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Communicating in Small Groups & Teams AGUNG PRAPTAPA UNSOED 2011 SESSION 2 Based on Guffey, Mary Ellen, K. Rodhes and P.Rogin, 2005, Business Communication:

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Presentation on theme: "Communicating in Small Groups & Teams AGUNG PRAPTAPA UNSOED 2011 SESSION 2 Based on Guffey, Mary Ellen, K. Rodhes and P.Rogin, 2005, Business Communication:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicating in Small Groups & Teams AGUNG PRAPTAPA UNSOED 2011 SESSION 2 Based on Guffey, Mary Ellen, K. Rodhes and P.Rogin, 2005, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4 th Canadian Edition, Thomson Nelson.

2 Why groups and teams are formed better decisions respond faster increase productivity achieve greater buy-in reduce resistance to change improve employee morale, reduced risk for individuals.

3 Why teams are rejected: In this case, individual works may be better then team work, so team work will: Slowed Decision Shielded workers from responsibility Reduced productivity

4 Group & Team GroupTeam A group is a collection of three or more individuals who perceive themselves as a group but who may complete their tasks independently. A team is a group that interacts over time to achieve a purpose.

5 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Best Business Use SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Most useful to solve problems that require people with various skill sets working together Most useful to solve problems in which time is of the essence and the leader already knows how to proceed

6 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Leadership SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Shifts to member best suited to lead task Formally assigned to one person, usually the senior member

7 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Goals and Agenda SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Set by group, based on dialogue about purpose Set by leader, often in consultation with sponsoring executive

8 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Conflict SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Recognized as constructive Avoided by members

9 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Work Style SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Determined by members Determined by leader

10 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Success SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Defined by members’ aspiration Defined by leaders’ aspirations

11 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Speed and Efficiency SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Low until group learns to function as a team; afterward, as fast as a singgle-leader group Higher at first because members need no time to develop commitment or to learn to work as a team

12 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: End Products SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Best produced by collective group working together Best produced by individuals accountable for their output.

13 Self –Directed Teams vs Single-Leader Work Group: Accountability SELF-DIRECTED TEAM SINGLE-LEADER WORK GROUP Set by team who hold one another mutually accountable Set by leader who holds individuals accountable for their output

14 Self Directed Team Businesses are increasingly turning to self-directed teams, which are characterized by: clearly stated goals, autonomy, decision-making authority, frequent communication and ongoing training.

15 Four Stage of Team Development 1. Forming stage: they get to know each other and discuss general topics. 2. Storming: they define their roles, goals, and governing procedures. Tempers may flare as conflict erupts. 3. Norming stage: in which tension subsides, roles clarify, and information begins to flow. 4. Performing stage: teams develop loyalty and progress toward their goals.

16 Roles Played by Team Members TASK ROLES Initiator Information seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Direction giver Summarizer Energizer Gatekeeper Reality tester

17 Class Assignment 1: What kinds of statements might be made by these role players?: Initiator Information seeker/giver Opinion seeker/giver Direction giver Summarizer Energizer Gatekeeper Reality tester

18 Roles Played by Team Members GROUP RELATIONSHIP ROLE Participation encourager Harmonizer/tension reliever Evaluator of emotional climate Praise giver Empathic listener

19 Class Assignment 2: What kinds of statements might be made by these role players?: Participation encourager Harmonizer/tension reliever Evaluator of emotional climate Praise giver Empathic listener

20 Dysfunctional roles Blocker Attacker Recognition-seeker Joker Withdrawer

21 Class Assignment 3: What kinds of statements might be made by these role players?: Blocker Attacker Recognition-seeker Joker Withdrawer

22 Skills for Team Leaders: Task Relationships Goal setting Agenda making Clarifying Summarizing Verbalizing consensus Establishing work patterns Following procedures

23 Skills for Team Leaders: Interpersonal Relationships Regulating participation Maintaining positive climate Maintaining mutual respect Instigating group self-analysis Resolving conflict Instigating conflict

24 Dealing with conflict Conflict that centres on issues can generate new ideas and help the group progress toward consensus. Open discussion of conflict prevents groupthink, a condition that leads to faulty decisions.

