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Seminar in Library & Information Science Information transfer.

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1 Seminar in Library & Information Science Information transfer

2 Seminar in Library & Information Science
Content The nature of information transfer Approaches to analysing information transfer Early information transfer models Refinements in information transfer models Use and adaptation of information transfer models Related models Seminar in Library & Information Science

3 Seminar in Library & Information Science
Information transfer Information & knowledge are created from the application of new techniques, new insights, &/or new research to existing bodies of information & knowledge ‘If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants’ (Isaac Newton) Seminar in Library & Information Science

4 HKU Faculty of Education
Popper’s 3 worlds Writing World 2: Cognition World 3: Information Reading Conception Perception Action World 1: Objects & events HKU Faculty of Education

5 HKU Faculty of Education
Popper’s 3 worlds Active Knowledge Represented World 2: Cognition World 3: Information World 1: Objects & events HKU Faculty of Education

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Models A model is a: Representation of structure OED Simplification of reality Diagnostic tool Information transfer models highlight the stages where information needs to considered in order to get optimum advantages from it (& minimum negative results from its mismanagement) Seminar in Library & Information Science

7 Information transfer models
The roles of information transfer models, include: Understanding information transfer within different groups Aids to designing systems for information flow Diagnosing sources of information flow failure Seminar in Library & Information Science

8 Shannon – Weaver communication model
The Shannon-Weaver communication model was initially developed in 1947 to improve telephone line transmission. It has been refined in the succeeding decades It is an influential model that can be applied to all forms of communication Seminar in Library & Information Science

9 Shannon – Weaver communication model
Å feedback Å È Ç source Æ transmitter channel receiver destination noise data transfer message transfer information transfer Middleton, 2002 Seminar in Library & Information Science

10 Shannon – Weaver communication model
Transfer type Level of analysis Data Technical/syntactic Message Semantic Information Pragmatic (or effectiveness) Seminar in Library & Information Science

11 Shannon – Weaver communication model
Within the Shannon-Weaver model we refer to noise & filters. They may be: Physical, eg poor technology, reception, competing noise etc Semantic – refers to problems of meaning, understanding etc Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Semantic noise Semantic noise can be a sender and/or receiver problem. It can be caused by: Literacy level Nerves Preconceptions Culture Ambiguity/semantics Mood/emotions Distractions Etc Seminar in Library & Information Science

13 Information transfer cycle
Production & distribution Uses & users Collection & storage Interpretation Delivery Recording & representing Accessing King & Bryant, 1971 Seminar in Library & Information Science

14 Information transfer spiral
(11) Research & Information generation (1) (10) Assimilation by user (9) Physical access (2) Composition (8) Identification & location Generation of knowledge (3) Recording (7) Organization & control (4) Reproduction (5) Distribution (6) Acquisition & storage Lancaster & King, 1977 Seminar in Library & Information Science

15 Information transfer cycle
Create Collect Organise Store Access Deliver Use Choy, 1997 Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Create ‘Basic research (fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge & the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables…. It is conducted without a practical end in mind although it can have unexpected results that point to practical applications. The terms ‘basic’ or ‘fundamental’ research indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, often applied research’ Wikipedia Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Create Applied research ‘is directed towards specific objectives such as the development of a new drug, therapy or surgical procedure. It involves the application of existing knowledge, much of which is obtained through basic research, to a specific..… problem’ New Jersey Association for Biomedical Research Research leads to creation of new information. An individual can keep it to him/herself or record it & make it available to others Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Collect Information/knowledge is recorded in a variety of formats & then made available for collection. Some knowledge may be made publicly available for free or for purchase; some information/knowledge may be kept confidential or have restricted access Organisations & individuals collect recorded information in a systematic way, ie to satisfy their information needs Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Organise To make it easier to find required information sources, organisations & individuals arrange collected documents in a coherent way eg by: Subject/topic Format/medium Date creator/author etc Organisation should match the information seeking behaviour of potential users Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Store Information may be kept for short or long periods of time. Storage needs to balance: Cost Suitability to format/medium Preservation needs Speed of retrieval Security needs Orgnisations adopt a range of storage methods for different information sources Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Access Information seekers require some methods for locating useful information/documents. The larger the quantity & the greater the diversity of information collected, the more complex the access systems required. Catalogs & indexes are typical access systems Access informs the information seeker that a document exists (or doesn’t) within a collection & where they can find it Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Deliver Delivery involves the information seeker gaining possession of the document. Organisations provide different levels of delivery based on: Nature of the items sought Nature of the information seeker Preferred format of the document Cost Security etc The information seeker can then use the information Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Information process New research is based on existing research; new information is based on existing information created distributed organised stored retrieved used Seminar in Library & Information Science

