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The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present

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Presentation on theme: "The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Pictorial History of Wind Mills & Wind Turbines 200 AD to Present
By John R. Root With Contributions from Dr. Leo Soderholm

2 P = DSV3

3 P = DSV3 P = Power D = Air Density S = Sweep Area of Rotor
Varies from summer to winter. More power (Dense) in the winter S = Sweep Area of Rotor Doubling the sweep area has the effect of increasing the total power in the wind stream by a factor of Four V3 = Velocity cubed -- Importance of Sighting If the wind speed Doubles, Wind Power grows eight fold; If the wind speed Triples, Wind Power grows twenty-seven fold.

4 Height of tower 2nd major factor in wind power
Rule of thumb: #1 There is 1/7 more wind at 100 feet than at ground level Which equates to 3/7 more wind power at feet

5 Types of Wind Machines Horizontal Axis Downwind Upwind Vertical Axis

6 Push vs. Lift Vertical Axis Push machine Horizontal Axis Lift

7 Vertical Axis First record of Wind Machine
200 BC Persian Mills Vertical Axis First record of Wind Machine

8 Heron of Alexandria Organ run by Wind Power
100 AD Heron of Alexandria Organ run by Wind Power

9 England 11th Century Post Mill

10 Post Mill

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15 Whip Mill Hazerswoude Holland

16 Capmill -- Holland 1600’s

17 Capmill diagram

18 Angle of Attack of Wind on Mill

19 Windmill Near Kouderkerk
Old and New

20 Capmill Wind Farm

21 PORTUGE S E S A I L

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23 1802 Muhle “Gott mit uns”

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27 Tower Mill 1632 Chesterton Windmill
Built for Sir Edward Peyto Cromwellian Gov. and Defender of Warwick Castle

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29 Corn Mill of Smock Construction
1803 Upminster Windmill Corn Mill of Smock Construction

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31 First Recorded Windmills in the United states were in Jamestown Virginia in the 1620’s and were used for grinding flour

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33 Old World designs didn’t work in the New World. .

34 w Didn’t Hold -Up Wooden Towers

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36 First Commercially Successful Self Governing Windmill
1854 Halladay Mill First Commercially Successful Self Governing Windmill Small Scale water pumping systems were perfected starting with the Halladay windmill

37 Windmills Provided water for WIND M ILLS S t eam Eng I nes

38 1883 -- Thomas O. Perry Conducted over 5000 tests on 61 Wheels
I o u s M c 87% M o r e E f I c n t 1904 Established Manufacturing plant in Chicago, continues to today.

39 There were over 2,000,000 Wind Mills on the Great Plains.
With out the American Wind Mill the Midwest would not have been settled.

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42 Inventor -- Charles F. Brush Cleveland Ohio
First Wind Turbine 144 Cedar Blades First Windmill with step-up gear box to run DC Generator Inventor -- Charles F. Brush Cleveland Ohio

43 Manufactures of Wind Generators 1900 to 1960
IOWA Air Electric Jewell, IA Parris Dunn Clarinda, IA Wind Power Neuton, IA Wind Charger Sioux City, IA The rest of the world Aeromotor - Chicago HEBCO Jacobs - Minn. Minn.

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51 Wind Charger Made in Sioux City Iowa

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55 First large scale Wind Turbine Experiment
1941 Smith Putnam 1250 KW Supplied critical power to grid for several months when it was most needed during WWW 1 First large scale Wind Turbine Experiment

56 1956 Gedser Mill Up-Wind Machine
Built by J. JUUL first student of Paul LaCour 1904

57 American Small Wind Turbines Manufactured After The Oil Embargo of 1973
Jacobs WindCharger Wind Power Kedco DunLite Cape Codder(vawt) Mahrkam 10 KW Whirl Wind World Power Kansas Wind Power Air 303 Wind Titan Bergy Wind Seeker Whisper

58 Savonius D Ro t or

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63 Winco 1800 watt, 32 volt, 12' diameter, down wind design-blades act as a tail. Band brake for shut off. Blades feather in high winds. Flyball Governor activates with RPM and wind pressure against the blades. Win Power

64 Kedco

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71 COULSON ROLAND

72 JAN 1883 COULSON OSTERBERG

73 History behind the Whisper H40
In the late 1970’s Elliott Bayly invented the Whirlwind Unfortunately The Whirlwind design was not successful Elliott made a second attempt at building wind turbines and started World Power Technologies in the mid 80’s. In the 90’s SouthWest Wind Power bought out World Power and have been improving the design ever since We all owe Southwest wind power a vote of thanks for preserving the small wind-turbine industry

74 Return of the Direct Drive Wind Turbine
Bergey Return of the Direct Drive Wind Turbine

75 Bergy Excel 10 KW Bergy has also made a major contribution to the small wind-turbine industry.

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77 Wind Seeker discontinued 2003

78 Air 303, 403 & Air X Weight Pounds

79 Single Blade Turbines

80 MOD OOA CLAYTON NM MAY 1978

81 WTS - 4 4 MW Two Blade Turbines
Medicine Bow USA Two Blade Turbines

82 Nasudden II Sweden Sweden 3 MW

83 Germany 1984 3 MW

84 Large Two Bladed Wind Turbines

85 GUMMAND WIND STREAM

86 Large three bladed Wind Turbines
Masnedo 750 KW Denmark

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88 Tjaeregorg Esbjerg Denmark

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90 Tvind -- Denmark

91 Elkraft 1 MW Copenhagen

92 Wind Energy Group WALES

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94 American Wind Farms in the 80’s

95 European Wind Farm

96 Wind Farms 1985 to present

97 I OW AA SPIRIT LAKE

98 Facts About Iowa’s Wind Farms 2002
354 Turbines Rotor Dia. 50 Meters Tower Height 165 Ft. Zero Emissions People employed 6 Mo. 40 People on sight fulltime Powers 66,204 Homes = 382,094 Tons of Coal $ That stay in Iowa $6.2 Mil Yr. Reduced Emissions C Billion Tons SOX Mil. lb. NOX Mil. lb. Mercury lb. Community Profits: $2,000 per Turbine = $640,000 per year to the community. Wind Farm pays $2,000,000 per year in local Taxes

99 2002 General Electric gets into the Wind Business
                     2002 General Electric gets into the Wind Business

100 GE has expanded into one of the fastest-growing segments of the global energy industry with the addition of its new wind energy business. Last year, a record 6,500 megawatts of new wind power generating capacity, enough to provide electricity to roughly 1.5 million homes, were added worldwide.

101 Photovoltaics Can Complement Wind Electricity
Source: Simulation in Waterloo Location by Iowa Energy Center

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103 Photovoltaics Can Complement Wind Electricity

104 Cost of Electricity from Oct. 1999 to Aug
Cost of Electricity from Oct to Aug. of as listed on the New York Mercantile Exchange (Sold in 736 Megawatt units)

105 Contribution from Jay Yaeger of Southwest Windpower

106 Iowa-Specific Resources
Iowa Energy Center Grants Energy Bank Loan Alternative Energy Revolving Loan Program Net Metering

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108 The Miller Upon that gentle rising ground, Far off you see my mill go round; Swift fly from wind so loud and rude The shafts, pursuing and pursued Jack of All Trades, 1829


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