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Unit VI Part 2 The Civil War and Reconstruction. At the start of the war North had 16,000 in the regular army North had 16,000 in the regular army Lincoln.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit VI Part 2 The Civil War and Reconstruction. At the start of the war North had 16,000 in the regular army North had 16,000 in the regular army Lincoln."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit VI Part 2 The Civil War and Reconstruction

2 At the start of the war North had 16,000 in the regular army North had 16,000 in the regular army Lincoln called for 75,000 more (for 3 months) Lincoln called for 75,000 more (for 3 months) July, 1861 Congress called for another 500,000 for 3 years of service July, 1861 Congress called for another 500,000 for 3 years of service Blacks were rejected until after (1-1-1863) The Emancipation Proclamation Blacks were rejected until after (1-1-1863) The Emancipation Proclamation

3 March 1863 The Enrollment Act The first National draft law The first National draft law Ages 18-45 Ages 18-45 Some occupations were exempt: telegraph operators, RR engineers, some government workers, judges Some occupations were exempt: telegraph operators, RR engineers, some government workers, judges Also certain mental and physical disabilities Also certain mental and physical disabilities Doctors would provide deferments for a fee Doctors would provide deferments for a fee Could pay a substitute to take your place $300 Could pay a substitute to take your place $300

4 In the North States were responsible for their own drafts States were responsible for their own drafts Each state had a quota to fill based on population Each state had a quota to fill based on population Draft was used only after volunteers were counted Draft was used only after volunteers were counted Only 46,000 were drafted Only 46,000 were drafted Bounty jumpers: some states, cities paid bonuses for volunteers. Some would enlist then skip town Bounty jumpers: some states, cities paid bonuses for volunteers. Some would enlist then skip town

5 Draft Riots New York City: Newspapers printed the list of the dead after battles but them had lists of draftees on next columns! New York City: Newspapers printed the list of the dead after battles but them had lists of draftees on next columns! Irish (especially after the Emancipation Proclamation) “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” Police sometimes joined rioters Irish (especially after the Emancipation Proclamation) “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” Police sometimes joined rioters Horace Greeley: NY Tribune: was a big abolitionist. Was dragged from his office and beaten Horace Greeley: NY Tribune: was a big abolitionist. Was dragged from his office and beaten

6 Blacks Only 1% of the population but by the war’s end, 10% of the Union army Only 1% of the population but by the war’s end, 10% of the Union army 185,000 Union Blacks 185,000 Union Blacks 166 Black regiments 166 Black regiments Less than 100 Black officers (none above the rank of captain) Less than 100 Black officers (none above the rank of captain) White soldiers paid $13 a month White soldiers paid $13 a month Blacks paid $10 monthly; many refused the pay rather than accept the inequity Blacks paid $10 monthly; many refused the pay rather than accept the inequity

7 In the South Davis called for 100,000 at first Davis called for 100,000 at first When the South called for volunteers so many came that 20,000 had to be sent home When the South called for volunteers so many came that 20,000 had to be sent home The Troops were not paid The Troops were not paid Women supplied troops: uniforms Women supplied troops: uniforms Eventually “food Drafts” (Southern armies had to supply themselves from local fields and farms Eventually “food Drafts” (Southern armies had to supply themselves from local fields and farms

8 In the South Farmers with 20 or more slaves were exempt from the draft but were told what to plant Farmers with 20 or more slaves were exempt from the draft but were told what to plant Those drafted could also pay a substitute and deferments could also be bought Those drafted could also pay a substitute and deferments could also be bought

9 1862 The Conscription Act The draft in the South The draft in the South By 1864 (in the South…big problem with desertions…draft age extended 17-50 By 1864 (in the South…big problem with desertions…draft age extended 17-50 Blacks were used as cooks, animal caretakers, for labor but not to fight Blacks were used as cooks, animal caretakers, for labor but not to fight BUT a plan was in place to allow blacks to fight inexchange for their freedom. War ended first. BUT a plan was in place to allow blacks to fight inexchange for their freedom. War ended first.

10 Runaways At first, Northern Generals returned runaways to slave owners (FSA) Did not last long At first, Northern Generals returned runaways to slave owners (FSA) Did not last long Maryland and the Plug Uglies: many in Maryland wanted to leave the Union but could not due to close proximity of Washington DC Maryland and the Plug Uglies: many in Maryland wanted to leave the Union but could not due to close proximity of Washington DC Gangs of Confederate agitators blew up bridges and tried to disrupt Union war effort Gangs of Confederate agitators blew up bridges and tried to disrupt Union war effort

11 At the Onset Congress was not in session Congress was not in session Lincoln ran the show alone Lincoln ran the show alone Volunteer armies patrolled Washington DC led by Cassius Clay (Kentucky abolitionist) and Lane (from Kansas) Volunteer armies patrolled Washington DC led by Cassius Clay (Kentucky abolitionist) and Lane (from Kansas) Union troops did not come to DC until April 25 Union troops did not come to DC until April 25

12 Winfield Scott Was old, Fat, and Arthritic Was old, Fat, and Arthritic Lincoln asked for help Lincoln asked for help Scott recommended Robert E. Lee (before Virginia left the Union) Scott recommended Robert E. Lee (before Virginia left the Union) Lee turned Lincoln down (for commander of Union troops) Lee turned Lincoln down (for commander of Union troops) Lincoln will go through a string of inept generals before Grant is given command of Union troops in 1864 (He had been fighting in the West Lincoln will go through a string of inept generals before Grant is given command of Union troops in 1864 (He had been fighting in the West

