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Johali CHS282JOHALI2ndPriHE 2015 PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION

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1 Johali CHS282JOHALI2ndPriHE 2015 PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Johali CHS282JOHALI2ndPriHE PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION Don’t teach me – Help \ Promote Me Welcome PHE QHE C-P Centered Welcome PHE The First Step Towards A Smart Happy HE Help to Get Smart Clip Arts Dr. Johali Ready + Willing 1St Step - ZD HE Happpiness Eisa Ali Johali Face book Group https://www.facebook.com/groups/johaliCHS282PriHE2nd2015 https://www.facebook.com/groups/ LinkedIn Group: JohaliPriHE2nd2015https://www.linkedin.com/groups?viewMembers=&gid= &sik= Researchgate: ??????????? !!! ? but not active

2 https://twitter.com/TheNature2011 Dr. Eisa Johali
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم EISA ALI JOHALI عيسى بن علي الجوحلي A Lecturer Bachelor A. M. Sc. Heath Education, KSU 1407 /1987 Short Fellowship Planning Health Professions Education, UIC, USA 199 MA (Ed.) Philosophies and Sciences of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum in Nursing, UK 1995 PhD Health Sciences By Accrediting Prior Experiences, Hill University Sept. 2012 Author of Two Published Books & 3 Projected https://twitter.com/TheNature2011 Dr. Eisa Johali

3 Be Passive Student & Patient? Or Be Active ?
PHE Promotion لأن الجودة من الحرص والاجتهاد ولآن ”الاحساس والشعور بمرض ومشكلات ومتاعب الاخرين“هي غاية مقررنا هذا طلبا للحسنيين، وهي في ”التقوى“، نستهل مقدمتنا هده بآيات من الذكر الحكيم في التقوى: وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجًا * وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ  [الطلاق/2، 3]  إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا [الأنفال/29]. وقول رسوله الكريم نبينا ”محمد“ عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام، عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه: ( لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه) أخرجه البخاري وقوله صلى الله علية وسلم (كان الله في عون العبد ما كان العبد في عون أخيه) رواه مسلم وأبو داود والترمذي These Islamic Calls are our Evidences to assure Quality of Profession; Quality of HEPT & Quality of Life today and for the Day after. Meanwhile, do not forget the most common Arab Proverb: “Nothing Itching Your Skin Like Your Nail” “ ما يحك جلدك مثل ظفرك” So; Who can itch your skin! Effectively? You or other eg. teacher When you will feel better & Who can understand better: the Passive student who taught or filled by other the teacher? Or the active student who learn by himself or at least participate /share learning with teacher?. Thus, what do you prefer /recommend: Be Passive Student & Patient? Or Be Active ? Johali2nd2015

4 Johali2nd2015 PHE Introductory
As an introductory to this probing “Lectures’ Note”, I would like to send a progressive educational message to my dear “Adult Learners”. My dear learner remember that you are not a primary school pupil neither a an elementary nor even, a secondary student. You are an adult learner that in order to success in this progressive course and in your life as well, you have to “Think, Participate, Practice & Reflect on and in, you have to react actively and voluntarily at every session. This is not a traditional lectures’ note that you can just read, store and recall. it is a “Lifelong Learning Guide (LLG)” to help you to think around, back, about, over and up. It is prepared to promote you to search about the most appropriate knowledge, attitude that can lead to the right behavior for you, your patients and community as well. This LLG consists of nine major learning units. Before briefing the history of medical laboratory science & education, it starts probing the reasons why you are studying this course (HE; CN; HEPT; HERT; HEMLT; HEHA). The second and third units promote you to determine the boundaries of the quality of H & E through the modern philosophical and scientific concepts of education and health that can guide you to, the Fourth by which you will distinguish the appropriate methodologies and technologies that can enable you to plan and develop effective health education activities to increase the quality of Patients’ Healthful Life. In order to learn the course well, you have to use "Your All Senses" and "Abilities", as well; You have to attend, see, listen, ask, discuss and participate actively in teaching, learning and assessing your self, your colleague, your teaching and learning process and materials, your curriculum, and your teacher, as well. Finally, if you do so, do not worry, you will success in your course and your life as well. With this Concise & its T&L Plan and Process “All the Learners will success; Except the one Who DO NOT Like” Don’t Be Ready & Welling to Success – Don’t Attend – Be Active Johali2nd2015

5 Johali Course Syllabus – Objectives & Plan 2015
All the Learners will success; Except the one Who DO NOT Like” Don’t Be Ready & Welling to Success – Don’t Attend – Be Active…… Course (code and NO): (CHS 282) Course title: Principles of health education Credit hours:  2 (2+0) Level: 5 Contact hours: 2 Prerequisite: CHS 212 Course Description OLD Health Education Definition, philosophy, need of health education. Principles of teaching and learning process, domains of learning, scope of teaching: teaching knowledge, attitudes, different types of skills. Application of education principles for improving health education, task analysis, curriculum & lesson plan development, improving learning environment Johali 2014 This in an introductory course to all yours' (Health Education) specialty courses. If you are ready you will probe the historical and philosophical roots of "Education – Health" and define the related terms. know scopes and aims of health education, and investigate its basic principles. Then you will know, indentify and write health education aims, goals, the teaching and learning objectives using the meaningful leaning domains cognitive, affect-attitudes, thinking, and the psychomotor action skills. After task and community analysis, you will have a trial how to use these bases and principles to develop and improving health education programs, lessons and plan. organizational paradigms, cost containment, and continuous quality improvement Johali2nd2015

