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Developmental Psychology Psychology: A Concise Introduction 2 nd Edition Richard Griggs Chapter 7 Prepared by J. W. Taylor V.

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Psychology: A Concise Introduction 2 nd Edition Richard Griggs Chapter 7 Prepared by J. W. Taylor V."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology Psychology: A Concise Introduction 2 nd Edition Richard Griggs Chapter 7 Prepared by J. W. Taylor V

2 Developmental Psychology The scientific study of biological, cognitive, social, and personality development throughout the life span A major issue in developmental psychology is the nature-versus-nurture question Do our traits and behaviors result from heredity (nature) or the environment (nurture)?

3 Seven Stages of Development PrenatalConception to Birth InfancyBirth to 2 years Childhood2 to 12 years Adolescence12 to 18 years Young Adulthood18 to 40 years Middle Adulthood40 to 65 years Late Adulthood65 years and over

4 The Journey… Prenatal Development and Infancy How We Think Throughout Our Lives Moral Development and Social Development Prenatal Development and Infancy How We Think Throughout Our Lives Moral Development and Social Development

5 Prenatal Development and Infancy Prenatal Development How We Develop During Infancy

6 Prenatal Development Human conception begins when a sperm penetrates the membrane of an ovum When the two combine, a complete set of genetic instructions is formed, half from the father and half from the mother The fertilized egg that is formed from the union of the sperm and egg is called a zygote

7 The Gene The basic unit of genetic instructions Genes are short segments of chromosomes, molecules of DNA that hold the genetic instructions for every cell in our body Every cell of a normal human has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one of each pair coming from the mother and one from the father

8 Sex Determination It is the 23 rd pair of chromosomes that determines a person’s sex In a female, there are two X-shaped chromosomes (XX) In a male, there is one X-shaped chromosome and one smaller Y-shaped chromosome (XY) It is the Y chromosome that leads to the development of a male, so the sex of the zygote is determined by which sperm X or Y, fertilizes the egg

9 Twins Sometimes the growing cluster of duplicated cells breaks apart early in development resulting in two clusters with identical genes These clusters become identical (monozygotic) twins because they come from the same zygote

10 Twins Fraternal (dizygotic) twins originate from the fertilization of two eggs at about the same time Chance determines which of the 23 pairs of chromosomes goes to a reproductive cell, so there are about 8 million chromosome possibilities for each reproductive cell in each parent Consequently, fraternal twins, as well as any two children of the same parents, may vary greatly in appearance

11 Stages of Prenatal Development GerminalBegins with the formation of the zygote and ends after about 2 weeks, when the outer portion of the zygote’s developing cluster of cells has attached itself to the uterine wall EmbryonicFrom 2 weeks to about 2 months, the major structures and organs of the body begin to develop, and the embryo starts to resemble a human being FetalFrom about 2 months to birth, the developing organism is called a fetus, and through very rapid growth, the body structures and organs complete their growth

12 Influences Prenatal development is mainly a function of the zygote’s genetic code (nature), but the environment (nurture) also plays a role Teratogens are environmental agents (such as drugs or viruses), diseases (such as German measles), and physical conditions (such as malnutrition) that impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death

13 How We Develop During Infancy Motor Development Sensory- Perceptual Development

14 Motor Development A reflex is an unlearned response to a specific stimulus The Babinski reflex occurs when an infant fans her toes upward when her feet are touched The grasping reflex occurs when an infant grasps any object that touches their palms The sucking reflex leads an infant to suck anything that touches its lips The rooting reflex leads an infant to turn its mouth toward anything that touches its cheeks and search for something to suck

15 Sensory-Perceptual Development Preferential-looking technique is used to study vision Two visual stimuli are displayed side by side, and the researcher records how long the infant looks at each stimulus If the infant looks at one stimulus longer, it is inferred he can tell the difference between the two stimuli and has a preference

16 Sensory-Perceptual Development Habituation is a decrease in the physiological responding to a stimulus once it becomes familiar Infants, for example, tend to look longer at novel stimuli If infants look longer at a new stimulus than an old one, then it is inferred he must be able to perceive the difference between the two stimuli Infants also intensity their sucking of a pacifier in their mouths when confronted with a novel stimulus

17 Sensory-Perceptual Development Vision is the least-developed sense at birth Newborns’ visual acuity is estimated to be about 20/400 to 20/800 Visual acuity reaches 20/20 within the first year of life Color vision develops by 2 to 3 months Infants’ preference for visual complexity may be due to the fact that such stimulation is necessary for proper development of the visual pathways and cortex during infancy

18 Sensory-Perceptual Development Hearing in the newborn is more fully developed than vision Can distinguish their mother’s voice from those of others This ability appears to develop in the womb before birth By 6 months, an infant’s hearing is comparable to that of an adult

