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Building Grantsmanship Skills

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Presentation on theme: "Building Grantsmanship Skills"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Grantsmanship Skills
Chapter 20 Building Grantsmanship Skills © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

2 Learning Objectives Outline the general process for preparing a grant proposal. Conduct the foundational work needed to generate a grant proposal. Develop a grant proposal. Analyze grant proposals and identify their strengths and weaknesses. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

3 Introduction Community nutritionists increasingly find themselves seeking extramural funding for program activities and interventions. Grant seekers need well-honed grantsmanship skills to capture grant dollars for their organizations. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

4 Introduction All proposals are designed to convince a grant sponsor to provide the services, goods, and/or money the grant recipient needs to achieve the objectives stated in the grant proposal. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

5 Introduction Regardless of the length of the proposal, the development of proposals can be divided into three steps: Laying the foundation Building the grant proposal Assembling the final product © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

6 Laying the Foundation for a Grant
Writing a grant proposal is like building a house in that it needs to be built on a solid foundation. The foundation work for grant writing includes the following: Generate ideas Conduct a literature review Describe goals Identify funding sources Identify potential collaborators © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

7 Generate Ideas Proposal preparation begins with generation of an idea that may come from a variety of sources: A legislative initiative Implications for research included at the end of journal articles Social trends or needs in the community Brainstorming with colleagues Reviewing statistical data A grant sponsor © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

8 Literature Review Once an idea is formulated, the next step is to review the literature for at least the last five years. The literature search should address all facets of the idea. Helps grant seekers assess the value of an idea and adjust its focus to more clearly describe their goals. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

9 Literature Review Helps identify other professionals who could be sources of advice and/or potential collaborators. Provides the background data needed to write a compelling needs statement for the proposal. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

10 Literature Review At the conclusion of the literature search, grant seekers should be able to describe: Their idea The uniqueness of the proposed project Why it is likely to succeed © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

11 Literature Review The most successful grant writers are:
Up to date in their subject matter area. Well informed about current trends and activities. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

12 Describe Goals Grant seekers know that they improve their chances of receiving funding if they focus on addressing important goals. Goals - broad statements describing desired long-range improvements. Healthy People 2010 goals and objectives can help grant seekers narrow the list of possible goals. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

13 Describe Goals Goals should be:
Congruent with the grant seeker’s mission © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

14 Describe Goals Goals should:
Be a priority of the grant seeker’s organization Be stated in Healthy People 2010 Be achievable in a timely manner Answer specific questions Address the impact on the target group © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

15 Describe Goals Successful grant seekers:
Choose worthwhile goals that match their organization’s mission and interests. Address important needs that can be met in a meaningful and timely manner. Sharply focus their goals. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

16 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

17 Identify Funding Sources
Finding a funding source takes two forms: Generating an idea in response to a grant sponsor’s request Finding a grant sponsor to fund the grant seeker’s idea © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

18 Identify Funding Sources
The grant seeker may generate an idea in response to a grant sponsor’s Request for Proposals (RFP) or Request for Quotation (RFQ). Both of these invite grant seekers to submit proposals. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

19 A Request for Proposal © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

20 A Request for Quotation
© 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

21 Identify Funding Sources
RFP - tends to be much less specific in regards to the activities that can be proposed. RFQ - tends to be very specific about the activities that the grant recipient must engage in. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

22 Identify Funding Sources
Funding sources might include: Government or community agency Industry trade group Food or drug company Local business © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

23 Identify Funding Sources
Community nutritionists can find out about grants by: Networking with colleagues. Contacting granting agencies. Calling local businesses to seek small grants. Searching Web sites of potential funding sources. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

24 Identify Funding Sources
For success, the needs of the grant seeker must be in tune with the needs and interests of the funding source. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

25 Types of Grants Block grant - A grant from the federal government to states or local communities for broad purposes as authorized by legislation Capitation grant - A grant made to an institution to provide a dependable support base, usually for training purposes. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

26 Types of Grants Categorical grant - A grant similar to a block grant, except funds must be expended within specific categories, such as maternal and child care. Challenge grant - A grant that serves as a magnet to attract additional funding. Conference grant - A grant awarded to support the costs of meetings, symposia, or special seminars. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

27 Types of Grants Demonstration grant - A grant, usually of limited duration, made to establish or demonstrate the feasibility of a theory or an approach. Equipment grant - A grant that provides money to purchase equipment. Formula grant - A grant in which funds are provided to specified grantees based on a specific formula, prescribed in legislation or regulation, rather than based on an individual project review. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

28 Types of Grants Matching grant - A grant that requires the grant recipient to match the money provided with cash or in-kind gifts from another source. Planning grant - A grant made to support planning, developing, designing, and establishing the means for performing research or accomplishing other approved objectives. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

29 Types of Grants Project grant - The most common form of grant, made to support a discrete, specified project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing his or her specific interest and competencies. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

30 Types of Grants Research grant - A grant made to support investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, the revision of accepted theories in light of new facts, or the application of new or revised theories. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

