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.  Period from 1865-1897  Era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States  Most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy.

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Presentation on theme: ".  Period from 1865-1897  Era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States  Most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Period from  Era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States  Most famous for the creation of a modern industrial economy  The corporation became the dominant form of business organization  Term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain  Refers to the process of gilding an object with a superficial layer of gold  Meant to make fun of ostentatious display

3   Founder of Standard Oil (1870)  Adjusting to inflation, often considered the richest person in history  Created a monopoly within the oil industry through use of underselling, differential pricing, and secret transportation rebates  By 1880, according to the New York World, Standard Oil was "the most cruel, impudent, pitiless, and grasping monopoly that ever fastened upon a country.”

4  Provided major funding for a college in Atlanta for African- American women, which became Spelman College  $80 million to the University of Chicago  Became one of the first great benefactors of medical science.  1901, he founded the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research

5 John Davison Rockefeller

6 John D. Rockefeller Jr. Son of John D. Rockefeller Responsible for the building of the Rockefeller Center

7 Rockefeller Center “30 Rock”

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9 Nelson Rockefeller Grandson of John D. Rockefeller Former Gov. of New York Former Vice-President of the U.S. under Gerald Ford

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11  1835–1919  Immigrated from Scotland to the U.S. in 1848  First job in the United States was as a factory worker in a bobbin factory  Led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry  One of the most important philanthropists of his era  Formed Carnegie Steel Company which after later mergers becomes U.S. Steel  Often regarded as the second-richest man in history after John D. Rockefeller

12  Carnegie gave most of his money to establish many libraries, schools, and universities in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada  Carnegie Hall  Carnegie Mellon University

13 Andrew Carnegie

14 Carnegie Mellon University

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19   AKA “Commodore”  Built his fortune in railroad and shipping industry  Steamboats, oceangoing steamships, and railroads  Donated original funds for creation of Vanderbilt University

20 Cornelius Vanderbilt

21 Vanderbilt Mansion, New York

22 Biltmore Estate, Asheville, NC. Built by the son of Cornelius Vanderbilt

23   Financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation  Arranged the mergers that created General Electric and U.S. Steel

24 J.P. Morgan

25 Morgan estate on Long Island

26  Did their methods of acquiring a personal fortune contribute to society in a positive way? OR  Were their fortunes gained through questionable practices?  Captains of Industry was a term describing a business leader whose practices increased productivity, markets, jobs, and philanthropy  Robber baron was a term describing a business leader who became wealthy at the expense of the workers  Men like Rockefeller, Carnegie, Vanderbilt, and Morgan were considered both depending on what point of view you took

27  Great Railroad Strike of 1877  Begins in Martinsburg, West Virginia, response to the cutting of wages for the second time in a year by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O)  Spreads to Maryland, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Missouri  Strike lost momentum when President Hayes sent federal troops from city to city.  Troops suppressed strike after strike  Approximately 45 days after it had started, it ended.

28  Haymarket Affair AKA Haymarket Riot  Chicago, May 4, 1886  Began as a rally for striking workers (8 hour workday)  Ended with the throwing of a dynamite bomb and gunfire resulting in the deaths of 7 police officers and 4 civilians  8 anarchists were convicted of conspiracy during the trial  Setback for American labor and its fight for the eight-hour day

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30 Mathias Degan Chicago Police Officer killed by the bomb blast

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33  Pullman Strike, last major strike of the 19 th century  Began in May 1894, Pullman, Illinois  3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages  At its peak, involved 250,000 workers in 27 states  President Grover Cleveland ends the strike using Federal Marshals and 12,000 U.S. troops  Justified use of troops as strike was delaying delivery of U.S. Mail  Labor Day became a federal holiday in 1894 (Legislation was pushed through Congress 6 days after the strike to appease organized labor movements)

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36 George Pullman Inventor of the Pullman Sleeping Car Also known for utilization of violent methods against striking workers

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38  Founder of the American Railway Union, First industrial union in America (1893)  After the Pullman Strike, Debs was arrested, tried, and convicted for leading the strike  Originally a Democrat, became a Socialist while in prison after reading books by Karl Marx  Founded the Social Democratic Party of the U.S.  Presidential candidate of this party 1904,1908, 1912, and 1920  Founded the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905  Arrested on June 30, 1918 for seditious speech (Criticized Pres. Wilson and U.S. involvement in WWI)