6 1 Topics to be Covered List of Topics No of Weeks Contact hours Course introduction and preparation 1st 2 History of Health Education and Health Promotion 2nd The Meaning of Health and Wellness 3rd Concept & philosophical bases of Health Education Promotion 4th -5th 4 Health Education and Promotion as a Profession 6th Health Education scopes , aims, roles and Settings 7th-8th With 1st Midexam Task analysis and community analysis 9th -11th 6 With 2nd Midexam Teaching and Learning domains, objectives and methods 12-13th Health education curriculum, lesson plan and evaluation 14th -15th Johali 2 PHE 1 T & L Plan 2015 All the Learners will success; Except the one Who DO NOT Like” Don’t Be Ready & Welling to Success – Don’t Attend – Be Active…… 1 Topics to be Covered TOPICS Teaching and Learning Activities Weeks hours Understanding each other's - Presenting and discussion the Course Objectives and Teaching Plan - Reasoning Why PHE (The Place of PHE in HE Profession & Education All Success Except Who Don't Like ( Not Ready and Willing To ………) 1 2 A Brief Historical with Probing PHE: from where to start " Health – Education" & Defining Terms 2nd -3rd 4 Philosophical bases of Health Education 4th -5th 1st Midterm Exam \ Smart Assignments plan and choice Health Education scopes , aims and roles and principles 8th – 9th Task – Community Analysis 6th -8th 6 Teaching and Learning domains : cognitive, affect-attitudes, thinking, and the psychomotor 9th – 11th 2nd midterm exam \ Presenting Smart Assignments Meaningful teaching and learning objectives: cognitive, affect- attitudes, thinking, and the action skills Develop tentative framework for effective health education curriculum, lesson and plan 12-15 Johali2nd2015

7 Major Text Book & References
Your Smart Note in this Class This Lecture: The Principles of Health Education – The First Step Towards ZDHE – Johali4PHE2015 CHS282 %2FJOHALI%2FJOHALI%20NEW%20ACADEMIC%20YEAR%202014%2FShared%20Documents%2F2ND%20SEMESTER%202014%2FCHS282JOHALI2014PHE1&FolderCTID=0x D152863CDF1824C914A4BF8E26A3E2D&View={0EF7A9A2-D995-48E7-9F A Reading Text: Health Education Goals & Philosophies by By Bonni C. Hodges, Professor, Health Department, SUNY College at Cortland Welle, H., Russell, R., & Kittleson, M. (1995). Philosophical trends in health education: Implications for the 21st century.Journal of Health Education, 26(6), Define – Roles: WHO (2012) Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies: a foundation document to guide capacity development of health. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Johali2nd2015

8 Now Let Us Start Small Group Brainstorming
Reasoning WHY PHE ? Why you are study this course Let us Start with: These Educational Videos Health Education Specialists: Promoting a Healthy World What is a Health Educator? By Amy McCauley, eHow Presenter Read more: Video: What is a Health Educator? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/video_ _health-educator_.html#ixzz2IkxDv9cB An Introduction To Health Education By Ms. Ria Gandhi A heath educator is employed by hospitals, public health facilities and other medical care settings to help educate patients about their health. Health educators teach classes about nutrition, diabetes, how to cease smoking and even childbirth education. If you like working with people and have no problem with public speaking, this may be a good career path for you. Read more: How to Become a Health Educator | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_ _become-health-educator.html#ixzz2IlEb1QrQ Health educators are responsible for encouraging a healthy lifestyle by educating communities and individuals about preventative measures to avoid injuries, health problems and diseases. Health educators put together plan programs based on the needs of their audience. Board-certified health educators must have a bachelor's degree or be within three months of completion of a bachelor's degree program to qualify. All states require public health educators to be certified. Read more: How to Become a Board-certified Health Educator | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_ _become-boardcertified-health-educator.html#ixzz2IlImOKvO Conclude ; PHE is the first step to all HE Courses It is Part of My Job Description (HEJD) Assure Quality of HE Johali2nd2015

