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Presentation on theme: "Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non-commercial – Share Alike 3.0 License."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non-commercial – Share Alike 3.0 License. Copyright © , Marshall van Alstyne & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason. You assume all responsibility for use and potential liability associated with any use of the material. Material contains copyrighted content, used in accordance with U.S. law. Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact with any questions, corrections, or clarifications regarding the use of content. The Regents of the University of Michigan do not license the use of third party content posted to this site unless such a license is specifically granted in connection with particular content. Users of content are responsible for their compliance with applicable law. Mention of specific products in this material solely represents the opinion of the speaker and does not represent an endorsement by the University of Michigan. For more information about how to cite these materials visit Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. You should speak to your physician or make an appointment to be seen if you have questions or concerns about this information or your medical condition. Viewer discretion is advised: Material may contain medical images that may be disturbing to some viewers.

2 SI 646 Information Economics Jeff MacKie-Mason

3 The economics of information goods

4

5 Source:

6 The economics of information goods will help you answer…

7 How can free information increase profits? Source:

8 How can free information increase profits? Source: iTunes Store

9 How should you package and sell information? Ann Arbor District Library Zoom Lends Program ($1 a book, 4 weeks) 3 blocks away from Borders Source:

10 How can strategic product design increase barriers to entry? Red Hat NextstepOS/2 Mac OS X Leopard BeOS Windows Vista

11 How can software agents learn about consumer preferences?

12 Neural network Amoeba Source: Undetermined

13 Adaptive pricing Source: Undetermined

14 Who cares?

15 Anyone interested in why information organizations are successful (or not)

16 Who cares about “personalized pricing”?

17 Do book authors care?

18 Do book publishers care?

19 Do book sellers care?

20 Do book readers care?

21 Does selling used books help or hurt… authors?publishers?sellers?readers?

22 iTunes pricing vs. rheostat?

23 Did Microsoft harm consumers by destroying Netscape?

24 Should Microsoft be forced to carry Java?

25 So… So…how many technical design decisions should gov’t make?

26 Schedule and course policies are on CTools CTools

27 Class Participation 20%Class Participation 20% Assignments 50%Assignments 50% Exam 30%Exam 30% Grading

28 Class participation All readings in advance Mixture of lecture and discussion I’ll cold call unless there is active participation by all I’ll cold call unless there is active participation by all I’m looking for regular participation, but also regular participation, but also quality (thoughtful comments or questions) quality (thoughtful comments or questions)

29 Assignments Two: due dates on schedule due dates on schedule available about two weeks in advance available about two weeks in advance Mixture of short essay applications and problem solving Hard and long: get started early Working in groups encouraged, but all written submissions must be your own

30 Exams One in-class Mixture of multiple choice, short answer, problem solving

31 Student evaluations conclude: Difficulty…HIGH Value…

32 Past Students Have Joined Scient Corporation before the IPO Joined think tanks such as the Aspen Institute Published their term paper in Management Science Presented research started here at professional conferences Launched companies (e.g. Boxbe, funded last week for $1.7 million) Earned starting salaries way above those of their professors Gone on to be doctoral studies

33

34 For economic problems, what is information?

35 Hayek (1945): What is info?

36 Fundamental economic problem: how can a group utilize relevant information not held by any individual in its totality?

37 A: Assign central authority to make allocation decisions?

38 A: Constitute loosely-linked distributed teams to coordinate?

39 A: Organize market of individual agents?

40 Hayek: The “market” allocates efficiently, not because all information is given to any one mind but because “limited fields of vision sufficiently overlap”

41 Market efficiency requires: The marginal rates of substitution between two goods must be the same in all their different uses Achieved by prices: prices are critical economic information!

42 Prices as information: What do we need to know to make good decisions?

43 Hayek: Critique?

44 Hirshleifer (1973): Beliefs are probability distributions over states of nature

45 “Ann Arbor is in Michigan” μ=1, σ=0

46 Info is an event that changes beliefs

47 “Our best guess is that we will have 100 patrons” μ=100, σ=20

48 “New marketing study makes us much more confident that we should expect 120 patrons” μ=100, σ=20 μ=120, σ=12

49 Economics of uncertainty is passive (the belief state)

50 Economics of info is active (info is change in beliefs

51 Info-involved actions Info possessor Info seeker 1. Own use 1. Production (research, creation) 2. Sale 2. Purchase (“pull”) 3. Gratuitous dissemination (“push”) 3. Monitoring (attention) 4. Deception – authentication 4. Evaluation

52 Is higher demand for information always good for society?

53 What types of information are demanded?

54 Should we expect law of one price to usually hold?

55 Hirshleifer: Critique?

56 Stiglitz (2000): What is info?

57 characteristics

58 behavior

59 Stiglitz: Information is different

60 People want to know about characteristics to make selections

61 Actions, at best, are imperfectly observed

62 Stiglitz: Critique?

63 Shapiro and Varian apply the old economic principles to new digital information questions

64 "You must price your information goods according to consumer value, not according to your production cost." (SV p. 3) Source: Shapiro, C. and H. Varian (1998). Information Rules (Harvard Business School Press). 3.

65 "When managing intellectual property, your goal should be to choose the terms and conditions that maximize the value of your intellectual property, not the terms and conditions that maximize the protection." (SV p. 5) Source: Shapiro, C. and H. Varian (1998). Information Rules (Harvard Business School Press). 5.

66 "Information is an experience good every time it's consumed. How do you know whether today's Wall Street Journal is worth 75 cents until you've read it? Answer: you don't.“ Source: Shapiro, C. and H. Varian (1998). Information Rules (Harvard Business School Press). Ch 1.

67 "The real value produced by an information provider comes in locating, filtering, and communicating what is useful to the consumer." (SV p. 6) Source: Shapiro, C. and H. Varian (1998). Information Rules (Harvard Business School Press). 6.

68 Why are you here?

69 Information economics is important for anyone who cares whether and why organizations are successful (or not)

70 Information economics is important for anyone who cares how much and what quality of information is produced

71 Studying information economics will prepare you for every professional career


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