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THREAT AWARENESS and REPORTING PROGRAM UNITED STATES ARMY INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY COMMAND 66TH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BRIGADE 2 D MILITARY INTELLIGENCE.

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Presentation on theme: "THREAT AWARENESS and REPORTING PROGRAM UNITED STATES ARMY INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY COMMAND 66TH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BRIGADE 2 D MILITARY INTELLIGENCE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THREAT AWARENESS and REPORTING PROGRAM UNITED STATES ARMY INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY COMMAND 66TH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BRIGADE 2 D MILITARY INTELLIGENCE BATTALION 66 th MI BDE Baseline Briefing UNCLASSIFIED

3 1.Army Regulation , “Threat Awareness and Reporting Program (TARP)” 2.All Army personnel are required to receive a TARP briefing at least on an annual basis (Reviewing this slide presentation on your own does not meet the annual training requirement.) 3.Directs “all members of the Army, military and civilian, be knowledgeable of their reporting responsibilities under this regulation… National Security Decision Directive 197” REGULATORY GUIDANCE ARMY’S TARP THE ARMY’S TARP

4 NATIONAL SECURITY CRIMES Subversion Espionage Sabotage Terrorism

5 FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES French DGSE Israeli MOSSAD Jordanian General Intelligence Department FBI uncovered over 100 countries collecting against the US with 28 countries involved in espionage operations against the US Serbian Intelligence Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security Russian SVR (former KGB) Russian FSB (counterintelligence) Syrian Military Intelligence

6 What do they want? PLANS, OPERATIONS AND INTENTIONS: NATO and the United States will always have adversaries who are willing to go to great lengths to obtain any information about our Armed Forces Tactical and strategic capabilities? Tactical and strategic capabilities? Unit locations and readiness? Unit locations and readiness? Missions, plans and intentions? Missions, plans and intentions? Unit problems? Unit problems? Force Protection vulnerabilities? Force Protection vulnerabilities? Base closures and future stationing? Base closures and future stationing? Not necessarily "classified" information! Not necessarily "classified" information! Foreign espionage efforts greatly intensify during periods of conflict! FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE TARGETING

7 THEREFORE, EVERYONE HERE IS A POTENTIAL TARGET A POTENTIAL TARGET EVERYONE ASSOCIATED WITH THE U.S. ARMY HAS A PIECE OF THE PUZZLE THAT MAKES UP THE BIG PICTURE FOR A FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE TARGETING

8 FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE METHODOLOGY MONEY IDEOLOGY COMPROMISE EGO SPOTTING RECRUITING ASSESSING

9 ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Who could be a spy? A spy could be anyone… a fellow Soldier, a co-worker, a neighbor, a family member, a translator, a local national employee … Spies do not look or act like the characters portrayed in Hollywood!

10 Volunteered to spy for the USSR Government for 9 years. Was paid $2.7 million. Caught in 1994 after an intense CIA & FBI mole hunt. Sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. Indicators: Severe financial indebtedness from a divorce settlement. Unreported foreign contacts and travel. Poor job performance. Career disappointments. Serious and repeated security violations. Alcohol abuse. Repeated irresponsibility. Indicators: Severe financial indebtedness from a divorce settlement. Threat of bankruptcy followed by undue and unexplained sudden affluence. Unreported foreign contacts and travel. Poor job performance. Career disappointments. Serious and repeated security violations. Alcohol abuse. Repeated irresponsibility. Clues to watch for: Money, Foreign Contacts, Security Issues Money, Foreign Contacts, Security Issues ALDRICH H. AMES, GS-14, CIA CI Officer Compromised over 100 covert intelligence operations. Betrayed at least 30 agents, 10 of whom were later executed by the Soviets. ESPIONAGE INDICATORS

11 84-year old 84-year old US citizen, retired mechanical engineer Supplied secrets to Israel from 1979 to 1985 Connected to the Jonathan Pollard case of 1986 Arrested Apr 2008 on four counts of conspiracy, released on a $300,000 bond, pending court date Told the FBI he spied because he believed it "would help Israel." Indicators: Strong ethnic ties and loyalties to a foreign country. Unreported or concealed contacts with foreign nationals. Unauthorized removal of classified material from work area. Attempts to obtain information without a need to know; or information not cleared for. Clues to watch for: Security Issues, Security Issues, Strong Ethnic Ties and Loyalties BEN-AMI KADISH, DAC (Retired) ESPIONAGE INDICATORS

