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LHE 3311 FALSAFAH MORAL Prof. Emeritus Dr. Abdul Rahman Md Aroff.

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1 LHE 3311 FALSAFAH MORAL Prof. Emeritus Dr. Abdul Rahman Md Aroff

2 Moral education is a name for nothing clear

3 It is usually supposed that psychology contributes to moral education by telling us appropriate methods of moral teaching and learning (Kohlberg) The domain of the moral begins where the domain of the social begins (Durkheim) The process of (moral) valuing is mainly social. People are influenced by and act in particular social contexts (Superka) “How does the child develop morally?”: There are several accounts/theories of moral development If we do not know what morality is, we cannot teach it (Puka) “What is ethics?” There are many meanings attributed to morality “What is the (plural) nature of Malaysian society?” Disagreement over the conception and function of moral education. i.e. a wide variety of methods proposed and used for the teaching or transmitting of morality

4 Baju Warna Merah  Baju Tan berwarna merah  Harganya mahal  Dia membelinya di Giant Seremban  Baju itu cantik  Bagaimanapun, baju itu tidak sesuai dipakai Tan di majlis agama yang dihadirinya semalam  Sebenarnya, baju itu tidak patut dibeli kerana membelinya telah menyebabkan Tan berhutang dengan kawannya  Dalam kalangan rakan-rakan Tan, baju berwarna merah adalah kegemaran mereka

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6 FOKUS ETIKA Pernyataan Normatif (Nilai) Moral FungsiCiriJenis  Instrumental  Intrinsik  Subjektif  Objektif  Relatif  Mutlak Satu piawai asas yang tekal, membantu dan mencorak pemikiran, perasaan dan perlakuan kita  Nilai ditonjol secara lisan atau perlakuan  Nilai ‘boleh’ berubah  Keutamaan nilai tidak sama bagi individu yang berbeza Bukan Normatif atau Deskriptif (Fakta) Bukan Moral (estetika, agama, politik, sosial, ekonomi, intelek, material)

7 Which of the following are NORMATIVE statements? You cannot trust Sandra.You cannot trust Sandra. Many adults are attending college today.Many adults are attending college today. Striking workers broke into the plant last night.Striking workers broke into the plant last night. Not all racists are white.Not all racists are white. A patient with an incompetent doctor is likely to receive poor care.A patient with an incompetent doctor is likely to receive poor care.

8 Ethics/morality/kemoralan Ethical/moral Metafizik – what is real Epistemologi – what is knowledge Axuiologi – aesthetics & ethics

9 Which of the following directives are outside the scope of ethics? Never shave with a dull bladeNever shave with a dull blade Never shoot guns at peopleNever shoot guns at people Use deception if it gets what you wantUse deception if it gets what you want Use a tie that matches your socksUse a tie that matches your socks Don’t neglect your familyDon’t neglect your family Don’t take what does not belong to youDon’t take what does not belong to you

10 Which statements express intrinsic / instrumental value? Pleasure is the only thing that is good in itself. Pleasure is the only thing that is good in itself. Money is important not for what it is but for what it can buy. Money is important not for what it is but for what it can buy. Self-discipline is important because it purifies the spirit and strengthens the will. Self-discipline is important because it purifies the spirit and strengthens the will. Wisdom is to be sought for its own sake Wisdom is to be sought for its own sake

11 Which of the following are subjective statements? I don’t like the smell of burning cigar. Smoking in hospital rooms interferes with the patients’ recovery. Littering clutters up the environment, poses a risk to public health, and is expensive to clean up. I don’t approve of littering.

12 ETIKA etimologi falsafah Peraturan Masyarakat Berfikir sendiri tentang apa itu yang dikatakan baik jahat, benar salah, tanggungjawab atau ‘duty’, tentang apa yang patut atau tidak patut dilakukan, dan sebagainya ‘ethos’ (Yunani) atau ‘mores’ (Latin), iaitu hukum, adat resam, adab, tradisi, budi pekerti, kesusilaan, sopan santun, dan sebagainya Keperibadian falsafah moral TeleologiDeontologi Etika Keperibadian Mulia (Virtues/Fadhilah) Kemoralan Sosial/ Konvensional/Konservatif / Tradisional Utilitarianisme Egoisme Emotivisme Prinsip Kewajipan Eksistensialisme Intuisionisme

