Presentation on theme: "Who? When? Where? Why? So What? Jerry Beavers P resbyterian A ssociation of C ollegiate and H igher E ducation M inistries www.pachem.org / www.ukirk.org."— Presentation transcript:
Who? When? Where? Why? So What? Jerry Beavers P resbyterian A ssociation of C ollegiate and H igher E ducation M inistries /
OUTLINE : What’s Ahead….. Who are Emerging Adults? Why they are different from previous generations (and why that is important). Where are Emerging Adults? Why they aren’t they in church or campus ministry. How can we reach Emerging Adults? Strategies for reaching them. Slides at:
Reaching this Generation Requires A New Way of Thinking Doing College Ministry Requires A New Way of Thinking Sustaining a College Ministry Requires A New Way of Thinking
Reaching this Generation Requires A New Way of Thinking How are they different?
Child Adult Dependent Independent Discovering Career Societal Role
ChildAdolescent Adult Dependent Growing Up Independent Live at home Live on Own Discovering Career Societal Role
ChildAdolescent Adult Dependent Growing Up Independent Live at home Live on Own Discovering Career Societal Role 1900s – “Young People” 1940s - “Teenagers”
What does Adulthood mean? Significant Changes in the Last 50 years Expansion of higher education Delayed age of first marriage and childbirth Accessible Contraceptives Options for Women Macro-economic changes Parental Support Technological Amplification Influence of postmodern relativism and skepticism
ChildAdolescent Adult Dependent Growing Up Independent Live at home Live on Own Discovering Career Societal Role
ChildAdolescent Emerging Adult Adult Dependent Growing Up In-between Independent Live at home Live on Own Discovering Career Societal Role Emerging Adults ≡ In-Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood Ages
When do you become an Adult? HistoricallySpecific Events Finished Education Marriage leaving parent’s house living with someone outside your family having sex Parenthood For Emerging AdultsProcess Being Self-sufficient Taking responsibility for yourself, Making independent decisions Becoming financially independent
Emerging Adulthood is an Age of identity exploration. Young people are deciding who they are and what they want out of work, school and love. instability. The post-high school years are marked by repeated residence changes, as young people either go to college or live with friends or a romantic partner. self-focus. Freed of the parent- and society-directed routine of school, young people try to decide what they want to do, where they want to go and who they want to be with. in between. Many emerging adults say they are taking responsibility for themselves, but still do not completely feel like an adult. possibilities. Optimism reigns. Most emerging adults believe they have good chances of living "better than their parents did," and even if their parents divorced, they believe they'll find a lifelong soul mate. Jeffrey Arnett
Who Are Young Adults? In the Library In College In Church Developmental Life Stage Young Adults Are NOT Emerging Adults
The Millennial Generation born after ~ 1985
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Confident Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Confident Team Oriented Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Confident Team Oriented Conventional Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Confident Team Oriented Conventional Pressured Neil and Strauss
Millennial Generation Core Traits Special Sheltered Confident Team Oriented Conventional Pressured Connected Neil and Strauss
Emerging Adults ≡ In-Between Adolescence and Young Adulthood, ages Characteristics of this Period In-between Exploration Instability Self-focus Sense of Possibilities
This Is Not Your Mother’s College Individualistic Immediate Competition? Catering Parental Involvement Freedom Communication
Religious Characteristics of Emerging Adults A Congregation of One Authority is individualistic Pick and Choose Church is for moral education Behavior-focused Moralistic Therapeutic Deism Skepticism of Religious Institutions Evidence is Truth Exploration / Keeping Options Open
1.Committed Traditionalists (15%) - raised in religious traditional faiths, a lot of evangelical protestants and LDS – they embrace tradition and trying to follow through. 2.Selective Adherents (30%) - basically understand themselves to be religious, value it, believe some of it, practice to some extent, but highly selective (can be broken down into those who feel guilty about selectivity and those who don’t, about 50/50 - i.e.: I know I should go to church, or shouldn’t live with a boyfriend or girlfriend) 3.Spiritually Open (15%) - a lot come from not religious or borderline religious backgrounds, not pursuing religion, but open to it - I bet there is a lot more I have to learn about a higher power, etc. but not actually trying to deal with that yet. Major Types of Emerging Adult Response to Religion