19 Sensory-Perceptual Development The senses of smell, taste, and touch are also fairly well-developed at birth Infants can differentiate the smell of their mother from those of other people Very young infants may have an innate conceptual understanding of object movement (e.g., that objects cannot go through solid surfaces)

20 Sensory-Perceptual Development The brain contains about 100 billion neurons at birth, but the infant’s brain is immature, and connections between neurons (neural networks) need to be formed Without visual experiences, the visual pathways do not develop, and vision will be permanently lost During infancy, the networks of neurons that are used become stronger and those that are not used disappear

21 How We Think Throughout Our Lives How We Learn Language Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Approach to Development How Intelligence Changes in Adulthood

22 How We Learn Language No other animal seems to be able to acquire and develop language ability as humans do Children in different cultures learn to speak very different languages, but they all seem to go through the same sequence of stages

23 Language Stages Infants communicate through crying, with different cries for hunger and for pain, and through movement and facial expressions Prefer baby talk (or motherese) – the different format of speech that adults use when talking with babies that involves the use of shorter sentences with a higher, more melodious pitch than normal speech

24 Language Stages At about 6 or 7 months, babbling, the rhythmic repetition of various syllables, including both consonants and vowels, begins At about 1 year of age, the infant begins to speak a few words, which usually refer to their caregivers and objects in their daily environment Infants use holophrases, words that express complete ideas

25 Language Stages Vocabulary grows slowly until about 18 months, and then infants learn about 100 words or more per month Overextension: The application of a newly learned word to objects that are not included in the meaning of the word (e.g., calling any female person “mama”) Underextension: The failure to apply the new word more generally to objects that are included within the meaning of the new word (e.g., not extending the category of “dog” to include dogs that are not the family pet)

26 Language Stages Between 18 and 24 months, children experience a vocabulary-acquisition spurt and words are combined into sentences Telegraphic speech is the use of 2-word sentences with mainly nouns and verbs (e.g., “Dada eat” for “Dad is having dinner”) These 2-word statements begin to be expanded and between the ages of 2 and 5 years, the child implicitly acquires grammar of the native language

27 Language Stages Language development is a genetically programmed ability However, this ability is not developed without exposure to human speech Thus, both nature and nurture are vital to language development

28 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget did not conduct formal experiments, but rather loosely structured interviews in which he posed problems for children to solve, observed their actions carefully, and questioned them about their solutions Was particularly interested in children’s error, which would provide insights into children’s thought processes Assumed that a child is an active seeker of knowledge and gains an understanding of the world by operating on it

29 Schemas Organized units of knowledge about objects, events, and actions Cognitive adaptation involves two processes Assimilation is the interpretation of new experiences in terms of present schemes Accommodation is the modification of present schemes to fit with new experiences

30 Schemas For example, a child may call all four- legged creatures “doggie” The child learns he needs to accommodate (i.e., change) his schemes, as only one type of four-legged creature is “dog” It is through accommodation that the number and complexity of a child’s schemes increase and learning occurs

31 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development SensorimotorBirth to 2 years Preoperational2 to 6 years Concrete operational6 to 12 years Formal operational12+ years

32 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

33 Sensorimotor Stage Infant learns about the world through their sensory and motor interactions (including reflexes) Lack object permanence, the knowledge than an object exists independent of perceptual contact Symbolic representation of objects and events starts to develop during the latter part of the sensorimotor stage (e.g., use of telegraphic speech)

34 Preoperational Stage The child’s thinking becomes more symbolic and language-based, but remains egocentric and lacks the mental operations that allow logical thinking Egocentrism is the inability to distinguish one’s own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from those of others Cannot perceive the world from another person’s perspective The child, however, can pretend, imagine, and engage in make-believe play

35 Preoperational Stage Conservation is the knowledge that the quantitative properties of an object (such as mass, volume, and number) remain the same despite changes in appearance Some grasp of conservation marks the end of the preoperational stage and the beginning of the concrete-operational stage The liquid/beakers problem is a common test of conservation ability

36 Preoperational Stage A major reason why a preoperational child does not understand conservation is that the child lacks an understanding of reversibility, the knowledge that reversing a transformation brings about the conditions that existed before the transformation Child’s thinking also reflects centration, the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time

37 Tests of Conservation

38 Concrete Operational Stage Children gain a fuller understanding of conservation and other mental operations that allow them to think logically, but only about concrete events Conservation for liquids, numbers, and matter acquired early, but conservation of length acquired later in the stage Develops transitivity (e.g., if A > B, and B > C, then A > C) Develops seriation, the ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension (e.g., a set of pencils by their length) The reasoning of concrete operational children is tied to immediate reality (i.e., what is in front of them and tangible) and not with the hypothetical world of possibility