13 KEMORALAN SOSIAL Maksud Pematuhan kepada peraturan komuniti yang ditetapkan oleh autoriti dalam masyarakat, oleh itu, keperluan masyarakat, bukan individu, merupakan matlamat etika. Kritikan sekiranya bersifat autoritarian/autokratik, ia melemahkan autonomi, pertimbangan bebas serta pilihan sukarela individu dan mengakibatkan individu itu menurut perintah secara membuta tuli kehilangan perasaan tanggungjawab moral relativisme kebudayaan boleh membawa kepada konflik penguatkuasaan bergantung atas isbat (hukuman) yang boleh hilang kuasanya buat apa yang aku suruh, jangan buat apa yang… bertentangan dengan ‘keadilan’ kesukaran menyesuaikan peraturan masyarakat dengan situasi baru di persada dunia yang kompleks di mana masa dan keadaan sentiasa berubah dan terdapat banyak persoalan yang menjadi dilema bagi kebanyakan orang sesetengah peraturan atau norma masyarakat didapati tidak bermoral

14 Social Morality (conventional/conservative morality or traditionalism in morality)   An externally established code, or a body of fixed and concrete rules as a standard to be rigidly conformed to…there are things that are enjoined and forbidden, approved or disapproved of in a society   A critique ~ in its extreme form, it tends to be authoritarian, dogmatic and doctrinaire, therefore, undermining autonomy as well as independent judgment and voluntary choice, also allows no room for individual criticism of established values, rules and the like

15 criticism of social morality… ~ narrowing of moral concern, i.e. disappearance of a sense of moral responsibility ~ cultural relativism which could lead different and incompatible rules to clash ~ moral sanctions may lose their power ~ difficulty in adopting it (being absolutistic) to new situations and changing circumstances ~ may be bad, wrong, unjust or unnecessarily impoverishing of human life

16 KEPERIBADIAN MULIA (VIRTUES) Maksud (Aristotle) Tret karakter dan sifat perangai yang mulia; kecenderungan bertujuan, bukan perasaan; tidak bersifat semula jadi, tetapi dimiliki melalui latihan; dan merupakan suatu jalan tengah. (purposive dispositions or traits of character; neither feelings nor faculties; not engendered in a person by nature; and each virtue constitutes a mean) BerlebihanJalan TengahTerlalu Kurang Kegentaran & keyakinan (fear & confidence) Kegopohan rashness Keberanian courage Pengecut cowardice Pendapatan & per- belanjaan (getting & spending) Pemborosan prodigality Kemurahan hati liberality Kedekut illiberality Pengucapan diri (self-expression) Cakap besar boastfulness Kebenaran truthfulness Merendahkan diri understatement Kemarahan (anger) Panas hati irascibility Kesabaran patience Kurang semangat lack of spirit Jadual Virtues dan Vices Aristotle

17 Kritikan (keperibadian mulia) Nasihat yang sukar dipraktiskan (will not bear the weight of advice, has no practical or advisory force) Sesetengah nilai mulia perlu berada dalam keadaan yang keterlaluan atau hanya ada pertentangan (has no two extremes, it only has an opposite, or an extreme) Kesukaran mengkategorikan sesuatu keperibadian sebagai mulia serta menentukan ciri watak manakah yang paling utama dan yang manakah pula kurang penting (categorization of dispositions as virtues) Sebagai suatu kebiasaan sahaja yang tidak dapat membimbing seseorang dalam situasi luar biasa yang menimbulkan dilema moral (just pleasant habits; complex situations)

18 UTILITARIANISME Maksud Kebahagiaan yang paling banyak kepada sejumlah insan yang paling ramai (greatest happiness for the greatest number) Baik = Kebahagiaan = Keseronokan Jahat = Kedukaan = Kesakitan (Good = Happiness = Pleasure Evil = Unhappiness = Pain) Pleasure seeker = hedonist consequentialsim