9 Johali PHE Reasoning …WHY ?
Health Educator Job Description Job Title : Health Education Specialist Scientific Degree : Bachelor Degree AMS . Job requirements : A Competent Graduate Bachelor in his / her Profession’s Specific Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge of health and educational issues, Effective teaching methods and technologies Effective Communication and Counseling Reported to: the Health Education Consultant Master\PhD Job Definition (Summary) : Health Education and Promotion job is a focal point for all allied health professions and health issues. Thus, HE have to work effectively with health teams, with community and organization representatives, they have to facilitate, teach and promote clients to learn how to improve and maintain healthy behaviors. Major Job Duties: As a part of the Health team and under the above “Reported” health personnel; HE will be in charge in the following “Duties and Responsibilities”: Assessing patients, school and community health education needs Managing and organizing health education activities. Participate in providing health education in the local community (Inside Health Services and outside organizations such schools and industries..); Select health education methodology appropriate to the target clients taken in consideration cultural interests and needs. Prepare and participate in designing, evaluation and development of health education materials Supervise and participate in process of designing and implementing health education plans. Give Special Patients Counseling eg; diabetic patient education Improve his/her personal and professional knowledge and skills. Job Description Health Educator in Saudi Arabia A heath educator is employed by hospitals, public health facilities and other medical care settings to help educate patients about their health. Health educators teach classes about nutrition, diabetes, how to cease smoking and even childbirth education. If you like working with people and have no problem with public speaking, this may be a good career path for you. Read more: How to Become a Health Educator | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_ _become-health-educator.html#ixzz2IlEb1QrQ Health educators are responsible for encouraging a healthy lifestyle by educating communities and individuals about preventative measures to avoid injuries, health problems and diseases. Health educators put together plan programs based on the needs of their audience. Board-certified health educators must have a bachelor's degree or be within three months of completion of a bachelor's degree program to qualify. All states require public health educators to be certified. Read more: How to Become a Board-certified Health Educator | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_ _become-boardcertified-health-educator.html#ixzz2IlImOKvO Johali2nd2015

10 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
PROBE to DEFINE TERMS Looking for The E; H & HE that can Assure the Quality of Healthfully Life ? Johali2nd2015

11 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
What Is the Education That We Have To Look For Place of Health & HE in the Holy Quran & Prophet Medicine ? (Ego Reflective Assignment) Worldwide, the literature of both health and education neglected health education and its facts including the Islamic concepts until the early of this century. It was only in the late 1919 that the term “Health Education” was recognized in the Western literature by: The term “Health Education” was proposed first about 1919 at a conference in New York of leaders of health and education called the Child Health Organization. The word “Hygiene” has become some popular in schools with both teachers and pupils that it was believed a new and more definitive term would be helpful in popularizing health practice. “Health Education” as a term to replace “Hygiene” was advanced by the director of the organization and after much discussion adopted. (Kime et al 1977) Johali2nd2015

12 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
In the 1940s, quality assurance and standards for professional, then accreditation introduced. In the 1970s, health education started to evolve as a profession in the sociological perspective. Efforts to create a health education code of ethics The above historical statement clarify the nature of modern HE, it indicates that Hygiene (Germ-free, Pure, and Healthful) was the previous term of health education in the Western literature. It confirms the Integrated Relationship between the two Sciences “Education - Health” that can simplified by the following formula: EDUCATION  HEALTH  Healthful Life SO, What is the “EDUCATION” that leads to HEALTH?" & Go ahead to promote the Quality of HE Johali2nd2015

13 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
How did the Old Greece and Muslims Philosophers and Scientists educate (Socrates; Aristotle; Plato & Ibn Khaldon, Al Ghazali; Avicenna & Bin Bazz?) (Ego Reflective Assignment) The term “Education” came from: the Latin words “Educo = To lead out” the & "Educare = Training the mind; the English term "Educe = To draw out". In Islam and Arabic language “Education” means: Breeding & Perfection; reform تربية، تهذيب، وإصلاح The latest ًWestern educational philosophies such as “the progressivism & the reconstructionism” connect "Education" to the “Freedom = the Democracy”. In the late 17 Century, "Rousseau" a French teacher addressed the following advice: Give your scholar no verbal lessons, he should be taught by experience alone...Put the problems before him and let him solve them himself. Let him know nothing because you have told him, but because he has learnt it for himself. Let him not be taught science, let him discover it. (Johali 1995). Johali2nd2015

14 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
Also, Albert Einstein" ( ) the German/US Physicist said: "I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the condition in which they can Learn“ (Valcin 2001) These advices formed the foundation of the progressive, freedom or democratic education that produced many modern educational theories and strategies such as: Problem-Solving & Problem Based Learning; Learning by Experience or Experiential Learning ; Learning by Discovery, and finally, "Andragogy” the"Student/Patient Centred Leaning. Eventhough, the Western Philosophers still looking the education that assure the quality.. Johali2nd2015

15 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
The Optimists (Idealists) of the above philosophies and theories believe in the “Ideal Education” that “: A Perfect Education will Produce a Perfect Society or Heaven on the Earth” As A Muslim; Do you believe ? (If you don’t?!, Your Religion Do) This believe was strongly criticized by many educational philosophies such as, the Realism who reject the terms “perfect or idealist”; the Behaviorism who see “education in their behaviors” and, the Experientialism who connects “education to the experience only”. Reflecting on the above educational concepts with health considerations, the logical definition of “General Education” can be concluded as: “A Lifelong Process of Growth and Development” Johali2nd2015

