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SMALL GROUP COMMUNICATION
How big is a small group? 5-7 is recommended for greatest productivity 20 is largest number ever suggested
Characteristics of a Small Group Equal opportunity to communicate Immediate feedback capability Concentration on a single task Able to function without sub-dividing into small groups
Advantages of Small Group decision-making Synergy: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Risky shift phenomenon: you will risk as a group what you won’t risk as an individual
Disadvantages GROUPTHINK: may have such a cohesive group that negative thinking is deterred Pollyanna-Nietzsche effect: Excessive optimism and belief that the group is superhuman
Ways to combat disadvantages Always have a Central Negative (devil’s advocate) Recognize that cohesion can lead to Groupthink EVALUATE any solution as it is implemented (to combat P-N-E)
CONSENSUS DECISION-MAKING REQUIRES 100% AGREEMENT, NOT JUST MAJORITY Results in – Increased cohesion – Increased ownership – Commitment to course of action
Achievement of Consensus Compromise Collaboration
Leadership Styles laissez-faire democratic authoritarian
ROLES OF GROUP MEMBERS Task Roles Initiator-contributor Information-seeker Opinion-seeker Information-giver Opinion-giver Clarifier Coordinator Evaluator Consensus tester
Maintenance roles Encourager Harmonizer Compromiser Gatekeeper Standard setter
Self-Serving Roles Blocker Aggressor Recognition-Seeker Withdrawer Dominator Joker Self-Confessor Help-Seeker
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