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The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present By John R. Root With Contributions from Dr. Leo Soderholm.

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Presentation on theme: "The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present By John R. Root With Contributions from Dr. Leo Soderholm."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present By John R. Root With Contributions from Dr. Leo Soderholm

2 P = DSV 3

3 P = Power D = Air Density Varies from summer to winter. More power (Dense) in the winter S = Sweep Area of Rotor Doubling the sweep area has the effect of increasing the total power in the wind stream by a factor of Four V 3 = Velocity cubed -- Importance of Sighting If the wind speed Doubles, Wind Power grows eight fold; If the wind speed Triples, Wind Power grows twenty-seven fold.

4 Rule of thumb: #1 There is 1/7 more wind at 100 feet than at ground level Which equates to 3/7 more wind power at 100 feet Height of tower 2 nd major factor in wind power

5 Types of Wind Machines Horizontal Axis –Downwind Upwind Vertical Axis

6 Push vs. Lift Horizontal Axis Lift Vertical Axis Push machine

7 200 BC Persian Mills Vertical Axis First record of Wind Machine

8 100 AD Heron of Alexandria Organ run by Wind Power

9 England 11 th Century Post Mill

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15 Whip Mill Hazerswoude Holland

16 Capmill -- Holland 1600’s

17 Capmill diagram

18 Angle of Attack of Wind on Mill

19 Windmill Near Kouderkerk Old and New

20 Capmill Wind Farm

21 SAILSAIL PORTUGESEPORTUGESE

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23 1802 Muhle “Gott mit uns”

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27 Tower Mill 1632 Chesterton Windmill Built for Sir Edward Peyto Cromwellian Gov. and Defender of Warwick Castle

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29 1803 Upminster Windmill Corn Mill of Smock Construction

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31 First Recorded Windmills in the United states were in Jamestown Virginia in the 1620’s and were used for grinding flour

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33 Old World designs didn’t work in the New World..

34 w D i d n ’t H o l d - U p WoodenTowersWoodenTowers

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36 1854 Halladay Mill First Commercially Successful Self Governing Windmill Small Scale water pumping systems were perfected starting with the Halladay windmill

37 Wind mills ProvidedwaterforProvidedwaterfor WIND MILLSWIND MILLS SteamEngInesSteamEngInes

38 Thomas O. Perry Conducted over 5000 tests on 61 Wheels 87% M o r e E f I c I e n t ThanPrevIousMachInesThanPrevIousMachInes 1904 Established Manufacturing plant in Chicago, continues to today.

39 With out the American Wind Mill the Midwest would not have been settled. There were over 2,000,000 Wind Mills on the Great Plains.

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42 First Wind Turbine Inventor -- Charles F. Brush Cleveland Ohio 144 Cedar Blades First Windmill with step-up gear box to run DC Generator

43 Manufactures of Wind Generators 1900 to 1960 IOWA Air Electric –Jewell, IA Parris Dunn –Clarinda, IA Wind Power –Neuton, IA Wind Charger –Sioux City, IA The rest of the world Aeromotor - Chicago HEBCO Jacobs - Minn. Minn.

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51 1932 Wind Charger Made in Sioux City Iowa

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55 1941 Smith Putnam 1250 KW Supplied critical power to grid for several months when it was most needed during WWW 1 First large scale Wind Turbine Experiment

56 1956 Gedser Mill Up-Wind Machine Built by J. JUUL first student of Paul LaCour 1904

57 American Small Wind Turbines Manufactured After The Oil Embargo of 1973 Jacobs WindCharger Wind Power Kedco DunLite Cape Codder(vawt) Mahrkam 10 KW Whirl Wind World Power Kansas Wind Power Air 303 Wind Titan Bergy Wind Seeker Whisper

58 SavoniusSavonius D RotorRotor

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63 Win Power 1800 watt, 32 volt, 12' diameter, down wind design-blades act as a tail. Band brake for shut off. Blades feather in high winds. Flyball Governor activates with RPM and wind pressure against the blades. Winco

64 Kedco

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71 COULSONCOULSON ROLANDROLAND

72 COULSONCOULSON OSTERBERGOSTERBERG JAN 1883JAN 1883

73 History behind the Whisper H40 In the late 1970’s Elliott Bayly invented the Whirlwind Unfortunately The Whirlwind design was not successful Elliott made a second attempt at building wind turbines and started World Power Technologies in the mid 80’s. In the 90’s SouthWest Wind Power bought out World Power and have been improving the design ever since We all owe Southwest wind power a vote of thanks for preserving the small wind- turbine industry

74 Bergey Return of the Direct Drive Wind Turbine

75 Bergy Excel 10 KW Bergy has also made a major contribution to the small wind-turbine industry.

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77 Wind Seeker discontinued 2003

78 Air 303, 403 & Air X Weight 12 Pounds

79 Single Blade Turbines

80 MODOOAMODOOA CLAYTONNMCLAYTONNM MAY1978MAY1978

81 WTS-44MWWTS-44MW Medicine Bow USAMedicine Bow USA Two Blade Turbines

82 N a s u d d e n II Sweden SwedenSweden 3 MW

83 Germany1984Germany1984

84 Large Two Bladed Wind Turbines

85 GUMMANDGUMMAND WINDSTREAMWINDSTREAM

86 Masnedo 750 KW Denmark Large three bladed Wind Turbines

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88 Tjaeregorg Esbjerg Denmark

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90 Tvind -- Denmark

91 Elkraft 1 MWElkraft 1 MW CopenhagenCopenhagen

92 WindEnergy GroupWindEnergy Group WALESWALES

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94 American Wind Farms in the 80’s

95 European Wind Farm

96 Wind Farms 1985 to present

97 IOWAAIOWAA SPIRITLAKESPIRITLAKE

98 Facts About Iowa’s Wind Farms Turbines Rotor Dia. 50 Meters Tower Height 165 Ft. Zero Emissions 200People employed 6 Mo. 40 People on sight fulltime Powers 66,204 Homes = 382,094 Tons of Coal $ That stay in Iowa $6.2 Mil Yr. Reduced Emissions C Billion Tons SO X 5.9 Mil. lb. NO X 2.8 Mil. lb. Mercury 44 lb. Community Profits: $2,000 per Turbine = $640,000 per year to the community. Wind Farm pays $2,000,000 per year in local Taxes

99 2002 General Electric gets into the Wind Business

100 GE has expanded into one of the fastest-growing segments of the global energy industry with the addition of its new wind energy business. Last year, a record 6,500 megawatts of new wind power generating capacity, enough to provide electricity to roughly 1.5 million homes, were added worldwide.

101 Photovoltaics Can Complement Wind Electricity Source: Simulation in Waterloo Location by Iowa Energy Center

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103 Photovoltaics Can Complement Wind Electricity

104 Cost of Electricity from Oct to Aug. of 2000 as listed on the New York Mercantile Exchange (Sold in 736 Megawatt units)

105 Contribution from Jay Yaeger of Southwest Windpower

106 Iowa Energy Center Grants Energy Bank Loan Alternative Energy Revolving Loan Program Net Metering Iowa-Specific Resources

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108 The Miller Upon that gentle rising ground, Far off you see my mill go round; Swift fly from wind so loud and rude The shafts, pursuing and pursued Jack of All Trades, 1829


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