12 Indicator: Strong ethnic ties and loyalties to country of birth. Unreported contacts with foreign nationals. Unreported trips to foreign countries. Obtains information without a need to know. Admitted passing TOP SECRET and SECRET information to fractions trying to overthrow the Philippine President His lawyer said, "It was his sole intention to help the people of the Philippines" Arrested Sep 05, convicted May 06, pled guilty to four counts of transmission of national defense information Sentenced to 10 years in prison, fined $40,000 ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Ideology, Divided Loyalty or Allegiance to the U.S. Ideology, Divided Loyalty or Allegiance to the U.S. LEONADRO ARAGONCILLO, FBI Analyst & former USMC E-7 assigned to the White House Security Detail

13 Indicator: Divided loyalties or allegiances. Strongly held beliefs contradictory to US policy. Statements or actions that demonstrates an individual believes that the rules do not apply to him or her. DIA's senior Cuban analyst Disagreed with US Latin America policies Recruited in 1985 by the Cubans Felt that US government laws against Cuba were cruel and felt morally obligated to defend Cuba Arrested Sep 01, convicted on conspiracy to commit espionage, sentenced to 25 years, plus 5 years probation Remains completely unrepentant about her actions ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Ideology, Divided loyalties Ideology, Divided loyalties ANA MONTES, GS-14, DIA, Senior Analyst

14 Indicators: Deeply disturbed psychologically. Extreme risk taker, usually perceived by others as aloofness or arrogance. Significant financial difficulties. Inappropriate, unusual, or excessive interest in classified information (outside current assignment). Use of unauthorized software on government computers. ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Ego, Psychological Issues ~ proving oneself as smarter, better than others, creating a sense of self-worth. Volunteered to spy for KGB for 22 years, received more than $1.4 million in cash and diamonds Arrested in 2001, pled guilty to 15 counts of espionage Sporadic career as a spy (1979 – 81) (1985 – 91) (1999 – 2001) Described as "possibly the worst intelligence disaster in US history" Sentenced to life in solitary confinement at the Supermax Federal Penitentiary in Florence, CO ROBERT HANSSEN, GS-14, FBI CI Officer

15 Indicator: Divided loyalties or allegiances. Strongly held beliefs contradictory to US policy. Disloyalty toward the US. Association or sympathy with persons advocating acts of force or violence against the US Government. Born in the US in 1978, converted to Islam in 1998 Tank crewman with the 81st Armored Bde, Fort Lewis Joined the Washington National Guard in 2002 Attempted to contact Muslim extremists using Internet chat rooms Arrested Feb 2004, convicted in Sep 2004 on 5 charges of aiding the enemy, sentenced to life with the possibility of parole, demoted to E-1, dishonorable discharge ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Ideology: Support of Islamic extremism Ideology: Support of Islamic extremism RYAN G. ANDERSON, E-4, USA, M1 Tank Crewman

16 Indicator: Extremistreligious beliefs – Islamic extremism. An "above the rules" attitude. Unreported foreign contacts. Extreme level of bitterness, resentment, vengeance, or disgruntlement. Immaturity. Victim mentality. Willingness to violate the rights of others to achieve one's own ends. Indicator: Extremist religious beliefs – Islamic extremism. An "above the rules" attitude. Unreported foreign contacts. Extreme level of bitterness, resentment, vengeance, or disgruntlement. Immaturity. Victim mentality. Willingness to violate the rights of others to achieve one's own ends. Born in the US in 1976, Islamic convert in 1997 As a Navy signalman second class voluntarily spied for Al Qaeda/Islamic jihadists in Exchanged s, praised attack on USS Cole, provided drawings of naval battle group, discussed upcoming missions, and recommended methods to attack the battle group Arrested Mar 07, convicted Mar 08, sentenced to 10 years in federal prison. ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Ideology: Support of Islamic extremism Ideology: Support of Islamic extremism HASSAN Abu-JIHAAD, formerly Paul R. Hall, former USN

17 CYBER CI What is it? Cyber Counterintelligence is using highly technical tools and procedures to identify, deter, and/or exploit external and internal threats to US personnel, resources, or equipment. An external threat – a foreign intelligence or extremist penetration. An internal threat – a trusted insider threat – someone who uses a Government computer network or resources to commit espionage, treason, sedition or perform extremist/terrorist actions against Army personnel, facilities, or equipment.