4. Religiously Indifferent (25%) - just don’t care - will talk about it, but it doesn’t matter. 5. Religiously disconnected (5%) - not hostile, just don’t know – “I know it’s out there, just don’t really know anything about it.” 6. Irreligious (10%) - [this category wasn’t present in the teen study] - has decided that religion is BS, idiotic, etc. and are actively critical, skeptical, and make fun of it. Major Types of Emerging Adult Response to Religion
Major Types of ER Response to Religion
40% are neither Committed to Nor Open to Mainstream Religious Institutions
Major Types of ER Response to Religion 60% are either Committed to Or Knowledgeable About Mainstream Religious Institutions
Myth #1 They Drop Out During College, But Return to the Church When They Have Children
Myth #2 College Erodes Their Faith Black = Attending College Gray = Not Attending College
Myth #3 They are Spiritual But Not Religious Only 7% of Emerging Adults have high internal values of faith (spirituality) and low external value of faith and practices (religion). Most are congruent. In addition, only 7% who were consistent high as teens dropped external but maintained high internal as Emerging Adults. Smith (NYSR)
Identity Lockbox 85-90% of First Years make no effort to explore their religious identity. Those that do: a) future intelligentsia—aspiring thinkers and leaders of the academy and social sciences (1%) b) religious skeptics and atheists —those who think religion prevents the achievement of social justice and equity (1-2%) c) religious emissaries who engage their faith with the world. (10-15%, most often found in religious schools)
Spiritual but Not Religious How question is framed? “Spiritual But Not Religious” implies that religious practices are latent – they will return Data doesn’t support either implication Spiritual and Religious Congruency Substituting religious practices Trajectories
Myth #4 They are Rebelling % of American teenagers do not have negative views of religion; in fact, they have an openness and curiosity about religion. They tend to reflect the religious beliefs and traditions of their parents and are not particularly interested in rebelling or seeking alternate religious paths. This emphasizes again the importance of adults. But what about worship differences?
“Emerging Adult Participation in Congregations” Hackett,
From Program to People From Banquet to Cafeteria From Receiving to Reaching From Camp to Bridge From Youth Group to Worshiping Community
College Ministry as College Mission
Ministry Helps Emerging Adults Own your niche Transparency, humility, integrity Connect with faith community adults Influence of (Helicopter) Parents Authenticity over Orthodoxy Questions over Dogma / Life Issues Concern for Others – Service and Reflection In religious education, you can never aim too low.
Ministry Helps Emerging Adults Own your niche Transparency, humility, integrity Connect with faith community adults !!!! Influence of (Helicopter) Parents Authenticity over Orthodoxy Questions over Dogma / Life Issues Concern for Others – Service and Reflection In religious education, you can never aim too low.
The Campus Ministry as a Missionary Outreach of the Congregation
A Congregation Supports Missions The Congregation Reaches Out Beyond Themselves Congregation provides resources Congregation works to support the Mission Representative (missionary) uses resources on site Missionary reports on use of resources Expected Outcomes No direct physical connection Spiritual enrichment Education Ministry to Students in Kenya
A Congregation Supports Missions The Congregation Reaches Out Beyond Themselves Congregation provides resources Congregation works to support the Mission. Representative (missionary) uses resources on site Missionary reports on use of resources Expected Outcomes No direct physical connection Spiritual enrichment Education Ministry to Students in College
The Missionary Educates the Congregation Educates about the culture of the Mission Tells stories about those impacted by the Mission Is thankful Asks for continued support
Missionary Positions Some specific training is required Home Office helps publicize Time scheduled to visit supporting congregations Slow growth in the Mission field is normal and necessary. Successful missions are cooperative
Welcoming EAs at Worship As Youth As Foreign Visitors
High School Youth Leader Support for College Students <13% of HS Seniors feel prepared for college life* Prepare for Making New Friends Finding a New Church Finding a New Congregation Encountering Doubts Transition Support Identify and Contact Campus Minister First Days Support Continuing Congregation Support (Intergenerational) * 2011 Survey, Sticky Faith Project
The University Church has an Opportunity. Who will reach out, love, and teach college students so that they may become lifelong followers of Jesus Christ?