19 (kritikan - utilitarianisme) Manusia dikuasai oleh keseronokan dan kesakitan, dan kemoralan ialah usaha mencari kebahagiaan iaitu keseronokan, dan kebencian terhadap kesakitan (vs) masochist; kesakitan, bapa kepada keseronokan Pengalaman keseronokan mestilah dimaksimumkan dan kesakitan diminimumkan (vs) Menghukum orang tak berdosa, 9 atau 10?, irihati/tamak, oleh itu berkonflik dengan keadilan atau matlamat menghalalkan cara Semua sensasi terdiri daripada sama ada keseronokan atau kesakitan yang bertentangan (vs) subjektif dan kabur. Mengaitkan keseronokan dengan kebaikan (vs) kebaikan = kebebasan, kesihatan > keseronokan; sadist, vandals = jahat = seronok! Menyamakan keseronokan dengan kebahagiaan (vs) kebahagiaan tak khusus tetapi kepuasan yang agak kekal dan mendalam; a life of pleasure=a happy life? Seronok maksimum (vs) bilangan maksimum? Yang baik (keseronokan) dan yang jahat (kesakitan) yang disukat (vs) Urusan yang menyukarkan: kuantiti, kualiti, masa/tempat, anatara individu

20 Hedonism, human nature? Masochist? An obstacle? Maximise pleasure, minimise pain - scapegoat, 9 or 10, greedy and envious, therefore, conflict with justice! Subjective and not contradictory G=P

21 EGOISME maksud Sebagai agen moral tanggungjawab tunggal individu ialah memperolehi seberapa banyak keuntungan untuk diri sendiri Sebagai penasihat moral (selaku orang kedua/pihak ketiga) dalam membuat pertimbangan, dia juga mesti mengutamakan keuntungan bagi dirinya sendiri. Standard/ukuran untuk baik = menguntungkan diri sendiri; dan jahat = merugikan diri sendiri

22 egoism As a moral agent, the one and only moral responsibility of the individual is to gain as much benefit as possible for him/herself As a moral advisor, in making judgment, the individual must also focus on the benefits for him/herself Standard for good = benefits oneself; evil = harms oneself

23 Kritikan (egoisme) Eksploitasi, tidak perlu bermasyarakat dan taat kepada autoriti, membenci peraturan, organisasi dan menentang pengorbanan diri untuk kecekapan, kekuatan dan kemajuan vs sifat semula jadi manusia? Jepun! Binatang liar/buas Untuk wira/superman terus hidup dan terdorong dia memerlukan musuh, cabaran dan penentangan daripada orang kebanyakan yang mesti dibelenggu Tidak dapat memuaskan prinsip sejagat Menentang peraturan mutlak sesuatu autoriti dan memperakui hanya peraturan yang bersifat individualistik, iaitu menurut peraturan sendiri adalah bermoral (prudentialism) vs altruism Tidak dapat diuar-uarkan Tidak dapat menjalin hubungan Tanggungjawab sejarah dalam kebangkitan pergerakan Nazi

24 a critique of egoism Exploitation, no need for organisation and loyalty to authority, hatred for rules, and is against self sacrifice for power and progress vs human nature? Japan! animal kingdom. A paradox - a superman weakening his challenger Another paradox - cannot satisfy the universality principle Recognises only rules that are individualistic in nature, prudentialism vs altruism Cannot be announced Cannot sustain relationship Nazism

25 Eksistensialisme kewujudan mendahului zat dan perubahan adalah kekal. Oleh itu, individu yang kewujudannya authentic, bebas sepenuhnya buat apa yang dia suka dalam menguruskan diri sendiri; tiada apapun yang boleh membataskan kebebasannya untuk memilih dan menentukan sendiri tujuan, sikap, nilai dan cara hidupnya; segala-galanya diizinkan; tiada hukum atau nilai kudus/objektif yang wajib dipatuhi; nilai bersifat subjektif, individualistik dan tertakluk kepada situasi; yang lepas dan yang akan datang tidak penting. Sekiranya individu itu tidak mahu ‘freedom of choice’, maka dia hidup dalam ‘nothingness’ dan dia mempunyai pandangan yang penuh dengan mitos tentang kemoralan (bad faith = kepercayaan palsu)

26 Kritikan (eksistensialisme) Menjadikan tindakan seseorang itu benar dengan hanya memilih tindakan itu – menggalakkan relativisme individu Kemungkinan yang dipilih adalah yang desired, commended dan praised, bukan yang desirable, commendable, praiseworthy Tanpa matlamat, ideal atau norma, ia tidak membimbing dan memberitahu individu apa yang patut dibuat, individu itu is left hanging in the air atau terawang-awang Keputusan first hand biasanya membebankan dan makan masa Mustahil, dari segi psikologi, wujudnya freedom of choice