16 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
Self thinking “EGO QUESTION: Modify the above definition of “general education” into an Islamic definition?” ==== “A Growth and Development Process for …….. ?& the …… …. ” The Ideal Islamic Definition of “GE” is A Growth and Development Process TODAY & for the DAY AFTER OR A Process of Meaningful Learning for Today & the Day After The appropriate “Education” تعليم/تثقيفthat can be defined as: An intellectual & behavioral process of “Teaching and Learning” activities that influence the growth & development and promote healthful life. Still, “What Teaching تدريس & What is Learning تعلم ” that can promote the QHEHِ? Johali2nd2015

17 While the traditional “Teaching” is understood as:
Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT What Is the Education That We Have To Look For While the traditional “Teaching” is understood as: “A teacher based process of providing and injecting knowledge, attitudes and skills” to inflate memory. The “TEACHING” that we are looking is “a process of promoting and helping other to LEARN. The traditional behaviorism “Learning” is realized as “a process of gaining deep and wide knowledge, attitudes and skills that can control and shape behaviors. Such learning is a form of training rather than education. While, The Millennium “LEARNING” that we are looking for is: “An Independent Process of Growth and Development within the personal science, technology, experience, & behavior Johali2nd2015

18 Common Philosophies (Systems) of Education
Key Concepts Most Common Philosophies & Theories of Education Humanism Technocrat Progressivism Reconstruction Transfer Shape Travel /Jearny Grow Education /Process Preserve& Transmit Knowledge Adaptation/ Training Training/Skills/Objectives Personal Growth & Development Society-Centered Create better society Knowledge/ Theory worthwhile relative- essential for safe practice Life experience Tentative Student interest Tentative Society interest Skills/ Practice Relative to safe practice Vital Teacher/HE Centre / Transferor Instructor & Guide Facilitator Indoctrinator/ Orientator Examination/ Evaluation Vital-theory Vital- practical Self interest & evaluation Vital theory-practice for better society Student/Patient  Passive- container Fully-controlled Passive- holder practically fully supervised Active/ Free-interest Active Semi-control Curriculum/Plan Map of key Subject Schedule of Basic Skills/ a kind of Technology Portfolio of Experiences Agenda of Cultural Issues Group Discussion \ Role Playing CHS282 Johali2nd2015

19 Johali2nd2015

20 What Is “HEALTH” That You Are Looking For ?!
Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT What is the Heallth That You Are Looking For ? What Is “HEALTH” That You Are Looking For ?! 1) Hold a Small Group Discussion 2) Visit: Welcome visit my e_Sites\ My groups: What Does Health Means to You ? Health has a long history with huge philosophical concepts, may be the first health meaning raised before billions of years, the early .. The Philosophy Network Johali2nd2015

21 Holistic - Holiness -Happiness
CHS282 Johali2nd2015

22 COMMON PHILOSOPHIES OF HEALTH
WHAT IS HEALTH? that we are look for:? Medics “Curative Medicine” Behaviorists Social Scientists Humanists Idealists Physical fitness absence of disease harmonious functioning of organs Commodity “Just Feeling Good” ability to adapt “Adaptation” (HBM) Well social function absent of all diseases, health problems & handicaps Personal strength\ability Self Growth & Development Perfect well-being in every respect Behaviorist also come under Realism = Pragmatic Johali2nd2015 CHS282

23 Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT
What Health Means to You \ Health That You Are Looking For ? What “HEALTH” Means to You \ Health you are looking fore\HC To be appropriate for all nation; the “WHO Constitution 1946”, “Health” is defined as: A STATE OF COMPLETE PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SOCIAL WELLBEING AND NOT MERELY THE ABSENCE OF DISEASE AND INFIRMITY. Infirmity = any health problem or defect Complete = Total; Whole; Absolute & Perfect Ego Reflective Thinking & Assignment As an ideal religious centred society, how we can create an accepted “Health” Definition with Evidences from Holy Quran & Sunnah ”? Now, think what is next…? Defining HE that can assure\ grantee the Quality of healthful Life Johali2nd2015

24 Johali2nd2015 WHAT IS HEALTH EDUCATION?
Johali HISTO_PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT What HE Means to You\ HE That You Are Looking For ? WHAT IS HEALTH EDUCATION? As health + education, “HEALTH EDUCATION” has different meanings. Based on the scientific principles of the “Learning and Behavioral Theories & Models” and “the Diagnostic Approach of Planning H. E.”, the most appropriate definition can be a combination of these two definitions: WHO” DEFINITION A PROCESS WITH INTELLECTUAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, & SOCIAL DIMENTIONS RELATING TO ACTIVITIES THAT INCREASE THE ABILITIES OF PEOPLE TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS AFFECTING THIER PERSONAL, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY WELL-BEING. & BEHAVIORIST DEFINITION ANY COMBINATION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES DESIGNED TO FACILITATE VOLUNTARY ADAPTATIONS OF BEHAVIOR CONDUCTIVE TO HEALTH. Ego Exercise ( who you can extract \create meaningful HE goals\ objectives (Later) Now ….Think which is the HE that you are looking ? \ Are dim Johali2nd2015

25 Thus, let us hold a “Learning Debate”
Based on these literature, the nature of the Saudi community and culture, the nature and fortitude future of HE, the ideal definition of a “National Health; & National HE” that the whole people can understand, accept and react with it positively, is: Johali2nd2015