31 Types of Grants Service grant - A grant that supports cost of organizing, establishing, providing, or expanding the delivery of health or other essential services to a specified community or area. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

32 Types of Grants Training grant - A grant awarded to an organization to support costs of training students, personnel, or prospective employees in research, or in the techniques or practices pertinent to the delivery of health services in the particular area of concern. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

33 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

34 Identify Funding Sources
Key questions: Do the grant sponsor’s funding priorities include the project’s goals? Are sufficient grant funds available for the grant seeker’s organization to achieve the goals in a successful and timely manner? What will this grant sponsor fund? Who is eligible to apply for this grant? Can the grant seeker’s organization meet any special requirements of the grant sponsor? © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

35 Identify Funding Sources
Key questions (continued): When is the application due? What are the guidelines for writing this proposal? Is information available on the type of projects the sponsor funded in the past? What are the credentials of the grant reviewers? Is it possible to contact the sponsor before preparing the proposal? © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

36 Identify Funding Sources
The most successful grant seekers: Select a grant sponsor before writing a proposal. Follow the grant guidelines, forms, and formats exactly. Observe all deadlines. Write the proposal using terminology familiar to the grant reviewers. Sometimes experience failure. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

37 Identify Funding Sources
Avoid chasing grants. Don’t jump from topic to topic just to capture the latest stream of grant funding. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

38 Identify Potential Collaborators
Collaboration is usually the rule, rather than the exception, when developing grant proposals. Collaborators may come from within the grant seeker’s organization or outside. Collaboration may be critical to the success for novice grant seekers or those who are changing their focus. Proposals that are multidisciplinary and/or multi-institutional are often given bonus points. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

39 Identify Potential Collaborators
The best collaborators are those who: Know what is expected of them and when. Are excited about and committed to the project. Willing to follow through on all responsibilities related to the project. Select collaborators carefully, and try to get them involved as early in the grant writing process as possible. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

40 Building the Proposal The goal is to write a document that is: Clear
Complete Concise Compelling © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

41 Components of a Proposal
Letters of Intent Transmittal Letter - a brief, friendly communication addressed to the individual designated on the call for proposals. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

42 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

43 Components of a Proposal
Title Page, including: Project title The grant program the proposal is being submitted to Proposed start and end dates of the project Funds requested Project director’s name and contact information Legal name of the organization to which the award should be made Authorized organizational representative’s name and contact information © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

44 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

45 Components of a Proposal
Abstract - outlines the proposed project and appears at the beginning of the proposal. Contains a needs statement and describes the main goals of the project. Some contain the project methods, time frame, and budget. Should be written after the final proposal draft has been completed. Grant reviewers form their initial impression of a project from the abstract. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

46 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

47 Components of a Proposal
Grant narrative, including: Needs statement Goals and objectives Methods Project design Participants Evaluation plan © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

48 Components of a Proposal
Grant narrative, also including: Measurements Data analysis Dissemination Time and activity chart Capability © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

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52 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

53 Components of a Proposal
Budget Budget narrative Appendixes Placed at the end of the proposal. May contain carefully selected materials that directly support the proposal. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

54 Grant Narrative Needs Statement - a clear, concise, and well-supported problem statement with a review of the current literature related to the problem. Conveys a sense of urgency regarding the problem and its resolution. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

55 Grant Narrative Goals and Objectives - describe what the grant seeker plans to achieve. Project objectives should be much more specific and measurable than the goals. Once all objectives are written, they should be placed in a logical sequence, either based on chronological order or in order of importance. The goals and objectives are the heart of the proposal and they are the reason why one seeks the grant sponsor’s help. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

56 Grant Narrative Methods - describes, in detail, and justifies the procedures for achieving the objectives, and explains why the plan is likely to work. Project design How success will be measured Participants who will be involved Sequence and time frame of activities Duties and capabilities of the project staff © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

57 Grant Narrative – Methods
Project Design - describes the overall organization of the proposed project. Participants (sample) - describes the characteristics of the sample, including how many will be involved, how they will be involved, what they will be asked to do, and how they will be recruited. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

58 Grant Narrative – Methods
Evaluation Plan (Study Design) Explains how the grant seeker proposes to measure the outcomes or impact of the project and determine whether the objectives have been met. Grant seekers need to carefully consider how formative, summative, and impact evaluations can be addressed in the evaluation plan. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

59 Grant Narrative – Methods
Measurements There may be several measurements used to generate needed information. Examples: tests, questionnaires, clinical examinations, food recalls, observations, © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

60 Grant Narrative – Methods
Measurements (continued) The measurements selected will depend on: The purpose and scope of the evaluation The resources available Measurement precision needed The burden to participants The best measurement choices are: Feasible Justifiable Valid Reliable © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

61 Grant Narrative – Methods
Data Analysis - describes how the data collected will be analyzed to determine the success of the project. Dissemination - describes how interested audiences will learn about the project and its outcomes. Time and Activity Chart - breaks the entire project into manageable steps that clearly shows how the project will proceed. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

62 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

63 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

64 Grant Narrative – Methods
Capability Establishes credibility of the grant seeker, including project staff, and the organization’s ability to complete the proposed project. Project staff credibility and capability can be established by including curricula vitae for all key project personnel. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