27 other related criticisms… encourages individual relativism (I don’t care what others say!)encourages individual relativism (I don’t care what others say!) maybe what is chosen is desired, commended or praised, but not something which is desirable, commendable or praiseworthymaybe what is chosen is desired, commended or praised, but not something which is desirable, commendable or praiseworthy exacting and demandingexacting and demanding left hanging in the airleft hanging in the air its not possible, psychologically or physiologically, for freedom of choice to existits not possible, psychologically or physiologically, for freedom of choice to exist

28 Kantianism – Prinsip Kewajipan (Duty) Maksud tumpuan kemoralan ialah kepada niat atau tujuan, dan motif kemoralan bukanlah untuk memuaskan kecenderungan, tetapi motifnya ialah duty for duty’s sake. Kecuali tekad baik, tiada yang baik tanpa syarat, dan individu yang mempunyai tekad baik ialah individu yang sentiasa bertindak atas dasar kewajipan yang diperihalkan sebagai satu set categorical imperatives, iaitu kesejagatan, kemanusiaan (respect) dan kerasionalan

29 Kritikan (Kantianisme) Tidak boleh berlandaskan kecenderungan Prinsip terlalu am, tiada kecualian Tiada panduan untuk memutuskan perselisihan antara kewajipan Kurang kritis tentang konsep yang mungkin mempunyai makna yang tersendiri dan berbeza kepada orang yang berlainan

30 EMOTIVISME Moral judgements often serve to express the feelings of the speaker; moral discourse is primarily influential, i.e. the moral statement of the speaker is an instrument to control, redirect and modify the attitude of the speaker’s audience. This is the purpose of emotivism, and it is the central thesis of emotivism. Moral words have emotive meanings, because they appeal to the feelings or the emotions.

31 kritikan O Irrationalistic views about ethical judgements, i.e. undermine the rationality of morals O To ‘influence’ - this purpose is in no way distinctive of moral discourse; for, the mass media, political speeches, threats, bribes, and so on, can also create an influence. Moral discourse has not necessarily and not always this purpose; one can still talk about morality wit or to those who already have the ‘attitude’ to be promoted, and this moral discourse need not be less moral for that. O Some moral terms such as ‘heroic’ and ‘vicious’ are somewhat emotive, there are also many moral terms such as ‘good’, ‘generous’, ‘ought’, and ‘honest’ which are not emotionally stirring. Moral opinion, advice, and such like, can be expressed by a person without him being in state of moral excitement. Equally, a piece of discourse may be highly emotive but unconcerned with morals.

32 INTUITIONISME The view that normal human beings have an immediate awareness of moral values; a form of self-perception or moral sense. There are moral truths which, when known, are known by intuition; and, if we do not know them, our defect of intuition is comparable either to a defect of physical insight or of intellectual discernment. The view that normal human beings have an immediate awareness of moral values; a form of self-perception or moral sense. There are moral truths which, when known, are known by intuition; and, if we do not know them, our defect of intuition is comparable either to a defect of physical insight or of intellectual discernment. Anthropological and psychological evidence seems to be against the existence of such a faculty (wangi/busuk, gelap/terang, panas/sejuk); that this faculty does not exist can also be shown by everyday experience of disagreement about what is right or wrong in particular situations.

33 cont… O Moral discourse is unique and cannot be reduced to non-moral discourse without loss or change of meaning By making the whole topic sui generis, by saying that moral terms and judgements are simply indefinable and self-evident (yellow is yellow), intuitionism has emptied moral theory of all content. Moral truths were, it seemed, such that nothing could possibly be said about what they meant, what their grounds were, or even why they mattered at all.