26 What is the National HE that We have to look for
A NATIONAL DEFINITION OF HEALTH & HE The history of health, education and health education show that health education has many definitions and understanding. These definitions and understanding are varied from generation to other and from nation to nation according to their cultural and social background. To motivate people to accept and react positively with health education message and activities, the early and the religious based definitions were considering the terms "Moral; Spiritual & Emotional"... As an outcome of the Western Age of Reasoning, these morality terms were neglected. At the early of 20 century, there were worldwide debates regarding the most appropriate definitions for health, education, and health education. As a result of these philosophical and scientific debates, the early terms and many other such as “physical and / or intellectual, mental and / or psychological, cultural/environmental and or social….” were discussed for the best health education definition. Beside "Politics" the administrator factor, there are many other factors such as "economical, scientific and technological" factors such as poverty, hunger, hazards that can affect the quality of health full life of people (-ve/+ve). Ego (self) Reflective Learning: Johali2nd2015

27 What is the National HE that We have to look for
An Ideal dynamic process of (1) Moral, (2) Spiritual, (3) Physical, (4) Intellectual, (5) Mental, (6) Emotional (7) Psychological, (8) Social, (9) Cultural, (10) Environmental, (11) Economical, with (12) Professional Ethics, that can help people/customers to “grow; develop”, and make informal decisions affecting their personal, family and community well being. “An outcome of NUR/MLT Student Group Work 21/2/1427” An Ideal dynamic process of (1) Moral, (2) Spiritual, (3) Physical, (4) Intellectual, (5) Mental, (6) Emotional (7) Psychological, (8) Social, (9) Cultural, (10) Environmental including Climate, (11) Economical, (12) Political with (13) Professional Ethics and (14) appropriate “Technological mean” that can help people/customers to “grow; develop”, and make informal decisions within a specific “Time” affecting their personal, family and community well being. “An outcome of “Has’ Student-Lecturer Dialogue NurHE 1423; HEHA 28/2/1427”modified 1428 ; CN 2011; HE 2013 Do you have any addition .. New dimension / factor can affect your health … ?! THINK & DRAW IN A PHILOSOPICAL MODEL “Diagram” Johali2nd2015

28 Health- Illness – Sickness - Disease Scale
WELLNESS Model A purposeful, enjoyable, and deliberate lifestyle choice characterized by personal responsibility and optimal enhancement of physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual health. ( to maximum all 15 dimensions ) Health- Illness – Sickness - Disease Scale WELLNESS Health Disease Complete Physical Mental Social Emotional Spiritual health … etc Severe, disabling, and life-threatening illness effecting physical, mental and social health Johali2nd2015

29 Conclude Draw Education - Health – HE Integrated
Integrated Self Creative Conceptual diagrams   Conclude Johali NHE Defin. Later after understanding philosophical and scientific models Later after understanding philosophical and scientific models Johali2nd2015

30 The 5 Historical Philosophies Johali FCSDB
HE Philosophical Bases HE Philosophy-Why? Direction Guidance Consistency Profession Ethical Definition the PEDDPGC The 5 Historical Philosophies Johali FCSDB Freeing/Functioning = free people to make the best health decisions Cognitive Based = Focus on content and information, increase in knowledge to help in making decisions Social Change = Focus on the role of health education in creating social, economic, and political change that benefit all. Decision Making/Skills-based = Concern with simulated problems, case studies, scenarios, create and analyze potential solutions, critical thinking skills developed Behavior Change = Focus on modifying unhealthy habits Focus on the role of health education in creating social, economic, and political change that benefit all. EDDPGC the PEDDPGC Simulated problems, case studies, scenarios, create and analyze potential solutions, critical thinking skills developed. Johali2nd2015

31 Some philosophical questions you might have
HE Philosophical Bases Some philosophical questions you might have Should I develop my own philosophy? Will my philosophy “work” in all situations? What if I don’t “fit” into one of the existing philosophical positions? What is the difference between a “goal” of HE and a philosophy? What is the difference between a “goal; vision, mission of HE and “ philosophy “ ? One way to think about it Goal = result, outcome, long(er) term Philosophy = how to get to the result Johali2nd2015