25 Methods for Reaching Group Decisions Majority Consensus Minority Averaging Authority rule with discussion

26 Class Assignment 4: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Majority Consensus Minority Averaging Authority rule with discussion

27 Conflict Cognitive Conflict Centers on issues and is considered healthy and functional Affective Conflict Centers on feelings and personalities and is considered disruptive

28 Groupthink The team members agree without examining alternatives or considering contingency plans Without conflict and free discussions, teams may fall victim to groupthink.

29 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 29 Strategies for Effective Conflict Resolution 1. When attacked, negotiate rather than escalate. Separate the issue from the person. Act as if the other side does not want to harm you personally. 2. Use the third person. Avoid “you” and “I” statements. Not: You never come prepared, and I’m sick of it. But: It’s hard to discuss this without all the facts.

30 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 30 Strategies for Effective Conflict Resolution 3. Work to maintain a calm tone of voice. Stay away from provocative verbal emphasis. Not: It’s HARD to discuss this without ALL the facts. 4. Practice compassionate, helpful feedback. Focus on behaviors, not attitudes. Talk about things that can be changed. Not: Stop being aggressive! But: It would be easier to respond if you lowered your voice.

31 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 31 Strategies for Effective Conflict Resolution 5. Avoid sending threatening signals. Don’t engage in sustained eye contact. Keep hand gestures to a minimum. 6. Don’t use “First Strike” language. You always... or If you really... or Try to understand When provoked, try a listening check. Calmly and respectfully restate both sides of the argument. Take time to walk around the topic–and cool off.

32 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 32 Strategies for Effective Conflict Resolution 8. Clear the air. If you’re on a team with someone who seems consistently irritated with you, ask for a private meeting. Solicit feedback; listen without interrupting and with an open mind. Request permission to respond with equal openness.

33 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 33 Planning and Participating in Meetings Before the meeting Consider alternatives. Is a meeting necessary? Invite the right people. Include... those who have information. those who can make decisions. those who must implement decisions. Distribute an agenda.

34 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 34 Planning and Participating in Meetings During the Meeting Start on time and introduce the agenda. Appoint a secretary and a recorder. Encourage balanced participation. Confront conflict frankly. Summarize points of consensus along the way.

35 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 4e Ch. 2, Slide 35 Planning and Participating in Meetings Ending the Meeting and Following Up Review meeting decisions. Distribute minutes of meeting. Remind people of action items.

36 Characteristics of successful teams small and diverse; that is, they are made up of people representing different age, genders, and backgrounds. Successful teams agree on their purpose and procedures. They are able to channel conflict into constructive discussion and reach consensus. They accept their ethical responsibilities, encourage open communication, listen actively, provide feedback, and have fun. Members are able to collaborate rather than compete and leadership is often a shared responsibility depending on the situation and expertise required.

37 Techniques for organizing team-based written and oral presentations limit their size, name a meeting leader decide whether they wish to make decisions by consensus, majority rule, or some other method. They should work out their schedules, discuss the value of conflict, and decide how to deal with team members who do not do their share. They should decide on the purpose, form and procedures for preparing the final document or presentation. They must brainstorm for ideas, assign topics, establish deadlines, and discuss how to ensure information accuracy. In composing the first draft of a report or presentation, they should use the same software and meet to discuss drafts and rehearsals. For written reports one person should probably compose the final draft, and the group should evaluate it. For group presentations they need to work for consistency of design, format, and vocabulary. At least five rehearsals, one of which should be videotape, will enhance the final presentation.

38 To plan and participate in productive meetings. Call a meeting only when urgent two-way communication is necessary. Limit participants to those directly involved. Distribute an agenda in advance, start the meeting on time, and keep the discussion on track. Confront conflict openly by letting each person present her or his views fully before having the group decide which direction to take. Summarize what was said and end the meeting on time. Follow up by distributing minutes of the meeting and verifying that action items are being accomplished.

39 Groupware Groupware is software that helps groups exchange information, collaborate in project management, facilitate meetings, and support decision making. Group decision support software automates traditional meeting functions, such as brainstorming, capturing feedback, analyzing voting results, and creating reports including meeting minutes.

40 Ch. 2, Slide 40 End of the Session Thank you Agung Praptapa


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