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+ Sensation Seeking Kristen Cushman. + Overview Sensation seeking Description & Measurement Relation to other personality characteristics Big 5 & Eysenck’s.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Sensation Seeking Kristen Cushman. + Overview Sensation seeking Description & Measurement Relation to other personality characteristics Big 5 & Eysenck’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Sensation Seeking Kristen Cushman

2 + Overview Sensation seeking Description & Measurement Relation to other personality characteristics Big 5 & Eysenck’s PEN Occupations, habits, hobbies related to SS Factors that affect SS Problems with measures of SS scales

3 + Sensation Seeking Definition coined by Zuckerman Multifaceted personality trait Seeking varied, novel, complex & intense sensations/experiences Willing to take physical, social, legal & financial risks for sake of such experience

4 + Measuring Sensation Seeking Self-report questionnaires Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, & Sensation Seeking (UPPS) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) Eysenck Impulsiveness Scale (EIS) Behavioral Constraint factor of Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire

5 + Measuring Sensation Seeking Self-report questionnaires Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) 14 different forms Many language translations SSS-V Four subscales Thrill & Adventure Seeking (TAS) Experience Seeking (ES) Disinhibition (DIS) Boredom Susceptibility (BS)

6 + Measuring Sensation Seeking Self-report questionnaires Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire Sociability Neuroticism-Anxiety Impulsive Sensation Seeking Aggression Hostility Activity

7 + Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire I like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if they are a little frightening I like doing things just for the thrill of it I enjoy getting into new situations where you can’t predict how things will turn out I would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned or definite routes or timetables I tend to begin a new job without much advance planning on how I will do it

8 + Genetic Biological Social Psychophysiological Behaviors Attitudes Preferences Sensation Seeking Model

9 + Sensation Seeking Behaviors Behaviors that elicit increased amounts of stimulation Pursuing stimulating jobs, using drugs, driving recklessly Involve seeking out arousal Associated risk Risk taking, however, is not primary motive in behavior

10 + Behavior, Activities & Attitudes Occupational choice Recreation Lifestyle choices Sports Social Interactions

11 + Relation to Big 5 Positive correlations SSS-V & Openness to Experience (r =.45) of NEO-PI-R Overall & each subscale (especially ES) Negative correlations SSS-V Disinhibition & Agreeableness (r = -.40) SSS-V Boredom Susceptibility & Agreeableness (r = -.048)

12 + Relation to Eysenck’s PEN Psychoticism scale of EPQ relates to experience-seeking scores of SSS-V Extraversion scale of EPQ relates to Thrill & Adventure Seeking scores of SSS-V

13 + ‘Bad’ & ‘Good’ Sensation Seeking Impulsive, unsocalized sensation seeking (ImpUSS) Disinhibition, Experience Seeking & Boredom Susceptibility of SSS-V & Psychoticism of EPQ Those high on these scales tend to be nonconforming, nonconventional & lack planning skills Less sensitivity to risk Non-impulsive, socialized sensation seeking Thrill & Adventure Seeking of SSS-V

14 + Stimulating Occupational Choices Jobs that are adventurous & non-conventional Serve as source of arousal Sensation seeking and Strong Vocational Interest Blank High SS correlates with jobs involving Novel situations Stimulating surroundings Unstructured tasks Flexibility

15 + Stimulating Occupational Choices Gender differences High SS males: scientific or social service careers Psychologist Psychiatrist Social worker Females: negative relationship between SS scores & traditional occupations (housewife, teacher)

16 + High Thrill & Adventure Seeking & Dishibition scores Firefighters Mountain & mine rescue squads Race car drivers Mountain climbers Parachutists Stimulating Occupational Choices

17 + New sensations & experience, less risk Journalist, movie double, surgeon Elevated scores on SSS-V overall, Thrill & Adventure Seeking & Boredom susceptibility High schoolers with high TAS scores rated jobs with risk as more desirable Aircraft pilot, policeman, army officer

18 + Habits Related to Sensation Seeking High sensation seeking related to Fighting Drug use Drunk driving Seatbelt usage

19 + Lack of external stimulation Boredom with surroundings May lead to substance abuse Sensation seeking and alcohol usage High scores on Disinhibition & Experience Seeking related to alcohol abuse Relationship between behavioral disinhibition, preference for sensation seeking & drinking habits Habits Related to Sensation Seeking

20 + Peer sensation seeking and individual drug usage Mutual attraction to various experiences Risky sexual situations High sensation seekers have more sexual partners, permissive sexual attitudes & are less likely to use protection Habits Related to Sensation Seeking

21 + Hobbies: Sports & Recreation Sensation seekers & socially acceptable means Listening to arousing music Volunteering for experiments Traveling Enjoying unusual or unpleasant art forms Rock climbing Scuba diving Hang gliding

22 + Biology of Sensation Seeking Interactions between neurotransmitter systems Dopamine systems Reward-driven learning, pleasure/euphoria Serotonergic systems Mood, memory, sleep, cognition Gonadal hormones Sexual maturation

23 + Biology of Sensation Seeking Rat models Exploratory behavior: novelty seeking High responders (HR): high locomotor reactivity More self-administration of amphetamines than low responders Increased levels of catecholamine after stressor

24 + Biology of Sensation Seeking Research with human participants Relationship between Disinhibition & Experience Seeking scores of SSS-V and dopamine/serotonergic systems High SS: lower cortisol responses High SS: high stress resistance, higher threshold of sensitivity to aversive stimulation, lower hypersensitivity & lower irritability

25 + Biology of Sensation Seeking Association between gonadal hormones & scores on SSS Males: Disinhibition scores related to androgen & estrogen levels Females: Disinhibition scores related to follicular & luteal estrogens

26 + Reliability of SSS-V (Deditius-Island & Caruso, 2002) Reliability generalization study Analysis of typical reliability scores & factors associated with variability Subscale with lowest reliability: Boredom Susceptibility Mean of.62 & Median of.61 Inadequate for all applications by any criterion

27 + Older Ps tend to demonstrate scores with higher reliability for ES, BS & overall Scores for SSS-V scales are less reliable than would be desired Many studies have omitted reliability coefficients for score means Reliability of SSS-V (Deditius-Island & Caruso, 2002)

28 + Improvements are needed Researchers seem to just assume that scores will be reliable because that is what has been indicated in previous samples (reliability induction problem) Reliability of SSS-V (Deditius-Island & Caruso, 2002)

29 + Important Implications Reduce negative health consequences Provide non-risky options that still provide adequate levels of arousal Intervention programs

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