32 Johali2nd2015 Philosophy is
HE Philosophical Bases Philosophy is A Greek comes from the Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom", and was originally a word referring to the special way of life of early Greek philosophers.[4][5][6] The study of general and fundamental problems, such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[1][2] It is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.[3] HE Philosophy reflects: The way in which you consistently act toward other people is often a reflection of your philosophy concerning the importance of people in general: The profession of Health Education is considered a helping profession. Those who work in the profession should value helping others. Health Education Philosophy Student questions at class Health is a state of being balanced environmentally, physically, mentally, spiritually and socially, which allows an individual to feel complete and function at levels pleasing to that individual. I identify most with the eclectic health education philosophy.  I feel it is important for a health educator to be resourceful and adaptable in choosing the health education approach which seems appropriate to the situation. In different environments I might use different philosophies, for example in the community the social change philosophy might be best; school or worksite, it would depend on the situation, the behavior, cognitive-based, decision-making, freeing/functioning and social change philosophy may all be used, or a combination of philosophies might be more effective. My philosophy of health education aligns with my philosophy of health in that I believe health is comprised of several components (environment, physical, mental, spiritual, and social) each as important as the other and my philosophy of health education includes motivating others towards a balance with all of these. My philosophy of health and health education has a major impact on the decisions I make daily which affect my personal health and happiness. I am careful about the foods I choose to eat, I wear a seat belt, I stay away from dangerous places, I try to exercise regularly, I avoid tobacco and alcohol, I am in monogamous relationship and I work at managing my stress. My philosophy of health and health education will have a huge impact on how I implement methods in programs professionally and also on my influence in the community. My beliefs, values, and attitude of how I see the world will impact the decisions I make in choosing which course I take professionally and how strongly I may feel about issues in the community.   Johali2nd2015

33 Thinking – Play with thinking
HE Philosophical Bases Thinking – Play with thinking Conclude from above probing –your philosophy of ‘E – H or H – E ‘ ?! Let’s Play – define Let’s Play – define Should I develop my own philosophy ? Will my philosophy “work” in all situations? YES NO Johali2nd2015

34 Determining your philosophy
Goal of HE is focused on behavior Parts/steps/strategies to promoting and maintaining behavior Deciding where to stop HE Behavior ? Knowledge knowledge knowledge application DM & PS Related skills behavior- Related skills Johali2nd2015

35 Sample 1 School Community HE Philosophy
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36 Draw showing place of heath, education and promotion
Sample 2 Johali 1995 Nursing _HE Philosophy in the UK Advanced Nursing P 2000 Draw showing place of heath, education and promotion Source: Johali2nd2015

37 HE Scopes \ Goals\ Basic Principles
CHS282 Johali2nd2015

38 How you can extract \create meaningful HE goals\ objectives :
Ego Exercise Go back to probe historical and philosophical bases and the WHO Definitions of Health & HE How you can extract \create meaningful HE goals\ objectives : As an ideal modern religious centered society, how we can create HE Overall Goal that you like… An ideal “accepted & promoting goal\objective A Persuasive HE goal \ objective CHS282 Johali2nd2015

39 Johali2nd2015 H E  QUALITY OF HEALTHFUL LIFE &
THE TWO MAJOR HE OBJECTIVES ARE HELP PEOPLE TO INCREASE THIER ABILITIES TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS AFFECTING THIER PERSONAL, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY WELL-BEING. FACILITATE VOLUNTARY ADAPTATIONS OF BEHAVIOR CONDUCTIVE TO HEALTH. BY ENCOURAGING, MOTIVATING, PROMOTE NOT TEACH/INSTRUCT\ORDER PEOPLE\PATIENTS TO: ACQUIRE .………………………………...…,. PERCEPT (Accept/ not Reject) .… MOTIVATE To (accept) ……….………….. MODIFY\HELP CHANGE voluntary …… PROMOTE SELF / INDEPENDENT / MAINTAIN HEALTH BEHAVIORS Facilitate voluntary adaption is behavioral objective (t) Johali2nd2015

40 Aims – Objective of Health education
Health promotion and disease prevention. Early diagnosis and management. Utilization of available health services. Objectives To make health an assets valued by the community. To help people to increase knowledge of the factors that affect health. To encourage behavior which promotes and maintains health. To enlist support for public health measures, and when necessary, to press for appropriate institutional and national action. To encourage appropriate use of health services especially preventive services. To inform the public about medical advances, their uses and their limitations Johali2nd2015

41 Nature\ Bases & Components of Health Education Principles HEP
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42 Three Bases of HE Principles
B1: Health education is an essential component of any programme to improve the health of communities. B2: Effective planning of any health education programme depends on identifying the problems/ needs of the people (PcHEP) B3: The introduction of new practices may fail if they are incompatible with “local beliefs and practices “ (Islam). Johali2nd2015

43 Principles (Cont.) Johali2nd2015
B4: Any proposal for a change of practice should: meet a felt need of the community be simple to put into practice with the existing knowledge and skills in the community; fit in with existing life style and culture and not conflict with local beliefs (Islam); be locally affordable (money, materials, and time) B5: Flexible and fit in with people’s circumstances-For example, education about nutrition should be based on foods that are available locally, aids for the disabled made from local materials, latrines built with traditional methods. Johali2nd2015

44 Principles (Cont.) Johali2nd2015
B6: Require continuous dialogue with the community to find acceptable solutions to meet their needs. B7: Local taboos may be obstacles to implementing health education but many of them actually support the health education programme. Johali2nd2015

45 B8. Psychological Shadow HEPs
Learning by doing: “ If I hear, I forget If I see, I remember If I do, I know”. Motivation, i.e. awakening the desire to know and learn: - Primary motives; e.g. internal the inborn desires , hunger, sex. - Secondary motives; i.e. desires created by incentives such as praise, love, recognition, competition. In learning by doing, if I forget I hear ( f) Praise is a primary motive Johali2nd2015 CHS282