34 The morally mature/educated person KANDUNGAN (Content/Substance) BENTUK (Form) DIMENSI (3 dimensions: head heart,hand) Peraturan Masyarakat (Rules of society ) Keperibadian Mulia (Virtues) Pentaakulan Moral (Moral Reasoning) Etika Berprinsip (Principalistic Ethics) Perasaan Moral (Moral Emotions) Perlakuan Moral (Moral Action)

35 Kandungan Moral peraturan masyarakat ~memajukan kebajikan dan kestabilan serta survival masyarakat kerana tercapainya kedamaian, kerukunan dan social order ~menjimatkan masa dan tenaga ~tindak balas terhadap masyarakat yang permissive keperibadian mulia keperibadian mulia ~mengandungi cara bagaimana seseorang itu patut mengikuti peraturan masyarakatnya ~berfaedah kepada individu yang memilikinya serta menguntungkan orang lain yang ada hubungan dengan individu itu

36 Bentuk Moral prinsip > situasi ~mengurangkan relativisme dalam soal moral ~prinsip (keadilan & kepedulian) tidak ketepikan situasi Mengapa keadilan & kepedulian? ~nilai asas; ibu nilai; akal dan hati

37 dimensi jika tidak ada… TM EM TLM TM - impersonal cakap kosong; kelemahan moral; cakap tak serupa bikin, EM irrational -perasaan menenangkan diri sendiri TLM taat membabi impersonal buta; tanggung-- jawab moral diabaikan

38 Individu yang peka serta memahami tentang keperluan terhadap peraturan tertentu dalam komuniti dan mempunyai keperibadian yang sesuai untuk dia hidup sejahtera dalam komuniti itu. Dia berhati-hati membuat pertimbangan/keputusan berdasarkan prinsip keadilan serta perasaan kepedulian dan dengan penuh tanggungjawab juga akauntabiliti mengambil tindakan yang wajar. Dia juga berkebolehan meneliti situasi dalam menangani isu moral. Selain itu dia berketrampilan merungkai ( problem-setter ) konflik moral dalam membuat keputusan yang ‘informed’ dan terbaik ( problem-solver ).

39 Objektif Pend Moral 1983   KBSR Mengamalkan tabiat dan tingkah laku yang selaras dengan sikap dan nilai moral; Meneyedari tentang nilai yang sedia ada dalam masyarakat sekelilingnya; Mempunyai nilai moral sebagai asas memperkembangkan kematangan pemikiran; Membuat pertimbangan sebelum mengamalkan sesuatu tingkah laku, berasaskan prinsip moral; dan Mengemukakan sebab yang rasional dalam membuat sesuatu keputusan yang berkaitan dengan isu moral.

40   KBSM 1. memperkukuh dan mempertingkat amalan tabiat dan tingkah laku yang selaras dengan sikap dan nilai moral yang diperolehi pada peringkat sekolah rendah; 2. menyedari, memahami dan menghayati norma dan nilai murni masyarakat Malaysia; 3. membentuk pemikiran yang rasional berasaskan prinsip-prinsip moral; 4. memberi sebab-sebab yang munasabah berdasarkan pertimbangan moral dalam membuat sesuatu keputusan; dan 5. menggunakan pertimbangan yang berlandaskan prinsip-prinsip moral sebagai panduan dalam amalan kehidupan seharian.

41 tambahan dapat mencari dan mengaplikasikan pengetahuan fakta yang perlu dan relevan sebagai asas dalam membuat pertimbangan dan keputusan moral yang ‘informed’

42 sekian

43 naratif/bercerita; lakonan/drama; simulasi dan permainan; dialog; temu ramah; ucapan/pidato; bengkel; puisis; perbincangan; forum; debat; ceramah; memainkan peranan; laporan/lapor kembali; interaksi dengan gambar, filem, pita, APD yang lain; melukis; lawatan; projek; strategi menulis; dll.

44 Pertemuan Pertama Konsep-konsep asas dalam etika Teori-teori etika Pertemuan Kedua Nilai-nilai (agama/kepercayaan) Masyarakat Malaysia Isu-isu Moral Insan yang Matang dari segi Moral

45  Peperiksaan Pertengahan Semester 40%  Tugasan 20%  Peperiksaan Akhir Semester 40% ( Tajuk Tugasan : Pilih satu isu moral dan kupaskan pandangan yang menyokong dan yang menetang isu berkenaan. Apakah pula pendirian anda?)