18 CYBER CI What Methods may a Hostile Intelligence Service may try to use against you ? Most Popular? Targeted or “SPAM” , containing malicious software or a link to a site hosting malicious code. These s may be targeted to a specific person or Senior Leader (Spear phishing), or… The s may be a general “phishing” attempt to get as many Army network users as possible to click the link, or access the malicious code. Spam Caution: "Put your TSP plan in overdrive"

19 What Methods may a Hostile Intelligence Service may try to use against you ? FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE METHODOLOGY Criminal: Bank and credit card account numbers, usernames, passwords… Foreign Intelligence Service: CAC credentials; AKO usernames and passwords; social networking usernames and passwords. Social networking: Is there anything on your Facebook or MySpace page which could be of interest to Foreign Intel? Anything compromising? The Invasion of The Chinese Cyberspies “TITAN RAIN” e/0,917, ,00.html

20 Cyber Reportable Incidents What do I report? Known or suspected contact with a foreign government or extremist element. Gaining access to information or systems without a need-to-know. Accelerating Privileges (attempts to gain Admin). Disregard for computer security and handling/processing of classified information. Known or suspected contact with a foreign government or extremist elements. Gaining access to information or systems without a need-to-know. Accelerating Privileges (attempts to gain Admin). Disregard for computer security and handling/processing of classified information.

21 Cyber trends Illegal activity involving computers will continue to dramatically increase as the technology advances. The Internet offers foreign intelligence operatives, terrorists, and other criminal elements a method to communicate which is secure, global, anonymous and near instant. Terrorists are using the Internet for operations, propaganda, fundraising, recruitment, data mining, & coordination. Things to consider…

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23 DEFINITIONS The use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of established criminal laws for the purposes of intimidation, coercion or ransom Promote or raise the level of fear in the populace Demonstrate the governments inability to provide for the security of it’s citizens. Publicity for their cause.

24 25 June 1996 Khobar Towers Bombing Saudi Arabia DOMESTIC TERRORISM: DOMESTIC TERRORISM: Involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government or population without foreign direction INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: Groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreign- based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States or whose activities transcend national boundaries Insider Threat: Insider Threat: Employees who sympathize with causes and ideologies contrary to U.S. policy for political, religious or other reasons and act or plan to act on their convictions. Timothy McVeigh, and the Oklahoma City Bombing, 19 April 1995 DISTINCTIONS

25 THREAT INFORMATION - GERMANY The “Sauerland Group” All German Nationals Two converts to Islam Radicalized in German Mosques and on the Internet All trained in Pakistan Target: Any location in Germany to “kill as many Americans as possible” - Discos - U.S. Installations - Sporting Events

26 Political Influence – Spain/Germany Spain 2004: The conservative government supporting U.S. policy loses the election - Not just the because of lack of public support - 11 Mar 2004 – two-hundred people killed in an attack on commuter trains. Germany 2009: Al-Qaida media campaign against the ruling conservative government - Attacks are threatened but fail to materialize - Strong German/U.S. cooperation may have deterred plots. - BUT – the pressure remains as does the threat.

27 Attacks are carefully planned: Collecting Information From People From the Internet From GPS Collaboration by willing assistants Surveillance The best time to catch them in the act Ryan Anderson SPC, US Army NG

28 Awareness is the key! Protective Measures Know the neighbors and any vehicles routinely parked near your home/office Know what is common in your workplace. What is out of place? Attend any available Force Protection Training with your family Observe your environment – clothing? mannerisms? Blend in as best you can! Make mental note of suspicious or out- of-place individuals, items or incidents

29 Insider Threats and Indicators 1.Advocating violence, the threat of violence, or use of force to achieve political, religious or ideological goals 2.Advocating support for international terrorist organizations or objectives 3.Providing financial or other material support to terrorist organizations or individuals suspected of being terrorists 4.Association with or connections to known or suspected terrorists 5.Familial ties to known or suspected international terrorists or terrorist supporters

