Presentation on theme: "National Certified Leader"— Presentation transcript:
1National Certified Leader A Student Council Leadership Program
2National Certified Leader Requirements Completed Information Forms:Student and SchoolLeadership Activity ProfileActivities Sign-Off Forms (pages 1-7): Dated, and initialed by your adviserPortfolio (Sections A-D): Organized, labeled, and bound according to guidelines outlined in Regulation #6The portfolio is organized using the same numbering system and order as the Activities Sign-Off Forms. (Section A , Part , 1.2., 1.3, etc)Remember to label every piece of evidence included in your portfolio to indicate the Section and Part of the activities each one represents2 Letters of Recommendation: Adviser and Principal (or administrator designated by the principal)Statements of Validation: Student, Adviser, and Principal
3Building Your Portfolio The final product of the NASC Student Leaders Program and process to earn your certification as a student leader is the creation and submission of a portfolio. A portfolio is a way to organize evidence that you have completed the required activities for your certification. All materials that you include in your portfolio should be authentic and only those that are requested.Portfolio Criteria1. Every student seeking to become a certified student leader must submit a portfolio that contains evidence of completing the tasks and activities found in the application2. Portfolios must be neat, legible, and assembled in order according to the outline found on the next page and on the NASC Web site.3. Portfolios will include all application materials, writings, photos, and samples of evidence.4. Portfolios should be bound using a report folder or notebook of appropriate size to hold all pages securely.5. The cover page of the portfolio should contain the following information: Student Name Current Grade Level in School School State Month, Day, and Year of Application Submission**NASC strongly encourages you to make copies or electronic archives of each piece of evidence found in your portfolio.Order of Portfolio ContentsCover PageTable of ContentsCompleted Information forms, Activity Sign-Off forms, and Signatures pageEvidence of completed tasksLetters of Recommendation
4Portfolio Outline Section 1-3 The outline for the portfolio follows the parts and activities in the application. Please be sure to number your pages and include those numbers on your contents page.Section A: Leadership (Parts 1-10)1. Leadership and You1.1 Explain the 3 Climates of Leadership 1.2 Identify 5 Traits of Leaders 1.3 Identify 2 Situational Leadership behavior types 1.4 Your personal definition of Leadership 1.5 List and Examine your Leadership Qualities 1.6 Explain when to use situational leadership behaviors 1.7 T-P Leadership Questionnaire2. Goal Setting2.1 Identify 5 reasons to set goals and 5 reasons why people don’t set goals 2.2 Identify the parts of SMART goals 2.3 Use the NASC 4-Step process to write a group goal 2.4 Create one short and one long term goal3. Team Building3.1 Explain the attributes that separates a team from a group 3.2 Identify 10 characteristics each of effective team members and team leaders Identify 5 signs that a student council is in need of effective team building 3.4 Select and lead a team building exercise
5Portfolio Outline Section 4-7 4. Decision Making4.1 Explain how decisions are made using each of the 4 decision making methods 4.2 Identify a decision that would be best made using each decision making method 4.3 Name and explain 5 points to incorporate during the decision making process 4.4 Ethical decision making and evaluating to determine if decisions are ethical 4.5 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using consensus 4.6 Facilitate a group to meet consensus on decision5. Problem Solving5.1 Identify and explain the purpose for each of the 7 steps to problem solving barriers that can block creative problem solving 5.3 Summarize the basic techniques to brainstorming 5.4 Leading a committee or group in a problem solving activity6. Group Dynamics6.1 Identify what happens to a group in each stage of the team building process 6.2 Roles of group members in the “task” category 6.3 Roles of group members in the “maintenance” category actions to maintain cooperation within a group Self-Oriented roles that weaken group development 6.6 Select and lead a council group or committee through a group cooperation activity7. Time Management and Personal Organization7.1 Identify 6 strategies to better manage your time 7.2 Identify 10 strategies to improve personal organization Identify the general signs of stress 7.4 Explain 5 strategies that can be used to deal with stress 7.5 Create a plan that incorporates strategies to improve personal organization 7.6 Create a personal calendar with a daily “To Do” list covering two weeks 7.7 Complete a Stress Test inventory; summarize results and how you will respond
6Portfolio Outline Section 8-10 8. Meeting Management8.1 7 basic principles for meetings and identify 5 characteristics of good meetings strategies used to facilitate a meeting 8.3 Identify and explain key actions that meeting organizers should always do 8.4 Differences between main, subsidiary, and incidental motions 8.5 Demonstrate ability to create and use a proper meeting agenda 8.6 Diagram tracking a motion from beginning to end, explain council options 8.7 Use parliamentary procedure and correct terminology in meetings 8.8 Plan, organize and run a committee or council meeting, summarize the experience9. Communication9.1 4 common elements of communication, and explain the role of each common influences on communication; pick 5 to explain their affects 9.3 Explain five ways that students can become better listeners conditions blocking effective communications; define Compose a letter or memo (or submit sample) 9.6 Compose an or PowerPoint presentation (or submit sample) 9.7 Demonstrate your ability to effectively communicate orally 9.8 Demonstrate your ability to speak using proper stage and podium etiquette10. Evaluation10.1 Provide an explanation why it is important to evaluate people, groups, governing rules, and activities Identify 10 evaluation methods or instruments and provide examples Name 5 characteristics of good evaluation instruments Identify the best evaluation method for each example given Using the 7 tips for planning evaluations, plan, perform, and report the results Complete the Individual Leader Evaluation Form, summarize the results
7Portfolio Outline Section B, C, D Section B: ServiceB.1 Explain the role of service as it pertains to student leaders B.2 Explain Direct and Indirect service, identify strengths or weaknesses of each B.3 4 key elements of service learning and difference between it and just service B.4 Research and create a list of 5 resources at the school and 5 in the community to contact or utilize in support of student council service projects B.5 Provide evidence of participation in 2 service projects B.6 Use the 12 Ws of project planning to plan and carry out a community service projectSection C: Civic EngagementC.1 Explain what it means to be civically engaged and why it is important for students to be involved in civic-based activities C.2 Identify 4 goals of civic engagement C.3 Explain 3 types of civic engagement and activities that illustrate each one C.4 Identify 3 student council functions/activities that are civic-based and explain how C.5 Create a list of 3 community resources and 3 web sites that support civic engagement, explain how the student council can utilize each C.6 Organize and lead a committee or the student council in a civic-based activity that engages members of the student bodySection D: My Leadership PhilosophyD.1 My leadership traits and style D.2 My personal philosophy about leadership (750-1,000 word essay)
8Some of the Regulations Submit only the requested forms indicated on the Check List. No other items will be considered during the evaluation process. All submissions should be made on standard 8 ½ x 11” paper. Application materials must be bound by staple or secured in a report folder. Please do not use 3-ring binders or notebooks.Students must submit an essay that will be not less than 750 words or more than 1,000 words. Essays must be double-space typed with margins of one inch (top, bottom, and sides)Portfolios must be submitted with the application and must adhere to the following specific regulations:a. Portfolios must only include the requested samples of evidenceb. Portfolio materials must be secured in a report folder or similar notebook.c. Students may include photos in portfolios to better illustrate evidence of activities and tasks. Only one photo of not more than 4x6 per application section is permitted.Students must secure and include two letters of recommendation. One must be from the principal or other administrator designated by the principal and one from the student council adviser. (Samples of letters are included on the Certified Student Leader web page)Applications missing required information, signatures, or not in compliance with the regulations will not be evaluated by NASC.All students will receive notification of the status of their application from NASC. Those that do not earn the Certified Student Leader designation will be given the results of the evaluation and may reapply after a six-month period during which time they should work to strengthen their area(s) of weakness or attain missing evidence.
9Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You Definition of Leadership:
12Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You 1.1 Explain the 3 Climates of Leadership:Autocratic—the leader has complete authority and controlDemocratic—the entire group shares in decision makingLaissez-faire—the leader exerts little influence or control.
13Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You 1.2 Identify 5 Traits of Leaders:Telling Leader –Persuading Leader –Consulting Leader –Joining Leader –Delegating Leader –
14Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You 1.3 Identify 2 situational Leadership behavior types:Relationship Oriented Behavior –Task Oriented Behavior -
15Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You 1.5 Examine your Leadership Qualities:Write your personal definition of leadership, including its purpose and its importance with regard to a student council and in society.Listing Your Leadership Qualitiesa. List the ways you have been a leader in your school and out (community, family, other)b. Identify the one leadership experience that you found to be the most satisfying and explain whyc. Identify the one leadership experience that challenged you most and explain why
16Section A, Part 1: Leadership and You 1.6 Explain a leadership situation where your leadership would be more effective using Relationship Oriented behaviors and one where you would be more effective using Task Oriented behaviors.1.7 Do the T-P Leadership Questionnaire:Make sure to write a summary of your findings.
17Section A, Part 2: Goal Setting 2.1 Identify 5 reasons to set goalsThey provide a sense of direction.They motivate us.They make us feel good about ourselves and what we do.They point out strengths, which can be used to overcome obstacles, and make us aware of weaknesses so we can begin to improve them.They help us visualize what is important, plan actions to achieve the goals, and then carry them out.They help us make decisions.They make us responsible for our own lives and make our group responsible for its own success or failure.They force us to set priorities.They make us feel committed.They develop better group morale by giving a sense of past victories and providing a stimulus for present success.They measure both individual and group progress.They sharpen our leadership skills.
18Section A, Part 2: Goal Setting Sec 2.1 …and 5 reasons why people don’t set goalsPredictability - Many people feel threatened by change and resist goal setting because it may be uncomfortable while moving out of the "rut."Conditioning - Most of us are conditioned so that after we have done something a certain way, it becomes habit, automatic and reflexive.Belief in Miracles - Many people sit back and wait for miracles instead of setting goals and taking action to accomplish them.Fear of Losing - Many people do not set goals because they are afraid they will be criticized for not reaching them.Fear of Winning - Odd as it may seem, some people do not set goals because they cannot imagine themselves being capable of handling the new behavior of success.Over Expectations - Setting your goals too high enables you to say, "I know I can't reach that goal, so I won't even try"
19Section A, Part 2: Goal Setting 2.2 Identify the parts of SMART goalsSpecific – What you want to achieve and the standard you will use to measure your success is clearly statedMeasurable – The goal includes specific points of achievement or benchmarks that identifies the progress of the goal and when it is completed.Attainable – The goal is challenging, but is realistic and within your reachRewarding – Reaching the goal will make you feel good. You should recognize that you have accomplished something by raising your level of skills or knowledge and applying them successfully.Timely – The goal should have a time limit that is reasonable. You may want to include deadlines within the goal to help you manage and plan the work necessary to reach the goal.
20Section A, Part 2: Goal Setting 2.3 Use the NASC 4-Step process to write a group goal1. Brainstorm for possible goals.Keep in mind the purpose of the group.Discuss what the group should accomplish.Everyone should participate.All ideas should be recorded, no matter how unrealistic.2. Set priorities among the goals.Discuss the goals in relation to the group's needs—consider your strengths and weaknesses.Rank the goals in order of importance.Achieve consensus on a few important and specific goals that the group can commit to, rather than a "laundry list" of goals that may or may not get done.3. Select activities/projects to help you achieve your goals.Some goals may be accomplished in one project, while others require ongoing efforts.Determine when activities should happen, and plan your year-long calendar.4. Develop Action PlansIdentify specific steps to achieving the goals, projects, or activities.Place the steps in chronological order.Delegate responsibilities.Set timelines.
21Section A, Part 2: Goal Setting 2.4 Create one short and one long term goal (need two worksheets)SpecificityWhat specifically do I want to know, do, or accomplish? I want to….MeasurabilityHow can I know when the goal is being accomplished? I will know that I have accomplished my goal when...Complete Goal StatementA goal statement that is both specific and measurable. I will know that I haveGoals should be: accomplished my goalSpecific when…AttainableMeasurableModerately difficult
22Section A, Part 3: Team Building 3.1 Explain the attributes that distinguishes a team from a group
23Section A, Part 3: Team Building Team vs. groupA team is more than a group of assembled people. It is a collection of individuals guided by a common purpose, striving for the same goals. Because each member makes a unique contribution, a team represents a powerhouse of potential.
24Section A, Part 3: Team Building 3.2 Identify 10 characteristics of effective team members and 10 characteristics of effective team leaders.
2510 characteristics of a good team member Characteristics of Effective TEAM MEMBERSEffective team members:> support, protect, and defend the team leader and help him/her succeed> share ideas freely and enthusiastically> ensure that all viewpoints are explored> express opinions, both for and against> act in a positive and constructive manner> understand personal and team roles> accept ownership for team decisions> recognize that they each serve as a team leader> participate voluntarily> show loyalty to the team> view criticism as an opportunity to learn> give praise and recognition when warranted> criticize ideas, not people> avoid defensiveness when fellow team members offer criticism
2610 Characteristics of a good team leader Characteristics of Effective TEAM LEADERSEffective team leaders:> communicate> are open, honest, and fair> make decisions with input from others> act consistently> give the team members the information they need to do their jobs> set goals and emphasize them> create an atmosphere of growth> give praise and recognition> criticize constructively and address problems> display tolerance and flexibility> exhibit a willingness to change> treat team members with respect> set guidelines for how team members are to treat one another> represent the team and fight a "good fight" when appropriate
27Section A, Part 3: Team Building 3.3 Identify 5 signs that a student council is in need of effective team building
2810 signs that a group needs team building. 1. People have opinions they do not express in the group2. In group discussion, opinions are often stated to which nobody responds3. There is confusion about assignments.4. The group’s plans are consistently determined by one person or by a small clique.5. People are more concerned with exercising powers in the group than with trying to get the job done effectively.6. Difference and conflicts within the group are denied, suppressed, and avoided.7. There are noticeable grievances and complaints among team members.8. There is a high degree of tension in the group9. There is little understanding of or commitment to the group’s goals.10. There is little commitment to take action on the group’s decisions.