13 The Anaconda Plan Suggestion by Scott Suggestion by Scott A union blockade of the Atlantic coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi A union blockade of the Atlantic coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi The Big Idea: Starve them into submission, less violence and bloodshed, would make it easier for the South to come back home The Big Idea: Starve them into submission, less violence and bloodshed, would make it easier for the South to come back home BUT others highly critical BUT others highly critical U.S. had only 42 war ships, only 3 suitable for blockade…to cover 3,500 miles of coastline U.S. had only 42 war ships, only 3 suitable for blockade…to cover 3,500 miles of coastline

14 In the end At first Southern ships were able to easily slip by the blockade (and was able to get food and supplies from foreign countries) At first Southern ships were able to easily slip by the blockade (and was able to get food and supplies from foreign countries) BUT the Union built ships and blockade was effective by 1862 and the South DID begin to starve: Salt went from $2 a bage before the war to $60 a bag in 1862 BUT the Union built ships and blockade was effective by 1862 and the South DID begin to starve: Salt went from $2 a bage before the war to $60 a bag in 1862

15 The Anaconda Plan Provided the basis for economic and military defeat of the South Provided the basis for economic and military defeat of the South

16 The officers Before the war began 1,108 officers in the army Before the war began 1,108 officers in the army 400 resigned and fought for the Confederacy 400 resigned and fought for the Confederacy Pretty much the same for the Navy Pretty much the same for the Navy

17 Stephen Douglass In the end he proved to be a true patriot In the end he proved to be a true patriot He died June 3 He died June 3 He was frantically touring the border states trying to convince them to remain in the Union He was frantically touring the border states trying to convince them to remain in the Union

18 Civil Liberties Suffered as a result of the war Suffered as a result of the war Is typical in times of crisis Is typical in times of crisis There was WIDESPREAD suspension of civil liberties… There was WIDESPREAD suspension of civil liberties… 13,500 were arrested and held during the war 13,500 were arrested and held during the war Suspension of Habeas Corpus (arrests without charges and held without trial) Suspension of Habeas Corpus (arrests without charges and held without trial) Often to prevent Maryland from succeeding Often to prevent Maryland from succeeding

19 Copperheads Lincoln believed copperheads to be the biggest problem in the war effort Lincoln believed copperheads to be the biggest problem in the war effort They were Peace Democrats They were Peace Democrats Politics in the North: Republicans, War Democrats, Peace Democrats Politics in the North: Republicans, War Democrats, Peace Democrats

20 Lincoln Military arrests of civilian dissenters Military arrests of civilian dissenters At first only in border states At first only in border states By 1862: anyone discouraging enlistment or involved in “disloyal” activities was subject to Martial law By 1862: anyone discouraging enlistment or involved in “disloyal” activities was subject to Martial law

21 Ex Parte Merryman Taney ordered that a prominent copperhead be released Taney ordered that a prominent copperhead be released Lincoln ignored the court order Lincoln ignored the court order Later: Ex Parte Milligan: ordered that civilian trials be held in civilian (not military) courts Later: Ex Parte Milligan: ordered that civilian trials be held in civilian (not military) courts By that time, Congress will not cooperate with the Court By that time, Congress will not cooperate with the Court

22 The Economy In the North the war stimulated the economy In the North the war stimulated the economy Growth in manufacturing and agriculture Growth in manufacturing and agriculture The Southern economy will be devastated The Southern economy will be devastated

23 Paying for the War in the North Taxes on almost all goods and services: 1861 first income tax: 10% on all incomes over $5,000…much resistance (WAS unconstitutional but it was upheld by the Court in the Springer case) Taxes on almost all goods and services: 1861 first income tax: 10% on all incomes over $5,000…much resistance (WAS unconstitutional but it was upheld by the Court in the Springer case) Issuing greenbacks (paper money): was not backed by specie. Value fluctuated according to Union Army victories. $450,000.00 issued Issuing greenbacks (paper money): was not backed by specie. Value fluctuated according to Union Army victories. $450,000.00 issued Loans: mostly government bonds Loans: mostly government bonds

24 Politics in the North The Republicans were without challenge: too few democrats to make any difference The Republicans were without challenge: too few democrats to make any difference Much Republican Legislation: Much Republican Legislation: The Homestead Act of 1862 The Homestead Act of 1862 The Morril Act The Morril Act Tariffs higher than ever before Tariffs higher than ever before Transcontinental RR (Pacific Railway Act 1850: began the government subsidy of Railroads Transcontinental RR (Pacific Railway Act 1850: began the government subsidy of Railroads National Banking Acts (1863 & 64) National Banking Acts (1863 & 64)

25 1862 Congressional Elections Heavy Republican Losses Heavy Republican Losses People were unhappy that the war was not over People were unhappy that the war was not over A new Republican strategy was needed A new Republican strategy was needed Lincoln could not lose the next presidential election so… Lincoln could not lose the next presidential election so… Union soldiers were allowed to vote Union soldiers were allowed to vote Nevada was able to enter the Union early: Lincoln needed the electors Nevada was able to enter the Union early: Lincoln needed the electors

26 The Union Party The Republicans formed a coalition with the War Democrats for this election only…1864 The Republicans formed a coalition with the War Democrats for this election only…1864 Union Party: Lincoln (212) Union Party: Lincoln (212) VP: Andrew Johnson (War Democrat) VP: Andrew Johnson (War Democrat) (Peace) Democrats: McClellen (21) (Former head of the Army of the Potomac! Promised a truce (Peace) Democrats: McClellen (21) (Former head of the Army of the Potomac! Promised a truce


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