46 The 10th HEPrinciples Johali IPMCPRGPFM_KAA
Interest Participation Motivation Comprehension Proceeding from the known to the unknown Reinforcement through repetition Good human relations People, 9 Facts and 10 Media: 8. knowledgeable, 9. attractive, 10 acceptable “. 10th PHE Model CHS282 Johali2nd2015

47 Contents of health education
Personal hygiene Proper health habits and behaviors (Balance Nutrition-Dietitian \- Unhealthy e.g; Smoking\Substance\Drug.. ) Personal preventive measures Accidents and Safety rules Proper use of health services – Misuse Mental health Sexual education (within Islamic teaching) Special education (occupation, mothers …..etc) Personal hygiene is the first content of health education contents Johali2nd2015

48 Adoption of new ideas or practice
The Five steps Awareness (know) Interests (details) Evaluation (Advantages Vs Disadvantages) Trial (practices) Adoption (habit) I know I am aware In the adoption five steps, adoption is the first Johali2nd2015

49 Stages for health education
The 6 Ss (Johali SPEMAC) Stage of Sensitization Stage of Publicity Stage of Education Stage of Motivation and Action Stage of Attitude change Stage of Community Transformation (social change) Sensitization is the first of the health education stages Stage of sensitization- people are sensitized of an emerging problem, like, “AIDS causes death”. Its easy to sensitize litterate population, rather than illiterate one. If people are sensitized then they become more receptive to health education messages and try to seek more information regarding the health problem. Stage of publicity – after sensitizing the media and all possible means of advertising are used to provide information to the public. The people who are receptive will absorb and understand the implications of the disease. The idea here is that people discuss among themselves and become more knowledgeable. Stage of Education – this is the stage of Real education for the disinterested and illiterate population. Leaders of the local community like religious leaders and teachers should be approached first then after they are convinced the communities can be educated. During this stage, simultaneous messages on TV and the media should be continued. Stage of Attitude change- Stage of Motivation and Action Stage of Community Transformation (social change) Johali2nd2015

50 PHE Major Characteristics
It involves the use of multiple strategies and methods. It is a systematically planned activity or process It is a health intervention which is devoid of coercion (Order; Compulsion; Forces…opp: persuasion-motivation) Done with the full understanding and free acceptance by the target audience. It focuses on human health related behavior or action: (a) Healthy (b) Unhealthy It is a process In PHE Major Characteristics, the PHE involves use of multiple strategies and methods focus on human Johali2nd2015

51 نهاية شرح هنا قبل التقييم 1
HEPs’ Principles of Teaching and Learning Summary of Theories of Meaningful Learning Principles ….. Teaching and Learning domains : cognitive, affect-attitudes, thinking, and the psychomotor نهاية شرح هنا قبل التقييم 1 https://www.facebook.com/groups/ / هاية شرح هنا قبل التقييم 1 Johali2nd2015

52 5 + 7 The Five Simples Principles of Teaching
Acadia Institute for Teaching and Technology “Acadia” Faculty Said: The Take a personal interest in students \ patients beyond the classroom Be willing to listen to and help students\patients Care about students\patients - Be there for them Remember that students\patients can teach you Truly care about your students in general Gagne, R - Principles of Instructional Design Arthur W. Chickering - Principles for Good Practice 23 Acadia faculty - Recognized as excellent teachers Johali2nd2015

53 The 7 Ps Good practice encourages student-faculty contact Principle 1
“Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students’ intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans.” –Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson, “Seven Principles for Good Practice,” AAHEBulletin 39: 3-7, March 1987 Students and patients motivation refers to the 1st Principle of the 5 Ps Acadia Institute for Teaching and Technology Acadia Faculty Said: Take a personal interest in students beyond the classroom Be willing to listen to and help students Care about students; be there for them Remember that students can teach you Truly care about your students in general Knowing faculty members motivates students and keeps them on track Knowing faculty members provides models Johali2nd2015

54 Johali2nd2015

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57 Johali2nd2015 Talent = ability, capacity, aptitude مواهب... قدرات
Diverse = Varied, Various, Miscellaneous = different Good practice respects similar talents and one way learning ( F) ?!!! To success, Non Muslims start with ‘hello’ and we have to start with Salam the peace ( t) Johali2nd2015

58 Students = Patients Johali2nd2015
Surveys and Islam teach us to do true care for students and patients Students = Patients Johali2nd2015

59 Why Resistances \ Barriers Changes
PHE The Story of Behavior What – Why – How Can You – Do You Accept Change Why Resistances \ Barriers Changes Johali2nd2015