39 Formal Operational Stage The child gains the capacity for hypothetical-deductive thought Can engage in hypothetical thought and in systematic deduction and testing of hypotheses

40 Formal Operational Stage In one scientific thinking task, the child is shown several flasks of what appear to be the same clear liquid and is told one combination of two of these liquids would produce a clear liquid The task is to determine which combination would produce the blue liquid The concrete operational child just starts mixing different clear liquids together haphazardly The formal operational child develops a systematic plan for deducing what the correct combination must be by determining all of the possible combinations and then systematically testing each one

41 Formal Operational Stage The formal operational child can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to concrete situations For example, the formal operational child would judge the statement “If mice are bigger than horses, and horses are bigger than cats, then mice are bigger than cats” to be true, even though in “real life” mice are not bigger than cats

42 Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Recent research has shown that rudiments of many of Piaget’s key concepts (e.g., object permanence) may begin to appear at earlier stages than Piaget proposed For example, research that involved tracking infants’ eye movements has found that infants as young as 3 months continue to stare at the place where the object disappeared from sight, indicating some degree of object permanence

43 Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory 1.Not all people reach formal operational thought 2.The theory may be biased in favor of Western culture 3.There is no real theory of what occurs after the onset of adolescence 4.Despite refinements, recent research has indeed shown that cognitive development seems to proceed in the general sequence of stages that Piaget proposed

44 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Approach to Development Stressed that cognitive abilities develop through interactions with others and represent the shared knowledge of one’s culture The zone of proximal development is the difference between what a child can actually do and what the child could do with the help of others (i.e., potential development less actual development) In scaffolding, the parent or teacher adjusts the level of help in relation to the child’s level of performance, while directing the child’s learning progress toward the upper level of her zone of proximal development

45 How Intelligence Changes in Adulthood Two methods for studying intelligence changes In a cross-sectional study, people of different ages are studied and compared with one another In a longitudinal study, the same people are studied over a long period of time The cross-sectional method consistently finds that intelligence declines with age However, using the longitudinal method, later studies found that intelligence did not decline with age, but remained rather stable and even increased until very late in life when it showed a decline

46 How Intelligence Changes in Adulthood Problem with cross-sectional research Cohort effect – people of a given age are affected by factors unique to their generation (e.g., differences in educational opportunities), leading to differences in performance between generations Problems with longitudinal research Time consuming Expensive Repeated testing necessary Participants die/drop out of the research Those who participate over the entire course of the research may have been the most intelligent and healthiest participants whose intelligence would be the most likely not to decline

47 Types of Intelligence Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge, verbal skills, and numerical skills that increase with age Fluid intelligence involves abilities such as abstract thinking, logical problem solving, and spatial reasoning that decrease with age

48 Types of Intelligence The Seattle Longitudinal Study is a major attempt to learn if intelligence declines with age Started in 1956 with more than 5000 participants being tested every 7 months through 1998 Groups of new participants were added periodically, making the research part cross-sectional and part longitudinal Found that most intellectual abilities decline somewhat by age 60, but the decline is not great until a person reaches age 80 or more Those who suffer the least decline are those who stayed healthy, of higher socioeconomic status, and are in intellectually stimulating environments

49 Moral Development and Social Development Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning Attachment and Parenting Styles Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Theory of Development

50 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning Built on an earlier theory of moral reasoning proposed by Piaget, using a series of stories that involved moral dilemmas to assess a person’s level of moral reasoning Discerned three levels of moral reasoning based on responses to the stories and the reasoning behind the responses given

51 Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning 1.At the preconventional level of moral reasoning, the emphasis is on avoiding punishment and looking out for your own welfare and needs Moral reasoning is self-oriented 2.At the conventional level of moral reasoning, moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws Social approval and being a dutiful citizen are important 3.At the highest level, the postconventional level of moral reasoning, moral reasoning is based on self- chosen ethical principles Human rights taking precedent over laws; the avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such principles

52 Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning Level 1Preconventional Morality Stage 1Punishment orientation Compliance with rules to avoid punishment Stage 2Reward orientation Compliance with rules to obtain rewards and satisfy own needs

53 Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning Level 2Conventional Morality Stage 3Good-girl/ good-boy orientation Engages in behavior to get approval of others Stage 4Law and order orientation Behavior is guided by duty to uphold laws and rules for their own sake

54 Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning Level 3Postconventional Morality Stage 5Social contract orientation Obeys rules because they are necessary for social order but understands rules are relative Stage 6Universal ethical principles orientation Concerned about self- condemnation for violating universal ethical principles based on human rights

55 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning Kohlberg proposed that we all start at the preconventional level as children and as we develop, especially cognitively, we move up the ladder of moral reasoning The sequence is uniform; however, not everyone reaches the postconventional level

