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Information transfer Seminar in Library & Information Science.

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1 Information transfer Seminar in Library & Information Science

2 Seminar in Library & Information Science 2 Content The nature of information transfer Approaches to analysing information transfer Early information transfer models Refinements in information transfer models Use and adaptation of information transfer models Related models

3 Information transfer Information & knowledge are created from the application of new techniques, new insights, &/or new research to existing bodies of information & knowledge ‘If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants’ (Isaac Newton) Seminar in Library & Information Science 3

4 HKU Faculty of Education4 Popper’s 3 worlds World 1: Objects & events World 2: Cognition World 3: Information Action Conception Perception Writing Reading

5 HKU Faculty of Education5 Active Knowledge Represented Knowledge Popper’s 3 worlds World 2: Cognition World 3: Information World 1: Objects & events

6 Seminar in Library & Information Science 6 Models A model is a: Representation of structure OED Simplification of reality Diagnostic tool Information transfer models highlight the stages where information needs to considered in order to get optimum advantages from it (& minimum negative results from its mismanagement)

7 Information transfer models Seminar in Library & Information Science 7 The roles of information transfer models, include: Understanding information transfer within different groups Aids to designing systems for information flow Diagnosing sources of information flow failure

8 Shannon – Weaver communication model The Shannon-Weaver communication model was initially developed in 1947 to improve telephone line transmission. It has been refined in the succeeding decades It is an influential model that can be applied to all forms of communication Seminar in Library & Information Science 8

9 9   feedback    source  transmitter  channel  receiver  destination  noise data transfer message transfer information transfer Shannon – Weaver communication model Middleton, 2002

10 Seminar in Library & Information Science 10 Transfer typeLevel of analysis DataTechnical/syntactic MessageSemantic Information Pragmatic (or effectiveness) Shannon – Weaver communication model

11 Seminar in Library & Information Science 11 Within the Shannon-Weaver model we refer to noise & filters. They may be: Physical, eg poor technology, reception, competing noise etc Semantic – refers to problems of meaning, understanding etc Shannon – Weaver communication model

12 Seminar in Library & Information Science 12 Literacy level Nerves Preconceptions Culture Ambiguity/semantics Mood/emotions Distractions Etc Semantic noise can be a sender and/or receiver problem. It can be caused by: Semantic noise

13 Seminar in Library & Information Science 13 Information transfer cycle King & Bryant, 1971 Production & distribution Collection & storage Recording & representing Accessing DeliveryInterpretation Uses & users

14 Information transfer spiral Seminar in Library & Information Science 14 Lancaster & King, 1977 (2) Composition (3) Recording (4) Reproduction (5) Distribution (6) Acquisition & storage (7) Organization & control (8) Identification & location (9) Physical access (10) Assimilation by user (11) Research & Information generation (1) Generation of knowledge

15 Seminar in Library & Information Science 15 Create Collect Organise Store Access Deliver Use Information transfer cycle Choy, 1997

16 Seminar in Library & Information Science 16 Create ‘Basic research (fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge & the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables…. It is conducted without a practical end in mind although it can have unexpected results that point to practical applications. The terms ‘basic’ or ‘fundamental’ research indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, often applied research’ Wikipedia

17 Seminar in Library & Information Science 17 Applied research ‘is directed towards specific objectives such as the development of a new drug, therapy or surgical procedure. It involves the application of existing knowledge, much of which is obtained through basic research, to a specific..… problem’ New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research Research leads to creation of new information. An individual can keep it to him/herself or record it & make it available to others Create

18 Seminar in Library & Information Science 18 Collect Information/knowledge is recorded in a variety of formats & then made available for collection. Some knowledge may be made publicly available for free or for purchase; some information/knowledge may be kept confidential or have restricted access Organisations & individuals collect recorded information in a systematic way, ie to satisfy their information needs

19 Seminar in Library & Information Science 19 Organise To make it easier to find required information sources, organisations & individuals arrange collected documents in a coherent way eg by: Subject/topic Format/medium Date creator/author etc Organisation should match the information seeking behaviour of potential users

20 Seminar in Library & Information Science 20 Store Information may be kept for short or long periods of time. Storage needs to balance: Cost Suitability to format/medium Preservation needs Speed of retrieval Security needs Orgnisations adopt a range of storage methods for different information sources