29Section A, Part 3: Team Building 3.4 Select and lead a team building exercise with your student council.Write a summary explaining what you observed about the participants during the activity and why you felt it was successful or not in strengthening the group as a “team”.
30Section A, Part 4: Decision Making There are 4 ways to make decisions:1. AutocraticOne person makes the decision on behalf of the group. Generally this is a person with the authority to do so, or he or she presumes to have that power.Autocratic decisions are efficient and effective when the person who makes the decision has the authority and the information necessary to do so. They are not effective if the group does not go along with the decision, or the person making the decision does not have sufficient information.
31Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 2. DemocraticThe group participates in the decision by voting to resolve their differences. Each member has an equal say in the outcome.The process involves the group to a larger extent than in the autocratic mode. Members provide input so that the decision is more informed. However, the resolution by vote creates a majority and a minority. Thus, a proportion of the group is overruled. A win/lose situation has been created that leaves a disgruntled minority of losers. This leads to tension in the group, and decision making becomes competitive within the group.
32Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 3. ConsensualAfter thorough discussion the group arrives at a resolution that each member can endorse.The widest possible interest and ownership for the most members is achieved. An individual member may not see the final decision as his or her favorite, but it is a good one that he or she will support. However, the process takes time.
33Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4. Laissez-faireDecision making is left to the initiative of the group. If they choose to make a decision, they will. If not, they will not.The group may choose a variety of methods for making the decision. Laissez-faire invests the wisdom and power in the group to know when and how to make decisions. Participation may or may not be full. The risks are that the group will not rise to the occasion or that individual members will emerge to dominate the process.
34Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.1 Explain how decisions are made using each of these methodsAutocratic –Democratic –Consensual –Laissez-faire –
35Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.2 For each method of decision making, identify one decision often made by student council and one that might be made in the community or by local government that is best made using that particular methodAutocratic –Democratic –Consensual –Laissez-faire –
36Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.3 Name and explain 5 points to incorporate during the decision making process1. Start by defining the decision. State what must be decided, then ignore unimportant bits of information and focus on the main decision at hand.2. Review your values and the resources you have available. Your values direct your behavior and what you desire will control how you act. The resources you can access can determine how you proceed and the limitations you may have.
37Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 5 points to incorporate during the decision making process…continued.3. Identify more than one solution. Considering all options gives you choices and alternatives that may be needed should you find you cannot pursue your first choice.4. Pick the solution that makes the most sense for the situation. To find this solution, start by eliminating any other solution that could be troublesome, lead to additional problems, and any that don’t hold up to your values.5. After making your decision, review it periodically to make sure you continue on the right course and to determine if you need to make any adjustments.
38Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.4 Explain why it is important for leaders to use ethical decision making and how to evaluate whether or not a decision is ethical
39Section A, Part 4: Decision Making Decisions that you make should also be lawful and not put students or others in situations that would jeopardize their health, safety, or create a legal situation. In most cases, you will intuitively know when a decision or solution you are considering is wrong, because you conscience will start waving a red flag in your head, telling you, “no”. Other times, the right decision may not be as clear. For those times, consider three simple questions.1. Is it legal? Will my decision violate any policy or law?No decision should compromise the integrity of others who support it or coerce them to abandon their values or participate in illegal activities.2. Is it a balanced? Does it promote a win-win situation?Decisions should be fair and rational. Those would result in a “big winner” or “big loser” should be avoided.3. How will it make you feel about yourself? Would your family be proud of your decision?If you make a decision and would be embarrassed to have it published for others to read about it, that decision is probably not the one you should make.
40Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.5 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using a consensus approach to making decisions
41Section A, Part 4: Decision Making Potential advantages of using the consensus approach:> Through the sharing of information all members will know the other members' feeling on the issues, which will promote unity and greater understanding.> Members can all have a sense of ownership in the decision and will therefore work harder to carry out the decision.> Since all members have a say in the final outcome, the decision will usually be of a much higher quality.Potential disadvantages of using the consensus approach:> Consensus reaching can be time-consuming.> Consensus reaching can place a great demand on the group leader to be facilitator, communicator, listener, and moderator to make sure discussion is not dominated by a few members.
42Section A, Part 4: Decision Making 4.6 Select a method for achieving consensus and facilitate using it to reach a decision during a council or committee meeting and evaluate and summarize the results.
43Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving steps to problem solving1. State ProblemThe purpose is to understand what you or the group wants to do but can't and to identify deficits.2. Define ProblemThe Purpose is to clarify and make a general deficit specific.Method: Ask yourself, "What does it mean that I (or we) can't do something? How will I know when the problem is solved? What can I observe that will show problem solution?"
44Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 7 steps to problem solving continued3. Generate SolutionsThe Purpose is to gather information, to expand ideas and alternatives that answer the question: "How can we "Methods: Brainstorming and research, tradition, advice from students, teachers, administrators, etc.
45Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 7 steps to problem solving continued4. Select SolutionsThe Purpose is to choose between alternatives by using decision-making processes.Methods:a. Individual Decision: To make a quick choice, especially when added information is unavailable or unnecessary.b. Group Decision: To make a choice based on the input of others; encourage others to participate in the decision-making process.c. Values Clarification: To choose between alternatives based on what is most important to those making the decision.
46Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 7 steps to problem solving continued5. Develop ProgramThe purpose is to develop a step-by-step process to work toward accomplishing the selected solution.Methods: Examine the Program Development Worksheet as one possible model of program development. Time lines for the accomplishment of a task are also an example of a method of program development.6. Implement ProgramThe Purpose is to take action and complete the program developed. Methods: Follow the worksheet, timeline, or whatever method of program development you have chosen.
47Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 7 steps to problem solving continued7. EvaluationThe Purpose is to examine the entire process to uncover what went well and what needed improvement. Evaluation can be formative and work toward program improvement during implementation, or it can be summative and work toward making future programs more effective.
48Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 5.2 Barriers that can block creative problem solving are:Barriers in perception; badmouthing others' ideasLack of self-confidence, information, energy, effort, humor, positive outlook, rewards for innovative behaviorOld ways of doing things (force of habit); overlooking the obviousConformity, clock pressure, close-mindedness, cutting down ideasKiller statements, keeping a closed mindSelf-imposed boundaries, fear of being wrong or laughed at, self-complacency, subservience to authority.
49Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 5.2 continued: Ways to solve barriers with a win-win solution are:
50Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 5.3 Summary of the basic steps used by groups during a brainstorming exercise:1. Set a time limit for the activity. Depending on the issue, the average time for discussion would be minutes.2. If the group is larger than people, form two or more sub groups. Try to get a mixed representation in each one. For instance, all officers should not be in the same group.3. Be sure that everyone knows about the issue or topic to be addressed. A brief review of the topic may be needed.4. Focus on one issue at a time. If a group moves away from the issue or topic, the facilitator should ask them to refocus.5. Each group should record all responses on newsprint, chalkboard, or another way that allows each member of the group to see the responses. Key words and phrases should be written. It is not necessary to write word for word what was said.6. Split up close friends. Allowing them to sit together could encourage agreement, which inhibit the flow of ideas.7. Do brainstorming when people are not rushed for time.8. Encourage group members to avoid reacting to group suggestions verbally or using body language. This includes showing agreement or disagreement through facial expressions.9. If a group has a member or two who have a tendency to dominate discussions, begin the session by taking 5 minutes to have everyone write down their suggestions on paper, and then proceed with the verbal portion asking members to first share the ideas they wrote.
51Section A, Part 5: Problem Solving 5.4 Lead a committee or group in a problem solving activity using the 7 steps- include brainstorming- record steps and decisions on a problem solving worksheet- write a summary/evaluation of the activity highlighting any positive outcomes and challenges that were encountered by the group
52Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Sec 6.1 Identify what happens to a group in each stage of the team building process.Forming -A group goes through this initial stage when its members first come together as a collection of individuals unfamiliar with other group members. At this stage, you are instrumental in providing opportunities and a positive environment for initial group interactions.Start by encouraging group members to introduce themselves. Never assume that people are acquainted, and when you are introducing people, try to think of one or two facts about them that others may find interesting.
53Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Sec 6.1 continuedStormingOnce the group has become acquainted, conflicts may arise over such issues as power, leadership, goals, and attention. These potential problems can be minimized by setting standards and modeling the desired behaviors. Often group members look to each other as guides for standards of behavior, particularly in terms of the acceptable levels of criticism and conflict and the ways in which disagreements are handled.Make sure that the message you are sending is consistent. Your body language should not encourage behavior that you verbally discourage.
54Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Sec 6.1 continuedNormingDuring the third stage, conflicts are resolved and the group begins to function smoothly as a unit. These functions include working out compromises, encouraging participation, maintaining a conducive environment, and handling individual problems.PerformingIn the fourth stage, the group experiences maximum productivity and involvement. The group members recognize each other as being important components of the group.
55Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Sec 6.1 continuedTransformingIn the final stage, members come to terms with the end of the task/exercise and must decide whether or not to apply their experience to work with other groups of which they may belong, and with future activities of the current group.
56Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.2 Identify and explain the roles of group members that fall into the “task” category1. The INITIATOR-CONTRIBUTOR suggests or proposes to the group new ideas or a changed way of regarding the group's problem or a goal.2. The INFORMATION SEEKER asks for clarification of suggestions made in terms of their accuracy and for authoritative information pertinent to the problem being discussed.3. The OPINION SEEKER asks not for the facts of the case, but for a clarification of the values pertinent to what the group is undertaking or for clarification of values involved in a suggestion or solution.4. The OPINION GIVER states his or her belief or opinion pertinent to a suggestion. The emphasis is on his or her proposal of what should become the group's view, not on relevant facts or information.
57Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.2 Identify and explain the roles of group members that fall into the “task” category continued…5. The INFORMATION GIVER offers facts or generalizations that are authoritative, or relates his or her personal experience.6. The ELABORATOR spells out suggestions in terms of examples, offers a rationale for suggestions previously made, and tries to deduce how an idea would work out if adopted by the group.7. The ORIENTER defines the position of the group with respect to its goals by summarizing what has occurred or raising questions about the direction which the group discussion is taking.8. The ENERGIZER prods the group to action or decision and attempts to stimulate the group to greater or higher quality activity.9. The RECORDER writes down suggestions and makes a record of group decisions. The recorder is the group memory.
58Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.3 Identify and explain the roles of group members that fall into the “maintenance” category1. The encourager praises, agrees with, and accepts the contributions of others. He or she indicates warmth and solidarity in his or her attitude toward the other group members and indicates understanding and acceptance of other points of view.2. The harmonizer mediates the difference between other members, attempts to reconcile disagreements, and reduces tension.3. The compromiser operates from within a conflict in which his or her idea or position is involved. He or she offers compromise by yielding status, admitting error, or disciplining him or herself to maintain group harmony or growth.4. The gatekeeper and expediter attempt to keep communication channels open by encouraging or facilitating the participation of others or by proposing regulation of the flow of communication. ("We haven't heard from yet." "Why don't we limit the length of our contributions so that everyone will have a chance to speak?")5. The standard setter expresses ideals for the group to attempt to achieve or applies standards in evaluating the quality of group processes.
59Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.3 Identify and explain the roles of group members that fall into the “maintenance” category, continued…4. The gatekeeper and expediter attempt to keep communication channels open by encouraging or facilitating the participation of others or by proposing regulation of the flow of communication. ("We haven't heard from yet." "Why don't we limit the length of our contributions so that everyone will have a chance to speak?")5. The standard setter expresses ideals for the group to attempt to achieve or applies standards in evaluating the quality of group processes.
60Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.4 Explain 4 actions that leaders can take to maintain cooperation within a group1. Identification with Other MembersTry to find out how the other person feels. Don't assume that what you want is what others want, too. Discovering common attitudes among group members is productive. Encourage input from all members when setting up ground rules or guidelines for the group.2. ParticipationEncourage everyone in the group to take an active part. Consensus is much better than an unhappy minority. People participate in their own ways, so be tolerant and helpful in encouraging participation. Help members find roles that fit them.3. Democratic ClimateDemocratic leadership involves more people than a dictatorship. Your job as a leader is to create an atmosphere of honesty and frankness. Keep things moving but allow the group to make the decisions when they are ready to do so.4. Individual SecurityPeople under pressure may call names, get angry, show prejudice, or behave in other ways destructive to group cohesiveness. Security comes as trust develops within a group. Act swiftly to remind the group of the agreed upon guidelines for working together if you observe anyone whose actions or words are out of line with any one of the guidelines.
61Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Sec 6.4 continued…5. Open Lines of CommunicationExplain and listen. Make your messages honest and accurate. Encourage the flow of listening, talking, and responding.6. Better ListeningAttempt to interpret both the literal meaning and the intention of each speaker. You need to hear what other people say, what they intend to say, and what they would have said if they could have said what they wanted to say.7. Handling HostilityHostility in itself is not necessarily harmful to a group, or even to individual productiveness. People need freedom to express hostility within a group (through channels) because inhibition will decrease the efficiency of the group members. Call a time out from the exercise if needed to give the group time to work through their frictions and to refocus their efforts on the challenge at hand.
62Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.5 Identify 9 Self-Oriented roles that can weaken a group’s developmentSelect 3 and suggest strategies that a leader can use to bring about a positive change that will encourage the person to work more cooperatively with the group
63Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 9 Self-Oriented Roles are:1. Dominator: tries to assert authority or superiority or to manipulate the group through flattery, interruptions, or demanding right-to-attention; embarks on long monologues; is over-positive and over-dogmatic; constantly tries to lead group even against group goals; is autocratic and monopolizing.2. Blocker: resistant, stubborn, negative, uncooperative, pessimistic, interferes with group progress by rejecting ideas and arguing unduly.3. Help-seeker: seeks sympathy; whines, expressing insecurity and personal confusions; depreciates self.4. Special interest-pleader: claims to speak for a special group but usually is seeking attention for self; name-drops to impress the group.5. Aggressor: attacks the group or the stature of its problems; deflates the status of others; may joke, express disapproval of values/acts/ feelings of others, or try to take credit for another member's contributions.6. Fun-expert: is not involved in the group and doesn't wish to be; may be cynical, aloof; often involved in horseplay; behaves childishly; distracts others, makes off-color remarks.7. Self-confessor: uses the group as audience for expressions of personal and emotional needs; is not oriented to the group.8. Avoider: withdraws from ideas, from group, from participation; is indifferent, aloof, and excessively formal; daydreams, doodles, whispers to others; wanders from the subject or talks about irrelevant personal experiences.9. Recognition seeker: exaggerated attempt to get attention by boasting or claiming long experience or great accomplishments; struggles against being placed in "inferior positions."
64Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics Strategies that a leader can use to bring about a positive change that will encourage the person to work more cooperatively with the group.DominatorBlockerHelp seekerSpecial interest pleaderAggressorFun expertSelf confessorAvoiderRecognition seeker
65Section A, Part 6: Group Dynamics 6.6 Select and lead a council group or committee through a group cooperation activity- Summarize the results, identifying the different group roles that were observed
66Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.1 Identify 6 common strategies to better manage your time. Tell which strategy works best for you and why.Identify your peak time. (morning, noon or night)Find ways to reduce interruptions.Make sure you feel well physically, emotionally, and mentally.Evaluate your current practice.Make a list of what you have to do, rate each one in priority.Create a daily schedule. Know when to say no.
67Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.2 Identify 10 strategies to improve personal organization1. Look at your normal time schedule and analyze it.2. Write down specific, attainable goals.3. Schedule blocks of time to make significant progress on the most important goals. Plan each day the night before. Think of ways you can reduce distractions.4. Use "To Do" lists daily, weekly, and long term. Rank your tasks in order of priority.5. Do one thing at a time and resist detours.
68Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 6. Plan for the unexpected! Don't schedule every minute of every day.7. Learn to say NO! (to the phone, salespeople, friends, TV, etc.)8. Un-clutter your life.9. Use sleeping time to let the subconscious work. Keep paper and pen by your bed to record ideas as soon as you wake.10. Delegate activities/assignments to associates and friends whenever possible. Ask people for help, and be sure to give them recognition for the work they do.11. Determine which things can appropriately be put off or ignored. (Set priorities.)12. Regularly ask yourself "What is the best use of my time right now?"
69Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.3 Identify the general signs of stressGeneral irritability, hyper-excitation, or depressionPounding of the heart (an indicator of high blood pressure, often due to stress)Dryness of the throat and mouthImpulsive behavior, emotional instabilityThe overpowering urge to cry or run and hideInability to concentrate, flight of thoughts, general disorientationFeelings of unreality, weakness, or dizzinessPredilection to become fatigued; loss of the joy of living
70Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization More signs of stress:"Floating anxiety"—being afraid but not knowing of whatEmotional tension and alertness—feeling of being "keyed up"Trembling, nervous ticsTendency to be startled easily by small sounds, etc.High pitched, nervous laughterStuttering and other speech difficulties, often stress-inducedGrinding of the teethInsomnia and/or nightmaresHypermotility—increased tendency to move around without any reason (are you kicking your foot right now?)
71Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization More signs of stress:Sweating—becomes obvious only under considerable stress but is readily detectable by biofeedback instrumentsThe frequent need to urinateDiarrhea, indigestion, queasiness in the stomach, sometimes even vomitingMigraine and/or tension headachesPain in the neck or lower backLoss of or excessive appetiteNeurotic behaviorIncreased use of controlled substances: prescribed drugs, alcohol and other drugs, increased smokingAccident proneness.
72Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.4 Explain 5 strategies that can be used to deal with stressLook for causes. Who or what is at the bottom of the stress?Anticipate stressful periods and plan for them. Try and reduce the number of events going on in your life.Do one thing at a time. Don't overwhelm yourself by fretting about your entire workload. Take each thing as it comes, and tell yourself you can handle it.Set realistic goals.Learn to pace yourself. You can't operate in high gear all the time.Exercise. Physical exercise can refresh you after heavy mental work.
73Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization Strategies to deal with stress.Learn how to play. Find an activity that you enjoy.Go with the flow. If you can't fight what's bothering you, and you can't flee from it, then just go with it.Create a quiet place. Take time to meditate, to pray, or to read a book.Develop a peer support system. Cultivate friendships with supportive people who have positive attitudes.Do something for others. Reaching out can get your mind off yourself, and make you feel good by making someone else feel good.Learn to accept yourself. It's okay not to be perfect. If you fail, don't concentrate on failure.
74Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization Strategies to deal with stress.Deliberately recall past successes. It helps self-esteem.Take care of yourself. Get enough sleep. Lack of rest just aggravates your stress problems. Maintain a proper diet.Avoid self-medication. Alcohol and drugs can mask stress symptoms, but they don't help deal with the problems. Don't escape into drinking and drugging.Don't sweat the small stuff. Not every argument is worth trying to win. Defend values that are important, but learn to ignore lesser issues. Don't take life so seriously. Remember, it's all small stuff.
75Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.5 Using the 10 strategies to improve personal organization, create a plan that incorporates at least three strategies. Use the plan for at least two weeks, then evaluate whether or not your plan helped. Summarize your observations and suggest what you need to do to improve your plan.
76Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.6 Create a personal calendar with a “To Do” of your activities covering at least 2 weeks. Explain how you used the calendar and evaluate to what extent it helped you organize your time.
77Section A, Part 7: Time Management & Personal Organization 7.7 Complete a Stress Test inventory; summarize your reaction to the results and explain how you will respond. The test must be included with your notebook as well as the summary.
78Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.1 Explain the 7 basic principles for meetings1. Be familiar with the constitution and by-laws and the concept of the group's activities as part of the total school curriculum.2. Review the purposes, goals, and objectives of your organization and the kinds of activities that may assist in accomplishing them.3. Be familiar with school policies and administration guidelines regarding student activities.4. Understand the relationship of your organization to other organizations in and outside of school.5. Have a basic handbook for all members of your organization that includes the above items as well as job descriptions, and to which agendas, minutes, and other special information may be added.6. Always follow a business procedure during meetings.7. Plan meetings cooperatively with the officers, members, and adviser.
79Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.1 Identify 5 characteristics of a good meetingThe purpose of the meeting is clearly communicated.Only items that can be handled in the time allowed for the meeting are on the agenda.Someone has agreed to be the recorder of ideas presented and decisions made and get copies of those notes to everyone after the meeting.No one person dominates the meeting. Everyone is encouraged to participate.Real issues are presented and are honestly handled.Only one issue or subject is handled at a time.A solution is not reached until the problem has been adequately discussed and analyzed.Decision-making procedures are clear ahead of time. (Will we take a majority vote? Will we reach consensus? etc.)The meeting leader shows no bias and is perceived as neutral.The meeting leader involves and encourages everyone to participate.All agreements made during the meeting are verified at the end of the meeting, such as chairs appointed, committees formed, etc. Pin down the “who, what, when, and where” on the spot.
80Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.2 Identify 10 strategies that leaders should use when facilitating a meeting; select five from that group and explain how each one is important to use during meetings1. Help all to view the process not as a debate, but a quest.2. Center upon real differences. Avoid arguments over technicalities.3. When general and abstract problems are proposed, ask for illustrations. Embody general issues in concrete cases. "Do you remember a specific instance?“4. Share with the group, at the beginning, a rough outline of the process, so they will feel that they know where they are going.
81Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Strategies that leaders should use when facilitating a meeting, continued.5. The responsibility to initiate discussion when there is none lies with the presider.6. Keep your eyes open to developments. Watch members and try to catch their non-verbal cues.7. Avoid tangles over words and definitions.8. Draw out shy people with friendly encouragement.9. Get brief statements, not speeches.10. The leader need not comment on every contribution.11. Summarize often. Orient and guide.
82Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Strategies that leaders should use when facilitating a meeting, continued.12. In summaries, bring together the areas upon which all in the group have agreed. Make it clear that no more discussion is needed on those points.13. Try to see leadership as a service function for the group, rather than as a characteristic of a "gifted individual.”14. Work for consensus rather than majority control.15. Trust the group. There is no person in it who is not superior to the rest in at least one respect.
83Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.3 Identify and explain key actions that meeting organizers should always doBefore a meeting –> Arrive early to inspect the room, and set up any materials or equipment> Develop an agenda and review with the adviser and other officers.> Share the agenda with meeting attendees, highlighting dates and times of the meeting> Appoint someone to take minutes if the council secretary will not be present
84Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.3 Identify and explain key actions that meeting organizers should always doDuring a meeting –> Start on time and stay on task> Keep time and stay with the time commitment for the meeting.> Clarify any points by rewording or repeating them.> At the end of each agenda item, check to see that each person who wanted to speak on that topic had the opportunity to do so.> Be aware of the climate of the group. Look for any verbal or non-verbal clues that will indicate how they are feeling towards a topic and each other during debates or discussions.> Use the last few minutes to valuate the meeting to determine if it accomplished what you wanted it to do and if resources were used effectively. Identify any items that need to carry over to another meeting.> End the meeting on time
85Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.3 Identify and explain key actions that meeting organizers should always doAfter a meeting –> Review the minutes for accuracy, identifying any items that will need to be included on the next meeting agenda. Review with your adviser, then prepare and distribute minutes to the meeting attendees> Evaluate the meeting to identify positives and negatives, demonstrations of good meeting skills and skills that need improvement. Also consider any issues that surfaced as significant topics of discussion that may lead to further consideration or a heightened awareness.
86Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.4 Identify the differences between main, subsidiary, and incidental motions and explain how each is correctly handled.Main motion- The main motion is the major proposal or suggestion for action. It is the only way to bring business before the group.Any member may make a motion after securing the floor and being recognized by the chairman. A motion is out of order if other business is on the floor. A second is needed. The motion is debatable, can be amended, and needs a majority to carry.
87Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Subsidiary Motion - The subsidiary motions in some way alter or change the disposition of the main motion. They are always acted upon before the main motion. Some of the motions are: postpone indefinitely- 2nd required, it is debatable, a majority vote is needed. amend motion- 2nd required, it is debatable, and can be amended, a majority vote is needed. substitute motion- same as an amendment. amend amendment- can’t amend it, only one amendment to each amendment. motion to refer - A second is required; it is debatable and amendable, and requires a majority vote.
88Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Continue of Subsidiary motions.postpone to set time- A second is required, it is debatable and amendable, and requires a majority vote.previous question- A second is needed; it is not debatable, but may be amended, and requires a two-thirds vote.table- A second is required; it is not debatable or amendable, and requires a majority vote.
89Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Incidental Motions - Incidental motions concern matters of procedure arising out of business and must be settled at once.Examples of Incidental motions are:1. Point of Order: It is in order at any time; member may interrupt speaker. The point of order is usually decided by the chair without discussion.2. Appeal from Decision of the Chair: Must be made immediately after decision and settled by vote. This motion requires a second, is debatable, and needs a majority vote. It is not amendable.3. Suspend the Rules: A second is required and it requires a two-thirds vote. It is not debatable or amendable.
90Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management Incidental Motions continued.4. Object: It is permissible to interrupt the speaker. A second is not required; it is not debatable, and a two-thirds negative vote is needed.5. Division of the House:. A second is not required; it is not amendable or debatable.6. Parliamentary Inquiry or Information: The chairman may refer the question to the parliamentarian, or answer it himself.7. Permission To Withdraw Motion: Presiding officer decides.8. Close Nominations: It must be seconded, but cannot be discussed. A two-thirds vote is needed.
91Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.5 Create and use an agenda for a committee or council meeting that is in the proper order and includes the basic meeting agenda parts. Report on its effectiveness during the meeting, any problems that developed from its use and how they were resolved, or any problems avoided by using your agenda.
92Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.6 Create a step-by-step diagram that tracks a motion from its introduction to a student council until it is acted upon, and explain the options that councils have in how they deal with the motionMotion is madeDebate motionMotion to amendVote on amendmentSomeone secondsAmendment passesSomeone secondsDebate on motionnoyesyesnoDebate main motion as amendedyesnoVote on motionDebate amendmentVote on Motion as amended
93Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.7 Demonstrate your ability to properly use parliamentary procedure and terminology to put forth a motion and carry out other business during a committee or council meeting. Include a copy of the meeting minutes showing your participation.
94Section A, Part 8: Meeting Management 8.8 Plan, organize and run a committee or council meeting, then summarize the experience highlighting pre-meeting preparations, purpose of the meeting, outcomes, and follow-up actions.
95Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.1 Identify the 4 common elements of communication, and explain their roles in the communication process>The sender is the person or group that originates the message to be transmitted.> The message is the information that is transmitted. Ideally, a message is simple, clear, and concise.> The medium is the form in which the message is transmitted: human voice, written word, non-verbal actions, telephone, newspaper, poster, etc.> The receiver is the person or group that hears or takes in the message.
96Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.2 List the 8 common influences on communication; select 5 and explain how they affect the way we communicatePast Experience: We tend to perceive a given situation in terms of what is familiar. We perceive what we see, hear, smell, etc., based on our past experiences with family members, teachers, friends, and other important figures in our lives.Social Influence: We may adjust our perceptions according to peer or social pressure.Cultural Influence: The cultural group of which you are a member influences your perceptions. This includes ethnic backgrounds and the cultural influence of a church, a school, or other group.Self-Concept: We tend to identify with those things that are consistent with our self-concepts, our mental image or picture of who we are.