39 Eugene Debs

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42  Established in 1869 by Uriah Stephens  For a time was the largest of the labor union until late 1880s  Initially against the use of strikes, preferred negotiations  Overall, poorly organized  Main objective was the 8 hour work day and legislation covering child labor laws  Achieved greatest power and membership under leadership of Terence Powderly  Eventually, most members left and went to the newly formed American Federation of Labor

43 Uriah Stephens Founder of the Knights of Labor

44 Terence Powderly

45  Founder of the American Federation of Labor  President from  He promoted thorough organization and collective bargaining to gain shorter hours and higher wages  Encouraged the AFL to take political action to "elect their friends" and "defeat their enemies  In 1955, the AFL merged with the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) to form the AFL-CIO which still exists

46 Samuel Gompers

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48  Presidents of the Gilded Age  James Garfield 20 th President (Mar 4, 1881-Sept 19,1881)  2 nd President to be assassinated  Shot in July 1881 by Charles Guiteau, a disgruntled federal office seeker  Chester Arthur 21 st President (Sept 19, 1881-Mar 4, 1885)  Grover Cleveland 22 nd and 24 th President:  Only president to serve two non-consecutive terms ( ) and ( )  Benjamin Harrison 23 rd President ( )  Grandson of William Henry Harrison

49 James Garfield 2 nd President to be assassinated Metal detection device invented by Thomas Edison was used in attempt to locate the bullet

50 Charles Guiteau Assassinated James Garfield Executed by hanging in 1882

51 Chester Arthur

52 Grover Cleveland 22 nd and 24 th President

53 Benjamin Harrison

54  Political organization where an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of supporters and businesses  In return, the supporters received rewards  Power came from the ability to get people out to vote  Heavily influenced by practices of the spoils system  Voters backed a candidate based on the idea of patronage:  Favors received once person was elected  Candidate was selected based on his willingness to participate

55  AKA “Boss” Tweed  Foremost example of the greediness of machine politics  Head of “Tammany Hall”, democratic political machine that ran New York City government ( )  Eventually convicted of stealing as much as 200 million dollars from N.Y. City taxpayers  Died 1878 in jail

56 William “Boss” Tweed

57  Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (1883)  Stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit  Provided selection of government employees through competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation  Made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons  Law only applied to federal government jobs: not to the state and local jobs that were the basis for political machines

58  A faction of the Republican party:  1. Opposed civil service reform  2. In favor of machine politics

59  Republicans who switched to the Democratic Party to support Grover Cleveland in the 1884 election  Based on disfavor with corruption associated with the Republican Party at the time

60  Political cartoonist  “Father of the American Cartoon”  Drawings were instrumental in the downfall of Boss Tweed  Notable works included:  Uncle Sam  Symbols for Republican Party (Elephant) and Democratic Party (Donkey)  Modern version of Santa Claus

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68  Roughly 10 million immigrants came to the U.S. during the Gilded Age  1892, Federal government opened Ellis Island in New York Harbor as an immigrant inspection station  Operated until 1954

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73  Construction of the Central Pacific Railroad mostly done by Chinese immigrants  American Federation of Labor strongly opposed the use of Chinese labor  Chinese Exclusion Act 1882, Congress prohibits Chinese laborers from entering the U.S  Chinese immigrants unable to become U.S. citizens until 1950, however:  Supreme Court decision in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, their children born in the U.S. were full citizens. (1898)

74  1. Increasing demand for factory workers  2. Mass immigration from Europe  Causes population of cities to rise  New York, Philadelphia and Chicago experience population growth over one million people.  Increasing immigration causes rise in poverty levels  New immigrants lived in the poorest urban areas including the Five Points and Hell’s Kitchen in Manhattan  “Dumbbell tenements”: Law required that every room had to have a window with access to air (law was averted by using airshafts that connected the buildings)

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81  “The Wizard of Menlo Park” now Edison, New Jersey  Inventor of the light bulb, phonograph, motion picture camera  Central power station to generate and distribute electricity for a city  Fluoroscope: Machine that used x-rays for radiographs  One of the first inventors to utilize mass production

82 Thomas Edison "Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." “

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87  Credited with inventing the first practical telephone  Both his mother and wife were deaf which influenced his work on hearing and speech  Ultimately leads to the first patent in 1876 for the telephone  Founding member of the National Geographic Society  Considered the telephone as an intrusion and refused to have one in his study

88 Alexander Graham Bell

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91  Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1874)  Attempted to bring morality back to America by creating a sober and pure world  National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890) lead by Susan B. Anthony  Largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States  Primary promoter of women's right to vote.

92 Carrie Nation Pre Prohibition radical member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union

93 Susan B. Anthony Arrested for voting in the 1872 presidential election Fined $100 which she never paid


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