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(statistics)1 Training Programme on International Migration Organized by UN/ECE and UNFPA in collaboration with NIDI Geneva, Switzerland.

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Presentation on theme: "(statistics)1 Training Programme on International Migration Organized by UN/ECE and UNFPA in collaboration with NIDI Geneva, Switzerland."— Presentation transcript:

1 (statistics)1 Training Programme on International Migration Organized by UN/ECE and UNFPA in collaboration with NIDI Geneva, Switzerland 24-28 January 2005

2 (statistics)2 Refugee, asylum-seeker and forced displacement statistics with a particular emphasis on the UN/ECE region Bela Hovy, Head Statistics United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Geneva

3 (statistics)3 Programme of work FMandate/legal basis (UNHCR/statistics) FScope (figures/issues) FDisplaced populations (refugees, IDPs) FAsylum applications and refugee status determination FSpecial issues

4 (statistics)4 UNHCR mandate - general Refugees –1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees –1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees Stateless persons (refugees & non-refugees) –1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless persons –1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness Internally displaced (IDPs) –Request from Security Council/Secretary-General –Interagency approach

5 (statistics)5 UNHCR mandate - statistics 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees “… the Contracting States undertake to provide the Office of the High Commissioner in the appropriate form with information and statistical data requested concerning the condition of refugees, the implementation of this Convention (…)” (Art. 35. Cooperation of the national authorities with the United Nations) 1950 Statute of the Office of the UNHCR “… The High Commissioner shall provide for the protection of refugees falling under the competence of his Office by (…) obtaining from governments information concerning the number and conditions of refugees in their territories (…). (Chapter II. Functions of the High Commissioner)

6 (statistics)6 Scope of forced displacement - facts and figures 39 million persons displaced globally (6 per 1,000 world citizen) –9.7 million refugees (UNHCR) –4.1 million Palestinian refugees in Middle East (UNRWA) –≈ 25 million internally displaced (UN/OCHA) 17 million persons of concern to UNHCR, end-2003 –9.7 million refugees –900,000 asylum-seekers (undecided cases) –4.2 million Internally Displaced Persons (of concern to UNHCR only) –1.3 million returnees (refugees and IDPs who returned in 2003) –900,000 Various (stateless/non-refugees, forced migrants, etc.)

7 (statistics)7 Scope of forced displacement - issues Nature: involuntary/forced displacement –Unplanned: inherent data collection problems Movements: none (stateless), internal or international Cause: conflict or persecution (not natural disasters ) Size: mass flows or individual movements Phase: displacement, return (post-conflict) Focus: countries of origin, transit and destination Duration: long-term and short-term  UN/ECE REGION IS VERY HETEROGENEOUS, INCLUDING ALL ABOVE SCENARIO’S

8 (statistics)8 Standards - refugees (IDPs) Standards - refugees (IDPs) (UNHCR Annual Statistical Report--Table II) Stocks and “flows” –Population stock begin/end period (year) –Legal/demographic/administrative increases (prima facie/group; individually recognized [Convention, hum. status], resettlement, births, etc.) –Legal/demographic/administrative decreases (voluntary repatriation, resettlement, cessation, naturalization, deaths, verification, etc.)

9 (statistics)9 Standards - refugees (IDPs) Standards - refugees (IDPs) (UNHCR Annual Statistical Report--Tables III and IV) Characteristics –Sex, age, location (camps, urban, etc.) (Table III) –Legal status (1951 Convention, humanitarian) (Table IV) –Type of recognition (prima facie/group, individually) (Table IV) –Origin (Tables II, III and IV)

10 (statistics)10 Definitions –Who is a refugee? (1951Conv./ humanitarian; long-term resident; rejected asylum-seekers, …) Availability/sources –Refugee stock, decreases, characteristics,... –Register (absent, incomplete, outdated), linking registers, census, Timeliness –Annual statistics: max. 1-2 months Manageability –Unplanned displacement vs. managed migration Experience/challenges

11 (statistics)11 Example - estimating refugee stocks If no refugee data / register available –10 years of asylum-seeker recognition (all statuses, all levels) –10 years of resettled refugee arrivals (when applicable) –[stock estimate for prima facie refugees]

12 (statistics)12 Meta data (header) –Level (L): first instance, appeal/review (one table per level) –Type (T): Government, UNHCR –Cases/persons Data –Applications, decisions (recognized [‘51 Conv.; hum. status], rejected, o/w closed), pending cases by citizenship (incl. stateless), % female Formula’s (table) –Total decided = recognized + humanitarian + rejected + o/w closed –Pending begin = Pending-end previous period –Pending end = pending-begin + applications - total decisions –Refugee recognition rate: Recognized  [rec + hum + rej] –Total recognition rate : [rec + hum]  [rec + hum + rej] –Percentage change in pending cases Standards - asylum-seekers Standards - asylum-seekers (UNHCR Annual Statistical Report--Table V)

13 (statistics)13 Availability –Otherwise closed separate from Rejected –Appeal/review –% female –Monthly applications Timeliness –Annual statistics: max. 1-2 months –Monthly/quarterly applications: max. 2/3 weeks Comparability –Manifestly unfounded (pre-screening or not) –Humanitarian status (separate status or rejected) Experience/challenges

14 (statistics)14 Special issues Asylum - migration nexusAsylum - migration nexus –UN Recommendations on international migration statistics Immigration by purposeImmigration by purpose Use of existing national sourcesUse of existing national sources Condition of refugeesCondition of refugees –Millennium Development Goals

15 (statistics)15 Immigration by purpose Flows –Long-term residence permits issued by arrival category (asylum, work, study, family reunion,...) –Family reunion differentiated by primary arrival category (asylum, work, study,...) Stocks –Population register –Population census

16 (statistics)16 Best practice I--Sweden

17 (statistics)17 Best practice II - Zambia Purpose of immigration purpose in 2000 population and housing census (UNHCR funded) –If foreigner, why come to this country? WorkWork StudyStudy AsylumAsylum Family reunificationFamily reunification –Work –Study –Asylum

18 (statistics)18 Condition of refugees UNHCR Standards and Indicators Report UN-Millennium Development Goals –Subjects (rights/access, condition): Health/nutrition, education, water, sanitation, shelter, living conditions Source: use of surveys

19 (statistics)19 Wrap-up: sources Refugee stocks and flows –Register/registration (link to documentation/status) –Census (refugee/IDP, population) Asylum-seekers –Register/registration (link to documentation/status) Condition of asylum-seekers/refugees –Administrative records –Surveys –Census

20 (statistics)20 Wrap-up: Refugees and international migrants - similarities and differences –Population accounting perspective refugees are international migrants because they cross international border/change place of residence –International rights perspective Entry (non-return or non-refoulement) of refugees is an international right/obligation of states Entry of international migrants is a state prerogative  Conclusion: distinction is essential, because treatment differs significantly

21 (statistics)21 Finally: what to expect from UNHCR? Statistical Yearbook (1 x per year) Quarterly trends (3 x per year) Monthly asylum applications in 35 industrialized countries (monthly/quarterly) Ad-hoc reports; special requests (variable) Support for data collection (registration, documentation)  UNHCR Country office  (statistics)  e-mail hotline + distribution list (

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