97Section A, Part 9: Communication Physical Needs/Psychological Needs: How we feel physically affects how we perceive our immediate environment. If we are hungry, tired, have a bad day, hear some upsetting news, or see some unpleasant sight, we may perceive things differently than usual.Our Interests: What we care about has a way of capturing our attention and shaping our perceptions. Some people are interested in sports, others in music or government.Time: The time of day influences our perceptions. For instance, if you are a "morning person" you may hear or respond differently to a situation in the morning than you would at night.Values: What we value influences our perceptions and what we value we perceive as important. A value is something that is chosen and prized.
98Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.3 Explain five ways that students can become better listeners1. Self-Concept : The most important single factor affecting your communication with others is your self-concept--how you see yourself and your situation.2. Listening : Everyone needs information that can only be acquired by listening. Listening is much more than just hearing with your ears; it is an intellectual and emotional process that searches for meaning and understanding. Effective listening means both hearing and understanding the sender's message.3. Clarity: To communicate your meaning effectively, you must have a clear picture in your mind of what you are trying to express and be able to clarify and elaborate on it. It also helps to be receptive to feedback (how people respond to your message) and use it to further guide your communication efforts.
99Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.3 Explain five ways that students can become better listeners, continued…4. Coping with Anger: Inability to deal with anger frequently results in breakdown of communication. Some people handle their anger by suppressing it, fearing that others will respond in kind.5. Self-Disclosure: The ability to talk truthfully about yourself is basic to effective communication. You cannot really communicate with another person or group, or get to know them, unless there is self-disclosure on both sides. An effective communicator can create a climate of trust that encourages self-disclosure.
100Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.4 Identify 10 conditions that can block effective communications, select 5 to define and suggest strategies to address themStatus. Honest communication can break down because of the way individuals perceive persons in power.First Impression. Also called the halo effect, this is the problem created when we gauge what we expect from a person by the impression we first formed of him or her.Stereotyping. We group people into classes and roles we create and then find it difficult to adjust our thinking even when the facts prove us wrong.Projection. Sometimes people see their own inadequacies and paranoias in someone else (whether they exist for that person or not), instead of in themselves.Scapegoating. This means blaming another person or group.
101Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.4 Identify 10 conditions that can block effective communications, select 5 to define and suggest strategies to address them, continued…Semantics. Choosing positively or negatively charged words to convey your feelings in a seemingly objective manner can lead to misunderstandings.Preoccupation. If your mind wanders to another topic and you only half listen before responding effective communication is blocked.Hostility. Anger stemming from a previous situation or from one particular subject can color your thinking.Charisma. The charm of the sender affects how the message is received.Past Experiences. We prejudge situations according to what has happened to us in the past.Hidden Agenda. A person with a special interest only hears messages advancing that idea and rejects everything else without evaluation.
102Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.4 Identify 10 conditions that can block effective communications, select 5 to define and suggest strategies to address them, continued…Verbal Skill. You may dismiss the sender's message due to inarticulateness, not content.Environment. Physical conditions may hamper communication.Defensiveness. Insecurities may cause the receiver to distort questions into accusations, blocking the ability to really "hear."Time Pressures: Watching a clock is a distraction.Distortions. The receiver may misunderstand ideas in the message and/or the sender may not recognize feedback.Killer Phrases: Killer phrases are negative statements that tend to shut people down and make them reluctant to voice future ideas or participate in the group. They squelch good ideas, retard progress, and inhibit innovation
103Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.4 Identify 10 conditions that can block effective communications, select 5 to define and suggest strategies to address them, continued…What are strategies to address them?
104Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.5 Submit a letter or memo you created for use in your current or past council role to demonstrate your ability to communicate effectively in print Parts of a memo: To: From: Date: Re: Body (doesn’t include “dear”, or “signature”)
105Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.6 Submit a printout of an or short PowerPoint presentation you created for use in your current or past council role to demonstrate your ability to communicate effectively in electronic form. Please note that the powerpoint has to be about student council, same as the memo. You can make a memo and it to me:
106Section A, Part 9: Communication 9.7 & 9.8 Demonstrate your ability to effectively communicate orally during a council meeting or activity while speaking from a podium using proper stage and podium etiquetteYou will be graded on the following:Dresses appropriately for presentation, Is prepared – practiced and has organized notes, Finishes within allotted time, Speaks with acceptable volume and enunciation, Avoids filler words (uh, um, ah), Makes appropriate eye contact with audience, Maintains forward posture to the audience, Uses acceptable stance and body movements
107Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.1 Provide an explanation why it is important to evaluate eachPeople who hold leadership positionsGroups such as student councilsRules of governance such as bylaws- Activities and projects
108Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.2 Identify 10 evaluation methods or instruments and provide an example of how to apply each> Questionnaires> Progress reports> Observation forms and reports> Descriptive reports> Group discussions> School newspaper surveys> Suggestion boxes> Random telephone surveys> Comments from the community> Open meetings
109Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.3 Name 5 characteristics of good evaluation instruments> be constructive> be continuous> be directed toward action> be simple and uncomplicated> measure what it says it measures> be reliable and valid> contribute to purposes, thought, process of the group and school> record strengths and weaknesses for self and others> point toward future action
110Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.4 Identify what you believe is the best evaluation method or instrument for each of the following examples and explain why you selected each one:Your student council constitutionA recent council project or activityThe work of a committeeA student council officer
111Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.5 Using the 7 tips for planning evaluations, plan, perform, and report the results of an evaluation1. Decide what you want to evaluate.2. Decide how the evaluation results will be used.3. Decide when the evaluation should take place.4. Decide who will be involved in the evaluation.5. Decide what kinds of information need to be collected, what methods will be used to collect the information, and how the information will be analyzed.6. Decide how the findings of the evaluation will be reported and to whom.7. Decide what to do with the feedback from reviewers of the evaluation.
112Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.5 Using the 7 tips for planning evaluations, plan, perform, and report the results of an evaluation- Select the method of evaluation- Create the evaluation instrument- Prepare the evaluation report
113Section A, Part 10: Evaluation 10.6 Complete the Individual Leader Evaluation Form and summarize the results. Make sure to include the Evaluation form.
114Section B: ServiceB.1 Explain the role of service as it pertains to student leaders
115Section B: ServiceB.2 Explain Direct Service and Indirect Service, including any strengths or weaknesses of each. Which type of service (direct or indirect) do you feel is better for students to participate in and why?Direct Service activities place students in direct contact with people in need, creating rich interactions and immediate feedback from diverse populations.Indirect Service activities provide goods or products to a needy cause, without students having direct contact with the beneficiaries.