The “fuzziness” of being Adult 14 – full Adult Church member (but “Youth Deacon” until 21) 16- Drive (but can’t nominally rent a car until 25) 18 – Enlist, College records sheltered from parents … (but their income is factored into financial aid !) 21 – Drink, Get out of foster care 24- IRS dependent if a student, Independent for financial aid consideration 26- No longer allowed on parent’s health insurance
Moral Therapeutic Deism God exists. God wants people to be nice and fair to each other. The central goal of life is to be happy and feel good. God is distant and only involved in one’s life when a problem arises. Good people go to heaven when they die.
Generation Divide: Communications
Religious Groups Involvement of year olds Involved in Organized Religious Groups Involved in two or more groups Involved in Group NOT a part of attending congregation College attender and college based religious group Total15%7%10%15% Conservative Protestant 22%8%12%46% Mainline Protestant 15%6%7%15% Non-Religious5% -- 1%
You Lost Me Churches seem overprotective. “Christians demonize everything outside of the church” (23%) Their experience of Christianity is shallow. “church is boring” (31%); “faith is not relevant to my career or interests” (24%) Churches come across as antagonistic to science. “Christians are too confident they know all the answers” (35%); “churches are out of step with the scientific world we live in” (29%). Church experiences related to sexuality are often simplistic, judgmental. church’s “teachings on sexuality and birth control are out of date.”(40%) They wrestle with the exclusive nature of Christianity. “churches are afraid of the beliefs of other faiths” (29%) Church feels unfriendly to those who doubt. not being able “to ask my most pressing life questions in church” (36%) Why 59% of Active Teen Church Members Leave during the years
Millennial Facts ● By % of all U.S. workers will be millennial ● 64% ask about social media policies during job interviews (24% say would be a key factor in accepting- more so than salary) ● They switch their attention between media platforms (like laptops, smart phones, etc.) an average of 27 times per hour. (17 times per hour for Gen X) ● 66% of them look up a store after learning their friend checked in (91% make FB Check In and Foursquare public) ● 71% would like to work abroad ● 70% plan on changing jobs when the economy gets better ● 30% started a business while in college ● 52% have over 300 Face Book friends. Blog June 26th, 2012
Generation Z Born 1990 – 2005 Technology (Generation I, Generation N, iGeneration) Innovation Convenience (Generation Next) Connected Global Security (Homeland Generation) Recession of 2008
Generation Z at College Connected Convenience Individual Attention / Mentors Savvy and Cynical Work and Play
Generation Screwed Americans under 35 are suffering the biggest wealth gap between younger and older Americans on record. Median net worth of households headed by someone 65 or older $170,494 (up 42 percent from 1984) compared to a median net worth of younger-age households of $3,662 (down 68 percent from a quarter century earlier. U.S. unemployment rate of 12 percent for people 18 to 29, approximately 50 percent above the national average. 56 percent of recent high school graduates believe they won’t be more financially successful than their parents, with only 14 percent expecting to do better.
Two Questions Always to ask about Programs: Why? To What End?
You understand that new ways are required – How do you get this word out to your congregation?
What is Necessary for Adulthood?% “Yes” Accept responsibility for the consequences of your actions93 Decide on personal beliefs and values independently of others81 Become less self-oriented, develop greater consideration for others 81 Financially independent from parents74 Use contraception if sexually active and not trying to conceive a child 66 No longer living in parents' household55 Avoid drunk driving42 Make life-long commitments to others40 Reached age 1840 Reached age 2134 Become employed full-time26 Married15 Finished with education15 Have at least one child14
Where are Emerging Adults? With Other Emerging Adults Everywhere But Church
Where are Emerging Adults? With other Emerging Adults Everywhere 22% of the adult population - except in church < 6% of adult PCUSA members Emerging Adults are over three times as common in the general population as they are in PC(U.S.A.) congregations! The best chances for Emerging Adult religious groups include: Urban Large congregations Significant racial ethnic diversity Colleges
Oh, Grow Up!! Seekers of Identity-based work rather than Slackers Youthful Optimism rather than Narcissism Exploration rather than Suffering Self-focus rather than Selfish
The Church’s Response to Emerging Adults Status Quo Youth Group or Young Couples Class Join the club Pay your dues Give money No sex
Historical Changes in Cohabitation Year in Which Respondents Reached Their Twenties