24 Information transfer life cycle
15 (i) b level ii synthesis 15 (i) a level i evaluation 16 packaging 14 interpretation 13 analysis 12 retrieval 17 dissemination 15 (ii) b level ii synthesis 15 (ii) a level ii evaluation 11 searching 18 assimilation by individual user Role of information enterprises 10 provision of access 1/19 research & information generation 9 organisation & control 2 composition 5 distribution 6 screening 8 collection & storage 3 recording 7 selection 4 reproduction Browne,1985 Seminar in Library & Information Science

25 Information transfer process
13 packaging re- packaging 12 synthesis 11 evaluation 10 interpretation 14 distribution 9 analysis 15 physical access 16 assimilation by end user 8 retrieval 17/1 research & information generation 7 organisation & control 2 composition 6 collection & storage 3 recording 4 reproduction 5 distribution Browne,1985 Seminar in Library & Information Science Seminar in Library & Information Science 25

26 Scientific publication cycle
Made up of: Time cycle Knowledge cycle Publication cycle Access cycle What problems in dissemination of scientific information does this model surface? Green & Carey, 2001 Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Information system information need reality query data Abstractions & mapping of an information system Korfhage, 1997 Seminar in Library & Information Science

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Information system Abstraction 1 In any information system, the ‘real world’ is represented by a collection of data abstracted from observations of the real world & made available to the system Abstraction 2 A user’s information need, whether for production, storage, or retrieval of information, is abstracted into a form that is commensurate with the information system to be used Seminar in Library & Information Science

29 accessible collections
Retrieval accessible collections of knowledge Restructuring retrieval knowledge knowledge domain 7 Rs of Information management Butcher & Rowley, 1998 Reading Release validated knowledge information Recognition Reviewing subjective knowledge public knowledge Re-interpretation HKU Faculty of Education

30 Information management cycle
needs acquisition products/ services distribution information organisation & storage use adaptive behaviour Choo, 1998 Seminar in Library & Information Science

31 Information search process
Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Feelings (affective) uncertainty optimism confusion frustration doubt clarity sense of direction/ confidence Satisfaction or disappointment Thoughts (cognitive) vague ÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆ focused ÆÆÆ increased interest Actions (physical) seeking relevant information ÆÆÆÆÆÆÆÆ seeking pertinent information exploring documenting Kuhlthau, 2004 Seminar in Library & Information Science

32 Seminar in Library & Information Science
References Browne, M. (1985). Information enterprises in Australia: A first profile. Sydney: Kuring-gai College of Advanced Education. School of Library & Information Science. Butcher, D, & Rowley, J. (1998). The 7R’s of information management. Managing Information, 5(2), Choo Chun Wei, The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning create knowledge and make decisions. New York: Oxford UP. Choy, F. C. (1996). Educating the new parar-professionals for library and information services. Singapore Libraries, 25(1), Green, C., & Carey, P. (2001). Scientific publication cycle. Retrieved February , from Seminar in Library & Information Science

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References Kennedy, J. & Schauder, C. (1994). Records management: a guide for students and practitioners of records and information management with exercises and case studies. Melbourne: Longman. King, D. & Bryant, E. (1971. The Evaluation of Information Services and Products. Arlington: Information resources press. Korfhage, R. (1997), Information storage & retrieval. New York: John Wiley. Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. Westport: Libraries Unlimited. Seminar in Library & Information Science

34 Seminar in Library & Information Science
References Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. Westport: Libraries Unlimited. Middleton, M. (2002). Information management: A consolidation of operations, analysis and strategy, (Topics in Australasian Library and Information Studies, 18). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University. Seminar in Library & Information Science


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