2The Executive Branch and the Federal Bureaucracy A set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her dutiesBureaucracies may be private organizations of government.
4Origins and Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy 1789 only three departments under the Articles of ConfederationForeign Affairs, War, and TreasuryWashington inherited these.Head of each called a “secretary”Foreign Affairs renamed Department of State1816 to 1861 size increased and demands increasedPost Office expanded as country grewMajor source of jobs (spoils system/patronage)
5Civil War and the Growth of Government Civil War spawned need for new government agencies.Department of Agriculture (1862)Not given Cabinet-level status until 1889Pension Office (1866)Department of Justice (1870)Spoils systemThe firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of the newly elected partyPatronageJobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
6From the Spoils System to the Merit System Garfield’s presidencyBesieged by office-seekers (patronage seekers)Wished to reform the systemIrony: assassinated by a frustrated job seekerReaction to Garfield’s death and increasing criticism of the spoils system was the Civil Service Reform Act in 1883Also called the Pendleton ActReform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit systemThe act classified the federal service by grades to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination.It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.Civil service system operated to 1978New version is the merit system
7Regulating the Economy Growth of big business, price fixing, and other unfair business practices after the Civil War stimulated Congress to create the Interstate Commerce CommissionFirst independent regulatory commissionAn agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economyTheodore RooseveltDepartment of Commerce and LaborWoodrow WilsonDivided it into two separate departmentsEncouraged Congress to create the Federal Trade Commission16th Amendment
8Growth of Government in the 20th Century Franklin RooseveltGreat DepressionFDR created hundreds of new government agencies to regulate business practices and various other areas of the national economy.WWIIAffected the economyManufacturing of goods related to the warTax rates increased and never fell againAfter the warDemands for services/new money infusion=more governmentCivil Rights MovementWar on Poverty
9The Modern Bureaucracy Who Are Bureaucrats2.7 million federal workers1/3 in the U.S. Postal ServiceTests usually for entry-level positionsMid-level to upper ranges of federal positions do not normally require tests.10 percent of federal workforce not covered by civil service.Appointive policy-making positions (cabinet secretaries, for example)- Schedule CIndependent Regulatory Commissioners (appointed by the president)Low-level, non-policy patronage positionsSecretarial assistants to policy makers, for exampleMany located in Washington, D.C., but many are spread out throughout the country (decentralized)Graying of the federal workforceHiring of outside contractors
13Formal Organization Cabinet Departments Independent Executive Agencies Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operationsIndicates a permanent national interestGovernment CorporationsBusinesses established by Congress that perform functions that could be provided by private businessesExample: Amtrak, Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationIndependent Executive AgenciesGovernmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have a narrower area of responsibility and are not part of any Cabinet DepartmentExample: Central Intelligence AgencyIndependent Regulatory CommissionsAgencies created by Congress to exist outside the major departments to regulate a specific economic activity or interestExample: Federal Reserve Board
15Government Workers and Political Involvement Hatch ActLaw enacted in 1939 to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaignsCould not make political contributions, work for a political party or campaign for a particular candidateFederal Employees Political Activities Act1993 liberalization of the Hatch ActAllowed federal employees to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections
20How the Bureaucracy Works ImplementationThe process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracyIron trianglesRelatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommitteesIssue networksThe loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areaInteragency Councils: working groups that bring together representatives of several departments and agencies to facilitate the coordination of policy making and implementationIncreasing complexity of policy domainsInteragency councils
21Making Policy Administrative discretion Rule making The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentionsRule makingA quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative actRegulationsRules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law1946 Administrative Procedures ActPublic notice of time, place and nature of rule-making proceedings provided in the Federal RegisterSubmission of written argumentsStatutory purpose and basis of rule to be statedOnce rule is written, 30 days must elapse before it takes effect.
23Making Policy Administrative adjudication A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes
24Making Agencies Accountable Executive ControlAppointmentsExecutive ordersRules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of lawCongressional ControlConstitutional powersPower of the purseGeneral Accounting Office, Congressional Research Service, and Congressional Budget OfficeJudicial Control