Presentation on theme: "56 th VFW Air Defense Threatbook. Strategic and Tactical SAMs These systems are designed to use either radar or infrared as the primary sensor during."— Presentation transcript:
Strategic and Tactical SAMs These systems are designed to use either radar or infrared as the primary sensor during aircraft engagement. There are four different types of radar guidance: Command Guidance: Missile commands are generated externally and up-linked to the missile. The missile has no seeker. In general, this requires both the missile and the target be tracked to determine the necessary intercept commands. Semi-Active Homing: The target is illuminated by an external source. A receiver in the missile uses the reflected radiation from the target to generate internal guidance commands, thus homing on the target. Ground-Aided Inertial: The missile receives uplinked target location data. The missile uses this information, in conjunction with its inertial navigation system, to generate its own guidance commands. Seeker-Aided Ground Guidance (SAGG)/Track-Via-Missile (TVM): The target is illuminated by the ground-based radar and the missile receives reflected energy from the target. Unlike conventional semi-active homing, the missile does not generate its own guidance commands. Instead, the missile transmits raw engagement data to the ground-based fire control system in order to generate and uplink guidance commands. TVM is similar to SAGG, however, additional processing is done onboard the missile prior to transmitting the engagement data to the ground based fire control system.
SA-2 GUIDELINE Overview The combat proven SA-2 has been deployed in greater numbers than any other FSU SAM except the SA-7. The SA-2 is designed for use against medium to high altitude aircraft, such as bombers, and is simple and easy to operate with minimum specialized training. The SA- 2’s FAN SONG fire control radar has been continuously updated to increase its performance and EP capability, although it historically has required a high number of missiles launched per kill. FAN SONG F incorporates an EO package to allow optical tracking of targets in heavy EA environments. Iraq has modified some of its SA-2 stockpile to accept an infrared homing seeker. Exports: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Georgia, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, North Korea, Libya, Mongolia, Mozambique, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and Yemen, Yugoslavia.
SA-2 GUIDELINE Breakdown SA-2 (Almaz S-75 Dvina/Volkhov) “Guideline” This is a static shelter mounted SAM system designated as the S-75, and the missile is designated as the V-750. First blooded on 1 May 1960 against Gary Power’s U-2, the SA-2 system has been upgraded repeatedly over the years, and has been indigenously produced by PRC under the designation HQ-2. The missile consists of a booster section with four large fins, and has a liquid fuel sustainer motor, with four powered fins at the tail end for control. The solid fuel booster will burn for 4.5 seconds to lift the weapon away from the launcher, and is then jettisoned, before the sustainer motor (with a 22 second burn time) takes over. The missile will reach its maximum velocity only when it reaches an altitude of approximately 24,000 feet. Missile guidance is provided by the “Fan Song” E/F-band missile guidance radar, capable of controlling up to two missiles in flight. The missile receives guidance signal from four rear facing dielectric aerials. Target acquisition is usually provided by the P-8 Dolphin “Knife-Rest A” or “Spoon Rest” early warning search radars. Destruction of the Fan Song missile guidance radar will shut down the SAM site.
SA-2 GUIDELINE Avoidance/Defense The missile has an engagement range of up to 13nm., and an engagement altitude of approximately 70,000 feet. When facing self protection jamming, the effective range is reduced to 6 – 7nm.. The minimum range is approximately 2 – 3nm., with a minimum firing altitude of 1,200 feet (usually). The missile is relatively easy to out-maneuver if you spot it early enough, and have sufficient airspeed. A hard turn of 6 – 7g into the missile and dispensing chaff will usually defeat the missile, due to the low maneuvering potential. Conclusion The Fan Song radar has some degree of moving target capability, and is slightly more resistant to chaff than the SA-3 and the SA-5. However, this should not cause too much problems as the electronic capabilities of this old system has been well compromised. The long range of the HARM should allow strike packages to neutralize the SA-2 threat from beyond its effective engagement range. As long as you are able to achieve this during the first wave of attack across the FLOT, the SA-2 should not be much of a threat.
SA-3 GOA Like the SA-2, the FSU SA-3 is placed in semi-fixed positions and is normally used in rear areas. Optimized for low to medium altitude engagements, it is commonly deployed with the SA-2 to provide full coverage air defense. The SA-3 is fired from a two or four missile launcher. The LOW BLOW radar provides fire control for the system. FLAT FACE and SQUAT EYE are the primary acquisition radars. A SIDE NET height-finding radar can also be deployed with SA-3. LOW BLOW can engage one target with two missiles. For operation in a jamming environment, later versions of the LOW BLOW have been fitted with TV optics that have a 15.5nm range. Exports: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, India, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, North Korea, Libya, Mali, Moldova, Mozambique, Peru, Poland, Russia, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia and Zambia.