30 Insider Threats and Indicators 6.Repeated expressions of hatred and intolerance of American society, culture, government or principles of the U.S. constitution. 7.Repeated browsing or visiting internet websites promoting or advocating violence directed against the U.S. or U.S. Force, or promoting international terrorism or terrorist themes without official sanction in the performance of duties. 8.Expressing an obligation to engage in violence in support of international terrorism or inciting others to do the same. 9.Purchasing bomb making materials or obtaining information about the construction of explosives. 10.Active attempts to encourage others to violate laws, disobey lawful orders or regulations, or disrupt military activities.

31 REPORTING AN INCIDENT WHAT YOU SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT DO! DO NOT: Try to investigate the incident Try to investigate the incident on your own! on your own! Commit yourself to anything! Commit yourself to anything! Discuss the incident or your Discuss the incident or your suspicions with anyone except suspicions with anyone except US Army Intelligence US Army Intelligence Special Agents! Special Agents!

32 REPORTING AN INCIDENT WHAT YOU SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT DO! DO: Be observant & attentive! Be observant & attentive! Remember details about Remember details about people, places, conversations, people, places, conversations, and vehicles ~ including and vehicles ~ including license plate numbers! license plate numbers! Be aware of the indicators of Be aware of the indicators of espionage; if in doubt, report! espionage; if in doubt, report! Report the incident ONLY to US Report the incident ONLY to US Army Intelligence Special Agents Army Intelligence Special Agents

33 Do not go into any details on the phone. Simply provide your contact information.

34 QUESTIONS? REMEMBER Espionage is a serious National security crime It can have far reaching It can have far reaching and deadly implications and deadly implications If you encounter a suspicious situation ~ Don’t take a chance CALL US!

35 Federal Espionage Laws Codified in Title 18 Section 793 and 794 US Code Espionage Law Terrorist attack of 1916 on Black Tom Island, NJ Crime of Espionage Unauthorized transmittal of national defense information to a foreign power or agent with the intent to harm the US or aid that foreign power Since 1945 to early-2008, there have been 251 individuals arrested in the US for espionage or espionage related crimes.

36 Unreported or Concealed Contacts with Foreign Nationals ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Unreported or Concealed Contacts with Foreign Nationals Assigned to the 8 th INF Div in during Desert Shield Contacted Iraqi, Libyan & Jordanian embassaries ~ volunteered to support the "Arab cause" passed NBC equipment and US troop readiness information Arrested Mar 91, convicted of espionage in Jul 91 Sentenced to 34 years at hard labor ontact with a foreign embassy, or consulates. Indicator: Unreported personal contacts with foreign intelligence services, foreign governments, close continuing contact with foreign nationals, unreported relatives or associates. Contact with a foreign embassy, or consulates. Albert T. Sombolay, SPC, US Army

37 Finances ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Finances While assigned to Berlin, sold classified information to East Germany for over $300,000 "I wasn't terrible short of money. I just decided I didn't ever want to worry where my next dollar was coming from." Arrested in Dec 88 in Savannah, GA. Sentenced to 40 years in prison, $50,000 fine, dishonorable discharge. Indicator: Unexplained sudden affluence. Living/spending beyond one's apparent means. Unexplained or sudden large sums of cash. Sudden windfalls. Claims of significant independent income from inheritance, wealthily relatives, gifts, investments, family business. Personnel possessions inconsistent with salary. James Hall, WO1, US Army

38 Indicator: Has a sudden reversal of a bad financial situation. Suddenly repays large debts or loans. Free spending or lavish display of wealth that appears beyond normal income. ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Finances Finances BRIAN P. REGAN, MSGT (Ret), USAF Offered to sell classified information for $13M Arrested in Aug 01, sentenced to life in prison without parole US National Reconnaissance Office employee with $117,000 in credit card debt Volunteered to spy for Iraq, China and Libya. Wrote a letter to Saddam Hussein