40 % of Youth Group Members drift away from faith communities their freshman year of college. Three key factors that provide a foundation for a lasting faith: (1) youth develop relationships with adults in their home congregations; (2) young people pray with their parents and talk with them about their faith, and (3) youth are involved in mission and service projects that help teach them how to live out their faith. Fuller Sticky Faith Project
Less than half of ALL young adults view their church positively between ages Worship viewed by ALL young adultsAgree The pastor’s sermons were engaging48% The pastor’s sermons were relevant to my life48% The worship style was appealing to me47% Perspective viewed by ALL young adultsAgree I agreed with beliefs taught in my church53% My church was important in my life45% I agreed with my church’s political perspective 42% Beliefs relate to satisfaction in worship – among those who agree with the beliefs taught in their church, 76% find the worship style appealing
Generation Theory G.I. ( ) The "greatest generation," which fought WWII and built up the nation during its post-War boom. Examples: Lucille Ball, Walt Disney, Judy Garland, Bob Hope, Ronald Reagan Silent ( ) They grew up as quiet, sensitive types and then had mid-life crises in the 1970s. Examples: Woody Allen, Phil Donahue, Jane Fonda, Colin Powell Boomer ( born ) The rebellious generation which gave America its famous 1960s generation gap. Examples: George W. Bush, Hillary Clinton, Bill Gates, Michael Jackson, Madonna Gen-X (born ) The latchkey kids of the 1970s; they have fared the least well in post-revolutionary America. Examples: Matt Drudge, Jodie Foster, Michael Jordan, Courtney Love, Barack Obama Millennial ( born ?) The "babies on board" of the 1980s who have been the focus of adult attention ever since. Examples: Reggie Bush, Sarah Hughes, Scarlett Johansson, Lindsay Lohan Homeland ( born 2003?- ) The Homeland Generation is probably growing up now. Howe and Strauss
Spiritual and Religious Spiritual Religious Spiritual Quest Ecumenical Worldview Etic of Caring Charitable Involvement Equanimity Religious Commitment Religious Engagement Religious Skepticism Religious / Social Conservatism Religious Struggle
Academic achievement (GPA) Aspirations for advanced degrees Psychological well-being Leadership self-concept Self-perceived ability to get along with persons from other races and cultures Commitment to promoting racial understanding Satisfaction with college How does spiritual growth affect traditional college outcomes? Growth in Spiritual Qualities Promotes:
Seven Vectors of Student Development -- Arthur W. Chickering (1993) 1.Developing competence 2.Managing emotions 3.Moving through autonomy toward interdependence 4.Developing mature interpersonal relationships 5.Establishing identity 6.Developing purpose 7.Developing integrity
Emerging Adults Bibliography Bomar, Chuck. College Ministry 101: A Guide to Working With Year Olds. Grand Rapids: Youth Specialties, Bomar, Chuck. College Ministry from Scratch. Grand Rapids: Youth Specialties, Bomar, Chuck. Worlds Apart: Understanding the Mindset and Values of Year Olds. Grand Rapids: Youth Specialties, Henig, Robin Marantz. “What Is It About 20-Somethings: Why are so many people in their 20s taking so long to grow up?” in The New York Times Magazine, August 18, Hines, Benson. Reaching the Campus Tribes. On-line book Kinnaman, David, and Gabe Lyons. unChristian: What a New Generation Really Thinks about Christianity... and Why It Matters. Grand Rapids: Baker, Kinnamann, David. You Lost Me: Why Young Christians Are Leaving Church...and Rethinking Faith. Grand Rapids: Baker, Smith, Christian and Patricia Snell. Souls in Transition: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of Emerging Adults. New York: Oxford, Arnett, Jeffery. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from Late Teens through the Twenties. New York: Oxford, 2004 On-Line Resources Bibliographies for Emerging Adults and Collegiate Ministry at Changingsea.org “Who are Emerging Adults?” Essay Forum Spirituality in Higher Education.
Fifty years ago the median age of entering marriage in the U.S. was 20 for women and 22 for men; today it's 26 for women and 28 for men, and still rising. In 1960 only 33 percent of young people went to college; today, 75 percent of high school graduates enter college the next year.(28 graduate eventually) Women used to have few options besides wife and mother; today they exceed men in college enrollment and are equal to men in law school, medical school and business school enrollment. Young Americans expect a lot more out of work than their parents or grandparents did. They change jobs an average of seven times from age 20 to 29 as they search for work that is personally fulfilling, not just a job but an adventure. Adapibility. Flexability. 60% receive financial support at 23. Communicate 13 times/week with parents.