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1 Behaviorism. 2 Flow of Presentation Brief History (Learning Theories) Famous People Behaviorism Theories –Classical Conditioning –Operant Conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Behaviorism. 2 Flow of Presentation Brief History (Learning Theories) Famous People Behaviorism Theories –Classical Conditioning –Operant Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Behaviorism

2 2 Flow of Presentation Brief History (Learning Theories) Famous People Behaviorism Theories –Classical Conditioning –Operant Conditioning –Connectionism –Social Learning Theory Assumptions and Implications

3 3 Evolution of Learning Theories Early 1900s 1920s to 1940s 1960s +

4 4 William James

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8 8 Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930

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12 12 Classical conditioning

13 13 Classical conditioning

14 14 Classical conditioning

15 15 Classical conditioning

16 16 Operant Conditioning

17 17 Thorndike’s Connectionism

18 18 Thorndike’s Connectionism

19 19 Thorndike’s Connectionism

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22 22 Social learning Theory (Bandura) Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.

23 23 Conditions for effective Modelling Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation

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26 26 Social Learning Theory (Vygotsky) social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.

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28 28 Vygotsky’s Major Themes Social interaction The More Knowledgeable Other The Zone of Proximal Development

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31 The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that: Motivate or enlist the child’s interest related to the task

32 Simplify the task to make it more manageable and achievable for a child The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that:

33 Provide some direction in order to help the child focus on achieving the goal The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that:

34 Clearly indicate differences between the child’s work and the standard or desired solution The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that:

35 Reduce The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that: frustrationand risk

36 Model and clearly define the expectations of the activity to be performed (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, ). The scaffolds provided are activities and tasks that:

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38 38 Now, on some scrap paper, write the headline from memory. Be sure to write it exactly as it appeared in the headline (as you remember it).

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42 42 GOMS Model Goals Operators Methods Selection Rules

43 43 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events

44 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events Identify specific stimuli (including your own behaviors) that may be influencing the behaviors that students exhibit

45 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events Identify specific stimuli (including your own behaviors) that may be influencing the behaviors that students exhibit Learning involves a change in behavior

46 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events Identify specific stimuli (including your own behaviors) that may be influencing the behaviors that students exhibit Learning involves a change in behavior Do not assume that learning has occurred unless students exhibit a change in classroom performance

47 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events Identify specific stimuli (including your own behaviors) that may be influencing the behaviors that students exhibit Learning involves a change in behavior Do not assume that learning has occurred unless students exhibit a change in classroom performance Contiguity of events

48 Behaviorism Assumptions Assumption Educational Implications Focus on observable events Identify specific stimuli (including your own behaviors) that may be influencing the behaviors that students exhibit Learning involves a change in behavior Do not assume that learning has occurred unless students exhibit a change in classroom performance Contiguity of events If you want students to associate two events (stimuli and response) with each other, make sure the events occur close together in time

49 49 Consequences of Behavior Stimulus Added Stimulus Subtracted Behavior Increases Positive Reinforcement Behavior Decreases

50 50 Consequences of Behavior Stimulus Added Stimulus Subtracted Behavior Increases Negative Reinforcement Behavior Decreases

51 Example: Negative Reinforcement Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.

52 Example: Negative Reinforcement Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. Stimulus Subtracted

53 Example: Negative Reinforcement Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. Behavior Increased

54 54 Consequences of Behavior Stimulus Added Stimulus Subtracted Behavior Increases Behavior Decreases Presentation Punishment

55 55 Consequences of Behavior Stimulus Added Stimulus Subtracted Behavior Increases Behavior Decreases Removal Punishment

56 56 Consequences of Behavior Stimulus Added Stimulus Subtracted Behavior Increases Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Behavior Decreases Presentation Punishment Removal Punishment

57 57 Thank you very much!!!


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