39 Indicator: Any unreported frequent personal foreign travel. Trips with costs out of proportion to short time spent at the location. Recurring trips not associated with recreation or family. Repeated short leaves. Sold US and NATO classified information, including NATO Defense Plans, to Hungarians and Czechoslovakians. One of the most damaging spies in US Army history. Repeated traveled to Vienna, AU and other countries to meet his case officers. Recruited 10 others Bi-lateral USAI and German Intel investigation led to his arrest in Aug 1988 ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Leave and Travel Leave and Travel CLYDE LEE CONRAD, SFC (Ret), US Army

40 ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: JOHN WALKER JR. USN, LTCdr (Ret) Arthur James Walker Michael Lance Walker Jerry Alfred Whitworth Forged destruction records for highly sensitive US Navy cryptographic codes. Secretly provided the codes to the KGB allowing Russia to decipher US classified messages for many years Convinced his brother, his son and his friend, to spy for him Ex-wife turned him in to FBI. All received a life sentence except for Michael Walker who received a 25 year sentence Its cost the US taxpayer an estimated one billion dollars to repair the damage the "Walker Spy Ring" had done Attempts to obtain witness signatures on classified document or crypto destruction forms when the witness did not observe the destruction Spied for Russian KGB from 1967 until One of the most damaging spy rings in US History KGB comment: "Walker was the greatest case in KGB history. We deciphered millions of your messages. If there had been a war, we would have won it"

41 DAVID S. BOONE USA, SFC Assigned to Augsburg, Germany, as a Signals Analyst from 1988 to In 1988, he walked into a Russian embassy and volunteered to be a spy Motivated by money. Russian payments totaled more than $60,000 in three years Compromised a 600 page manual describing US reconnaissance programs and a listing of nuclear targets in Russia Lured to the United States in an FBI sting operation and arrested. In February 1999, sentenced to 24 years and four months in prison, and a $52,000 fine Brings unauthorized cameras, recording devices, hand- held scanners or laptop computers into areas where classified materials are maintained Used a hand held scanner to copy Top Secret documents Clues to watch for: ESPIONAGE INDICATORS

42 Was arrested at an Airport while he was about to board a flight to Switzerland. He was carrying roles of film containing Top Secret Information ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: Harold Nicholson CIA Officer Seen here sporting a "KGB is for me" shirt, he spied for the Russians from Jun 1994 until his arrest in Nov Russian payments totaled $120,000 "Hacked" into the CIA computer database and stole any classified information he could access Compromised the identities of every CIA officer trained in that period Makes jokes or brags about spying In Jun 1997 was sentenced to 23 years in prison without parole

43 Sentenced to Life in Prison without Parole ESPIONAGE INDICATORS Clues to watch for: JONATHAN J. POLLARD USN, Civilian Intelligence Analyst Boasted about working for the Israeli Mossad Intelligence Service as early as 1976 Pollard and his wife, Anne, were arrested on 21 Nov 1985 while trying to seek asylum at the Israeli Embassy in D.C. Was initially motivated by religious beliefs but later was clouded by monetary considerations Extensively uses copiers, fax devices, or computer printers to reproduce or transmit sensitive material Coworkers notified authorities after observing him extensively using the copy machine to reproduce classified documents Had a suitcase stuffed with documents classified up to Top Secret in his home

44 “THERE IS NO HONOR AMONGST THIEVES” FACT : In nearly every espionage case, the spy was tasked to report any incriminating or embarrassing information on their coworkers and to assess them for possible recruitment FACT : In nearly every military espionage case, the spy sold information which could have killed their fellow soldiers or colleagues in time of war FACT : Several Intelligence Officers of adversary services have defected to the U.S. in recent history. Each revealed the identities of their spies in return for American asylum

45 The assessment - WEAKNESSES a FIS Officer would look for Personal, financial or professional problems Ego problem or adventure seeker Disgruntlement and/or seeking revenge Loneliness and/or sex Markus Wolf was the director of the former East German Intelligence Service and hailed as one of the best spy-masters of the Cold War. "There were cases where interesting target people said, "No. That's it -- period. In such a case, there's nothing you can do." "I tried lure them… I made financial offers… tried to get them to carry on…, but we failed and there was nothing we could do…" Substance Abuse Ideology and religious beliefs FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE METHODOLOGY


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