46 In Kant’s view, the following do not constitute the principle of morality The notion of prudence (egoism) The notion of benevolence (utilitarianism) Talents of the mind (intelligence, wit, judgement) Gifts of nature (power, wealth, honour) Qualities of temperament (courage, resolution, constancy of purpose) Other qualities (such as self-control, sober reflection, moderation in affections and passions)

47 Why? They are desirable in many respects. But they are far from being described properly as good without qualifications; for, in certain circumstances, they can also be bad and hurtful, i.e. when they are used with a bad will.

48 In addition, according to Kant, in morality the focus is placed on one’s motives/intentions, rather than upon what one actually does What motives make a good will good are not inclinations, whether natural or otherwise, whether or not they are related to self- interest or to altruistic motives. Acting from mere inclination or for the purpose of gratifying one’s inclinations has no moral worth.

49 as pointed out by MacIntyre (1976) Kant never dwells upon the difference between inclinations to act in one way rather than another; the whole contrast is between duty upon the one hand and inclination of every kind upon the other. For inclination belongs to our… nature; we cannot in Kant’s view choose our inclinations. What we can do is to choose between our inclinations and our duty.

50 The good will’s only motive is, to do its duty simply for the sake of doing its duty – a will is good because of what it is inwardly. It is duty for duty’s sake that is good and worthy of moral praise, and to do one’s duty for its own sake is also to act reasonably out of respect for the law. As Kant says, “Duty is the necessity to act out of reverence for the law”.

51 So, a morally good person, i.e. a person with absolutely good will is a person who always acts from duty or out of reverence for the law, one who would choose duty and obedience to the law over inclinations…

52 This duty or the law is recognised and represented as a set of moral maxims. The moral maxims or formulations in Kant’s principle of morality are popularly known as the categorical imperatives

53 Act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law, or, act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature. (Formula of Universal Law)

54 Act in such a way that you always treat humanity whether in your person, or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end. (Formula of the End in Itself)

55 The idea of the will of every rational being as a will which makes universal law. (Formula of Autonomy)

56 The gist of the ethics of Kant is contained in the assertion that, with the exception of a good will, nothing is unconditionally good. To quote Kant: It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except as a good will

57 the search for a conception of morality cannot end with Kant One reason (criticism) is related to the concept of duty and inclination. Kant maintains that a person is still not morally good if he acts simply from his natural inclinations, since such an act does not involve autonomy (reason and free choice). A person still fails to be decisively good if the acts which he performs to help others (being naturally kind, sympathetic, honest, friendly, for example), are performed not because duty demands them, but just because he enjoys performing them.

58 The disposition to do one’s duty… is as much determined by heredity and environmental factors as are other inclinations (Grassian, 1981).

59 Kant… takes it for granted that the ‘moral law’ imposes upon all rational beings unconditional, categorical demands that are binding without any regard to human inclinations, purposes, desires, or interests, that have nothing essentially to do with human happiness, and call only for the absolute obedience of ‘the good will’; his problem is to explain how there can be demands of that kind (Warnock, 1981).

60 We cannot perform an act which is not in some way meaningful to us simply because we have been commanded to do so. It is psychologically impossible to pursue an end to which we are indifferent – i.e. that does not appear to us as good and does not affect our sensibility. Morality must, then, be not only obligatory but also desirable and desired (Durkheim, 1974).

61 . another reason: acceptable or unacceptable as duty? there are people who feel that to be their duty to whip their children, because sparing the rod spoils the child help others who are in need persecute minority groups since they believe that inconvenience to the majority is minimised by so doing

62 another reason ~ the categorical imperative would seem to lead a person to follow exceptionless or absolute moral maxims or rules * never steal, never lie, never break promises * is not free from the difficulties due to conflict from duties, i.e. how to resolve conflict between duties

63 another reason, maybe Kant is also uncritical in his acceptance, as absolute, of such concepts as lying, promising, and stealing, each of which might well mean different things to different people. For example, to many socialists, the inheritance of wealth is a type of stealing. Consequently, for such socialists, strict adherence to the command “never steal” should rule out the inheritance of wealth.

64 So, the search for a conception of morality cannot end with Kant, for the reason that his ethics is deficient in certain ways. However, like other conceptions (of moral theory), there are aspects of Kantian ethics which are necessary in our understanding of morality, especially those related to universalism, respect for humanity, impartiality, rationality and autonomy.


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