government would even cut the pay of the couple's co-workers so they would make life unbearable. The 'Granny Police' were older women in the community who were entrusted with keeping everyone in line. They checked regularly on couples of childbearing age, even accompanying women on contraception appointments to ensure that they attended.Did it work?Essential yes, China's one-child policy has prevented the births of over 400 million babies and the population is lower than it would have been had the policy not been enforced. Population growth has slowed down enough for all people to have enough food and jobs. Increased technology amd exploitation of resources have raised living standards for many. This is partly due to the one-child policy but also because of technology from other countries.However, it has created a lot of problems for China as well.Chinese society prefers sons over daughters. Some daughters were placed in orphanages or left to die (female infanticide) in the hope of having a son the second time round.Due to preference for boys, China now has a gender imbalance. By 2020, it is estimated that men in China will outnumber women by 30 million, which might lead to social tension and unrest as more and more men find themselves unable to marry.Little emperors: children have become over indulged by their two parents and four grandparents as they are the only child.The only child will have to support two parents and four grandparents to support. Could lead to an ageing population. They will need supporting financially in their old age which includes an increasing need for expensive healthcare.Many experts believe that China's growing economy won't have enough workers to keep expanding whilst also supporting the increasing number of dependents.The one-child policy is now changing. The policy is mostly still strongly enforced in urban areas whilst in rural areas the policy is relaxed to allow two children if the first child is a daughter. In urban areas couples are often allowed to have two children if they were both only children themselves. The new government installed in 2012 is discussing relaxing the one-child policy further .Benefits if policy followedSanctions if policy not followedPriority housingPensionFamily benefitsFree education for the only child10% salary decreaseFine was so large that it bankrupted many householdsFamily would have to pay for education of both children and for healthcare for all the family
9Types of migrationImmigration: moving into a country Emigration: moving out of a country Illegal immigrant: moving into a country without the necessary permission e.g. visa Economic migrant: someone who moves for a better job or salary Internal migrant: someone who moves within a country International migrant: someone who moves between countries Forced migrant: someone who has to move due to war, natural disaster or persecution
10International Migration: Mexico to the USA POSITIVESNEGATIVESUSAMost migrants are young adults which is good for the workforceSome workers will pay taxes which will support American tax baseMigrants are consumers of goods and servicesMigrants create demand so more jobs are createdMigrants fill low paid jobs that Americans don’t wantMigrants have higher birth rate which could put pressure on schools, hospitals etcMigrants tend to be low skilled and such jobs are not required in a modern economyMigrants ask for lower wages which undermines American job seekers.MEXICOLess unemployed workers in MexicoLess people for the Government to supportWorkers in the USA send money back to Mexico (remittances)Young male population severely decreased so few working people in MexicoLess tax income to fund initiatives to improving life in Mexico
11Asylum seekerAsylum seeker: someone who is seeking to stay in a country as their life is at risk in their home country. A refugee is someone who’s asylum application has been successful. - You need to be able to explain why countries like the UK accept asylum seekers and the associated positive/negative effects.
12Ageing populationThe UK has an ageing population. This means there is an increasing proportion of elderly people. This can bring many problems for a country.BBC Bitesize: dealing with an ageing population