21 Seminar in Library & Information Science 21 Access Information seekers require some methods for locating useful information/documents. The larger the quantity & the greater the diversity of information collected, the more complex the access systems required. Catalogs & indexes are typical access systems Access informs the information seeker that a document exists (or doesn’t) within a collection & where they can find it

22 Seminar in Library & Information Science 22 Deliver Delivery involves the information seeker gaining possession of the document. Organisations provide different levels of delivery based on: Nature of the items sought Nature of the information seeker Preferred format of the document Cost Security etc The information seeker can then use the information

23 Seminar in Library & Information Science 23 New research is based on existing research; new information is based on existing information created distributed organised stored retrieved used Information process

24 Seminar in Library & Information Science 24 Information transfer life cycle Browne,1985 1/19 research & information generation information generation 2 composition 14 interpretation 15 (ii) a level ii evaluation 4 reproduction 5 distribution 9 organisation & control 7 selection 8 collection & storage 3 recording 6 screening 13 analysis 12 retrieval 11 searching 10 provision of access 15 (i) a level i evaluation 15 (i) b level ii synthesis synthesis 15 (ii) b level ii synthesis 18 assimilation by individual user 16 packaging 17 dissemination Role of information enterprises

25 Information transfer process Seminar in Library & Information Science 25 Browne,1985 Seminar in Library & Information Science 25 17/1 research & information generation information generation 2 composition 10 interpretation 4 reproduction 5 distribution 7 organisation & control 6 collection & storage 3 recording 9 analysis 8 retrieval 11 evaluation 12 synthesis 15 physical access 13 packaging re- packaging 14 distribution 16 assimilation by end user

26 Seminar in Library & Information Science 26 Scientific publication cycle Made up of: 1.Time cycle 2.Knowledge cycle 3.Publication cycle 4.Access cycle What problems in dissemination of scientific information does this model surface? Green & Carey, 2001

27 Seminar in Library & Information Science 27 Abstractions & mapping of an information system Korfhage, 1997 information need information need reality query data Information system

28 Seminar in Library & Information Science 28 Abstraction 1 In any information system, the ‘real world’ is represented by a collection of data abstracted from observations of the real world & made available to the system Abstraction 2 A user’s information need, whether for production, storage, or retrieval of information, is abstracted into a form that is commensurate with the information system to be used Information system

29 HKU Faculty of Education29 Re-interpretation Restructuring Reviewing Release Recognition Reading Retrieval accessible collections of knowledge retrieval knowledge public knowledge validated knowledge domain information subjective knowledge 7 Rs of Information management Butcher & Rowley, 1998

30 Seminar in Library & Information Science 30 Information management cycle Choo, 1998 information needs information acquisition information products/ services information distribution information organisation & storage information use adaptive behaviour

31 Seminar in Library & Information Science 31 Information search process TasksInitiationSelectionExplorationFormulationCollectionPresentation Feelings (affective) uncertaintyoptimism confusion frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence Satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts (cognitive) vague  focused  increased interest  Actions (physical) seeking relevant information  seeking pertinent information exploringdocumenting Kuhlthau, 2004

32 Seminar in Library & Information Science 32 References Browne, M. (1985). Information enterprises in Australia: A first profile. Sydney: Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education. School of Library & Information Science. Butcher, D, & Rowley, J. (1998). The 7R’s of information management. Managing Information, 5(2), Choo Chun Wei, The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning create knowledge and make decisions. New York: Oxford UP. Choy, F. C. (1996). Educating the new parar-professionals for library and information services. Singapore Libraries, 25(1), Green, C., & Carey, P. (2001). Scientific publication cycle. Retrieved February , from me.htm me.htm

33 Seminar in Library & Information Science 33 Kennedy, J. & Schauder, C. (1994). Records management: a guide for students and practitioners of records and information management with exercises and case studies. Melbourne: Longman. King, D. & Bryant, E. (1971. The Evaluation of Information Services and Products. Arlington: Information resources press. Korfhage, R. (1997), Information storage & retrieval. New York: John Wiley. Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. Westport: Libraries Unlimited. References

34 Seminar in Library & Information Science 34 References Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. Westport: Libraries Unlimited. Middleton, M. (2002). Information management: A consolidation of operations, analysis and strategy, (Topics in Australasian Library and Information Studies, 18). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.


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