116Section B: ServiceB.3 Explain the difference between service and service learningService learning is a process that features four basic stages through which students’ progress: preparation stage, action stage, reflection, demonstration.- Identify the 4 key elements of service learning and explain what occurs during each one
117Section B: ServiceB.3 Identify the 4 key elements of service learning and explain what occurs during each one1. Preparation Stage. In this stage students take an active part in identifying needs, assessing their own group’s skills and talents, and developing plans that will be carried out in the next phase of the process.2. Action Stage, students respond to the call of service. They use their combined academic skills and knowledge as they become active community members. Most activities fall into one of the three action categories:> Indirect Service activities provide goods or products to a needy cause, without students having direct contact with the beneficiaries.> Direct Service activities place students in direct contact with people in need, creating rich interactions and immediate feedback from diverse populations.> Civic Action or Advocacy activities involve students in addressing the cause of a social issue, e.g., a voter registration or drug prevention campaign.
118Section B: ServiceB.3 Identify the 4 key elements of service learning and explain what occurs during each one, continued.3. Reflection. It is here that students explore their feelings about the service experience, and then integrate that into empathy for others and a deeper sense of personal and community values.4. Demonstration. In this stage, students take charge of their own learning-they process what they have accomplished, identify what they still need to know, and determine the next steps to be take in service to the community. Demonstration can take the form of a presentation, and article in the newspaper, or letters to community leaders.
119Section B: ServiceB.4 Research and create a list of 5 resources at the school (and district) and 5 in the community that can be contacted or utilized to assist with or support student council service projects - Summarize how each one could be used or what information it could provide
120Section B: ServiceB.5 Provide evidence of your active participation in two service projects within the last two years. This can be documentation through green chord or the community service organization.
121Section B: ServiceB.6 Using the 12 Ws of project planning, lead a committee or your council to plan and carry out a community service project.1. WHAT are you planning to do?2. WHY do you want to do this project?3. WHEN and WHERE will the activity take place?4. WHO will benefit from the project?5. WHAT staff members(s) will need to approve the project?6. WHAT funds are needed?7. WHEN will the basic planning be done?8. WHAT committees are necessary?9. WHAT kind of publicity is needed?10. WHO deserves a special thank you?11. WAS the project worthwhile?12. WHAT’S next? WHERE do we go from here?
122Section B: ServiceLead a committee or your council to plan and carry out a community service project.- Create a timeline for the project- Keep a daily/weekly journal the project from start to finish- Produce a summary that explains what need was identified, how the project would address the need, and the outcomes- Include a sample of a completed evaluation form used to evaluate the project
123Section C: Civic Engagement C.1 Explain what it means to be civically engaged and why it is important for students to be involved in civic-based activitiesCreating opportunities for ordinary citizens to come together and take action collectively to address public problems or issues that the citizens themselves define as important and in ways that citizens themselves decide are appropriate and needed.As young people become engaged civically, they acquire and learn to use the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will prepare them to be competent and responsible citizens throughout their lives.
124Section C: Civic Engagement C.2 Identify 4 goals of civic engagement• Are informed and thoughtful; have a grasp and an appreciation of history and the fundamental processes of American democracy; have an understanding and awareness of public and community issues;• Participate in their communities through membership in or contributions to organizations working to address an array of cultural, social, political, and religious interests and beliefs.• Act politically by having the skills, knowledge, and commitment needed to accomplish public purposes, such as group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting, and voting.• Have moral and civic virtues such as concern for the rights and welfare of others, social responsibility, tolerance and respect, and belief in the capacity to make a difference.
125Section C: Civic Engagement C.3 Explain the following types of civic engagement and identify 3 activities that illustrates each one:Interacting –• Working in small groups and committees,• Simply by Listening to gain information, ideas, and hear different perspectives.• Questioning to clarify information or points of view, and to elicit facts and opinions.• Discussing school and public affairs in a knowledgeable, responsible, and civil manner in school, with neighbors and friends, or in community groups and public forums.• Participate in voluntary clubs or associations and interest groups to promote ideas, policies, and interests.• Build coalitions that enlist the support of like-minded individuals and groups to promote candidates, policies.• Manage conflicts in school and out that seek to bring peaceful resolution.• Perform school and community service by serving as a representative or elected leader, organize a public issues forum (in or out of school), volunteer with one’s religious, civic, or charitable organizations.• Using media resources to obtain information, exchange ideas, or advocate responsibly for or against public policies.• Deliberating on public issues, e.g., health care, employment, environmental concerns.• Assessing others’ arguments and positions for their validity rather than because of who it is that utters them, remaining calm in the face of opposition.
126Section C: Civic Engagement Monitoring –• Listen attentively to fellow students, proceedings of public bodies, media reports.• Hold officials accountable for using their authority consistently, ethically, and with basic constitutional principles.• Follow school and public issues in the media by using a variety of sources, such as television, radio, online sources, newspapers, journals, and magazines.• Research school and public issues, using computer resources, libraries, the telephone, personal contacts, the media.• Gather and analyze information from school or government officials and agencies, interest groups, civic organizations.• Attending public meetings and hearings, e.g., student council, city council and school board meetings, briefings by members of county boards of supervisors, state legislatures, and Congress.• Interview people knowledgeable about civic issues, such as local officials, civil servants, experts in public and private associations, members of college and university faculties.• Using electronic resources for acquiring and exchanging information, e.g., the Internet and electronic bulletin boards.
127Section C: Civic Engagement Influencing –• Vote in class, student body, local, state, national, and special elections.• Inform policymakers by sharing factual data that you have gathered.• Lead a Petition calling attention of representative bodies (student councils, etc) or public officials to grievances and desired changes in public policy, gathering signatures for initiatives or recall.• Write letters or send s to policymakers to express opinion and share data on issues.• Speak and testify before public bodies such as student body councils, school boards, special districts, state legislatures, Congress.• Support or oppose candidates or positions on school and public issues by volunteering time or talent.• Participate in civic and political groups on campus or in the community - student council, youth groups, local, state, and national political party groups, and ad-hoc advocacy groups.• Use various media to advance points of view on school or public issues by hosting or participating in online discussions of public issues, writing newspaper and magazine articles, voicing one’s opinion on radio and television talk shows.
128Section C: Civic Engagement C.4 Identify 3 student council functions/activities that are civic-based and explain how.
129Section C: Civic Engagement C.5 Create a list of 3 community resources and 3 online sites that support civic engagement - Explain how the student council can utilize each one (that is a total of 6 resources)
130Section C: Civic Engagement C.7 Organize and lead a committee or the student council in a civic-based activity that engages members of the student body - Explain the activity and identify if it is Interacting, Monitoring, or Influencing - Keep a journal of the activity and prepare a short report of the outcomes
131Section D: My Leadership Philosophy D.1 Create a list of your leadership traits and identify the style of leadership that you most often use. The "telling" leader The "consulting" leader The "joining" leader The "delegating" leader
132Section D: My Leadership Philosophy D.2 In an essay of 750 to 1,000 words, discuss your personal philosophy about leadership. In your essay, cite examples of applying your leadership traits, skills and characteristics and what you have learned about yourself (as a leader) as you have worked through the NASC Student Leaders Program.