56 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning Shortcomings of Kohlberg’s theory Studied moral reasoning and not moral behavior May not have adequately represented the morality of women The higher stages may be biased toward Western cultures

57 Attachment and Parenting Styles Attachment is the lifelong emotional bond that exists between the infants and their mothers or other caregivers, formed during the first six months of life

58 Attachment and Harlow’s Monkeys Harry Harlow separated infant monkeys from their mothers at birth and put them in cages containing two inanimate surrogate mothers, one made of wire and one made of terry cloth

59 Attachment and Harlow’s Monkeys Half of the monkeys received their nourishment from a milk dispenser in the wire and half from a dispenser in the terry cloth mother All of the monkeys preferred the cloth monkey regardless of which monkey provided their nourishment The monkeys being fed by the wire mother would only go to the wire mother to eat and then return to the cloth mother Thus, “contact comfort,” not reinforcement from nourishment, was the crucial element for attachment formation

60 Attachment and Harlow’s Monkeys

61 When confronted with a strange situation (e.g., an unfamiliar room with toys) without the surrogate mother, the infant monkey would be fearful When the surrogate mother was brought into the strange situation, the infant monkey would initially cling to the terry cloth mother to reduce its fear, but then begin to explore the new environment and eventually play with toys

62 Types of Attachment Discerned via the strange situation devised by Ainsworth, in which an infant’s behavior is observed in an unfamiliar room with toys, while the infant’s mother or caregiver and a stranger move in and out of the room in a structured series of simulations Secure Insecure- avoidant Insecure- ambivalent Insecure- disorganized

63 Types of Attachment Secure attachment is indicated when an infant explores the situation freely in the presence of the mother, but displays distress when the mother leaves, and responds enthusiastically when the mother returns Caregivers who are sensitive and responsive to an infant’s needs are more likely to develop a secure attachment with the infant Insecure-avoidant attachment is indicated by exploration, but minimal interest in the mother, the infant showing little distress when the mother leaves, and avoiding her when she returns

64 Types of Attachment Insecure-ambivalent attachment is indicated by the infant seeking closeness to the mother and not exploring the situation, high level of distress when the mother leaves, and ambivalent behavior when she returns by alternately clinging to and pushing away from her Insecure-disorganized (disoriented) attachment is marked by the infant’s confusion when the mother leaves and when she returns The infant acts disoriented, seems overwhelmed by the situation, and does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping with it

65 Types of Attachment Infant temperament, a set of innate tendencies or dispositions that lead us to behave certain ways, is also a factor in determining type of attachment Specifically, how an infant’s temperament matches the child- rearing expectations and personality of its caregiver is important in forming the attachment relationship Secure attachments have been linked to higher levels of cognitive functioning and social competence in adulthood Daycare does not appear to be detrimental to the formation of secure attachments

66 Parenting Styles AuthoritarianParents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children’s desires, and communicate poorly with their children AuthoritativeParents are demanding but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children PermissiveParents make few demands and are overly responsive to their child’s desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please UninvolvedParents minimize both the time they spend with the children and their emotional involvement with them, doing little more than providing for basic needs

67 Parenting Styles An authoritative parenting style seems to have the most positive effect on cognitive and social development Children are the most independent, happy, self-reliant, and academically successful of the four parenting styles

68 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Theory of Development Emphasized the impact of society and culture upon development Lead to an increase in research on life- span development Criticized for the lack of solid experimental data to support it Eight stages of development, each with a major issue or crisis that has to be resolved Each stage is named after the two sides of the issue relevant in that stage

69 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages 1 Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year) Infants learn that they can or cannot trust others to take care of their basic needs 2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 2 years) Children learn to be self- sufficient in many activities such as toilet training, walking, and exploring; if restrained too much they learn to doubt their abilities and feel shame

70 3 Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years) Children learn to assume more responsibility by taking the initiative but will feel guilty if they overstep limits set by parents 4 Industry vs. Inferiority (5 years to puberty) Children learn to be competent by mastering new intellectual, social, and physical skills or feel inferior if they fail to develop these skills Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

71 5 Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) Adolescents develop a sense of identity by experimenting with different roles; no role experimentation may result in role confusion 6 Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) Young adults form intimate relationships with others or become isolated because of failure to do so Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

72 7 Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) Middle-aged adults feel they are helping the next generation though their work and child rearing, or they stagnate because they feel that they are not helping 8 Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood) Older adults assess their lives and develop sense of integrity if they find lives have been meaningful; develop sense of despair if not meaningful Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

73 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development Probably the greatest impact of Erikson’s theory is that it expanded the study of developmental psychology past adolescence into the stages of adulthood (young, middle, and late) The sequence in the theory (intimacy issues followed by identity issues) turns out to be the most applicable to men and career-oriented women Many women may solve these issues in reverse order or simultaneously For example, a woman may marry and have children and then confront the identity issues when the children become adults


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