65 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
3 fundamental ethical principles for acceptable conduct of research with human subjects: Respect for persons Beneficence Justice © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

66 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Respect for persons - recognizes the personal dignity and autonomy of individuals Requires special protection of vulnerable groups Researchers must get full consent from individuals © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

67 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Respect for persons (continued) Subjects must be informed about the research purpose and procedures, as well as its risks and benefits Subjects must have a chance to ask questions and must be able to withdraw from the research at any time © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

68 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Beneficence - the obligation to protect persons from harm by maximizing benefits and minimizing possible risks Appropriateness of involving vulnerable populations must be clearly demonstrated Consent process must thoroughly disclose risks and benefits © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

69 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Justice - the benefits and burdens of research be distributed fairly Subjects should not be selected simply because they are readily available or because they are vulnerable Research should not overburden individuals already burdened by their environments or conditions © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

70 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Practice - interventions designed solely to enhance the patient or client well-being and to have a reasonable expectation of success Research - any systematic gathering and analysis of information designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge Must adhere to Belmont Report’s principles © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

71 Basic Principles of the Protection of Human Subjects
Research includes: Interviews, surveys, tests, or observations that are designed to gather non-public information Studies of existing data where the identity of individuals is known Studies designed to change subjects’ physical or psychological states or environments © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

72 Budget The budget is one of the most important parts of the proposal.
Grant seekers should carefully review the grant guidelines to determine exactly what expenses can be charged and which are excluded. All project costs must be incurred during the proposed period of time. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

73 Budget The most successful grant proposals have budgets that are totally consistent with their grant narrative. Every budgeted expense must be clearly related to the project goals, objectives, and methods. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

74 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

75 Budget Budget Categories:
Direct Costs - concrete project expenditures that are directly listed line by line. Include personnel, equipment, supplies, and travel. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

76 Budget – Categories Indirect Costs a.k.a. overhead
Include administrative costs and facilities costs. Not specifically listed on budgets. Usually calculated as a percentage of the direct costs. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

77 Budget – Categories Cost Sharing - the costs that the grant seeking organization agrees to contribute to the project. a.k.a matching © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

78 © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

79 Budget Narrative Follows the budget in the proposal
Purpose = to explain or justify all expenditures. The most useful budget narratives show the basis for all calculations. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

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82 Assembling the Final Product
When all the proposal parts are finished, the next step is to assemble them into a complete package. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

83 Assembling the Final Product
Characteristics of inviting proposals: Clear, cohesive, highly readable writing style Plenty of white space Appropriate vocabulary Appropriate margins, typeface, headings, and subheadings Numbered pages Illustrations, graphics, and charts that are clear and enhance understanding © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

84 Review of the Grant Proposal
The grant sponsor organizes the proposals submitted and distributes them to grant reviewers. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

85 Review of the Grant Proposal
The role of grant reviewers is to: Review each proposal. Compare it to the sponsor’s priorities and criteria. Judge the relative merit of the project and its likelihood for success. Assess whether the project staff and organization can deliver what is proposed within the timeframe specified. Evaluate the adequacy of the budget. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

86 Review of the Grant Proposal
Successful grant seekers will need to apply management and budgeting skills so that they will: achieve grant goals expertly, on target, and on schedule. Many funded grants are resubmissions. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

87 Review of the Grant Proposal
Common reasons why proposals are not funded: There were problems with planning and time management. The proposal did not follow the guidelines. The deadline for submitting the application was missed. The proposal lacked a well-conceived plan of action or idea. The proposal had errors in the budget estimate. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

88 Review of the Grant Proposal
Many government grant sponsors and some private sponsors provide grant seekers with a written summary of the reviewers’ comments. These comments can help grant seekers learn how to improve future proposals. Another way to improve grant-writing skills is to become a grant reviewer. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

89 Review of the Grant Proposal
Grant writing takes time and effort. The most successful grant seekers demonstrate four critical qualities: Diligence in researching and identifying grant sponsors. Creativity in matching project goals with those of sponsors. Attentiveness to detail in proposal preparation. Persistence in revising and resubmitting proposals to sponsors. © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

90 Teamwork Gets Results Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose for which they hold themselves mutually accountable © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

91 Teamwork Gets Results Number of people on a team can range from 2-16
People chosen to be on the team should be selected carefully so that the team has balance, variety, and essential expertise Achieving the team’s goals requires the cooperation of every team member Team members are mutually accountable for results © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

92 Teamwork Gets Results Team leader is responsible for:
Preparing the meeting agenda Raising important issues Asking questions Keeping the discussion on friendly terms Maintaining order during the meeting Steering the team toward its goal Recording the team’s accomplishments © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth

93 Teamwork Gets Results Conflict
Conflict usually emerges because of differences in attitudes, values, beliefs, and feelings Appreciating and being sensitive to such differences helps establish a climate of cooperation Team leaders work to pinpoint the underlying cause of the conflict They resolve the differences through open negotiation © 2006 Thomson-Wadsworth


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