60 Major HE Variables in Behavior Change
Thoughts and ideas inside a person’s mind have significant influence on an individual’s health behaviors. These variables interact with social and environmental factors and it is the synergy among all these influences that operate on behavior. Knowledge: An intellectual acquaintance with facts, truth, or principles gained by sight, experience, or report. Skills : The ability to do something well, arising from talent, training, or practice. Belief : Acceptance of or confidence in an alleged fact or body of facts as true or right without positive knowledge or proof; a perceived truth. Attitude: Manner, disposition, feeling, or position toward a person or thing. Values: Ideas, ideals, customs that arouse an emotional response for or against them. In Medicine Summarized in CAPS \ KAPS Variables in Behavior Change Knowledge Facts and Truth Thoughts and ideas inside a person’s mind have significant influence on an individual’s health behaviors. These variables interact with social and environmental factors and it is the synergy among all these influences that operate on behavior. Knowledge: An intellectual acquaintance with facts,truth, or principles gained by sight, experience, or report. Skills : The ability to do something well, arising from talent, training, or practice. Belief : Acceptance of or confidence in an alleged fact or body of facts as true or right without positive knowledge or proof; a perceived truth. Attitude: Manner, disposition, feeling, or position toward a person or thing. Values: Ideas, ideals, customs that arouse an emotional response for or against them. Johali2nd2015

61 Theory of Reasoned Action
TRA has been explained and predicted a variety of human behaviors since 1967. It based on the Premise that “humans are rational and that the behaviors being explored are under volitional control, It provides a construct links Individual beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior (Fishbein et al1994). This TRA based on 6 Variables : Behavior: A specific behavior defined by a combination of four components: action, target, context, and time (e.g., implementing a HIV risk reduction strategy (action) by workers using clove and mask (target) in communicating with HIV inpatients (context) every time (time). Intention: The intent to perform a behavior is the best predictor that a desired behavior will actually occur. In order to measure it accurately and effectively, intent should be defined using the same components used to define behavior: action, target, context, and time. Both attitude and norms, described below, influence one's intention to perform a behavior. Attitude: A person's positive or negative feelings toward performing the defined behavior. Behavioral Beliefs: Behavioral beliefs are a combination of a person's beliefs regarding the outcomes of a defined behavior and the person's evaluation of potential outcomes. Norms: A person's perception of other people's opinions regarding the defined behavior. Normative Beliefs: Normative beliefs are a combination of a person's beliefs regarding other people's views of a behavior and the person's willingness to conform to those views. As with behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs regarding other people's opinions and the evaluation of those opinions will vary from population to population. The TRA provides a framework for linking each of the above variables together ( above diagram). Essentially, the behavioral and normative beliefs referred to as cognitive structures -- influence individual attitudes and subjective norms, respectively. In turn, attitudes and norms shape a person's intention to perform a behavior. (Summarize and reorganize these 6 in 5 Only … BIBAN - Redraw model … ) Attitude refers to: May be match Person positive feeling Person negative feeling person perception of other people’s opinions Johali2nd2015

62 Theory of Reasoned Action
Redraw showing the major five varables As HE; think and describe this diagrammatic model …..to what cases and how you can use …Then read author’s description …You can summarize –redraw more accurate Johali2nd2015 Source: Ajen,I., Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

63 The Belief Benefits Barriers
Anticipated value of the recommended course of action. Must believe recommended health action will do good if they are to comply. Perception of negative consequences Greatest predictive value of whether behavior will be practiced. Perception of negative consequences reflects in: Belief barriers \ benefits \ part of Perceived Benefits This is related to “how will I benefit if I take the recommended course of action”? Individuals must feel that the recommended behavior will be successful in protecting them from the health problem of concern. They must have confidence in the behavior, the vaccine, or the screening procedure in order for them to undertake the practice. The perception of a positive benefit is very important for the public to want to adopt a preventive action. For example, confidence in the efficacy of the flu vaccine should increase the likelihood of seeking the vaccine. Perceived Barriers The perception of any negative consequences of taking a preventive action is represented under perceived barriers. These could be in the form of high cost, taking too much time, transportation issues, childcare issues, or being painful. Experts report that practicing safe sex represents a host of barriers, particularly to adolescents, that must be addressed for more successful adherence to recommendations. Of all the four belief categories of the model, perceived barriers have the greatest predictive value of whether or not people will practice the behavior. In other words, if people see strong reasons for their not following preventive action, it is very likely that they will not take action. This is important information for health promotion program developers. Johali2nd2015

64 Stages of Change Johali2nd2015
Psychologists developed the Stages of Change Theory (SCT) in 1982 to compare smokers in therapy and self-changers along a behavior change continuum. The rationale behind "staging" people, as such, was to tailor therapy to a person's needs at his/her particular point in the change process. As a result, the four original components of the Stages of Change Theory (Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance) were identified and resented as a linear process of change. Since then, a fifth stage (preparation for action) has been incorporated into the theory, as well as ten processes that help predict and motivate individual movement across stages. In addition, the stages are no longer considered to be linear; rather, they are components of a cyclical process that varies for each individual. Stages of Change Model The Stage of Change Model, also known as the Transtheoretical Model, was developed in 1984 by Prochaska and Di Clemente. Their work was based on the fact that people are not all at the same stage of readiness when it comes to changing lifestyle factors. While some are ready to begin the change itself, others may not even be aware why it might be important to do so. This approach begins with individual assessment of “readiness to change” and customizes health promotion strategies based on their stage. The goal in this model is to move a person to the next stage rather than to have a group goal for each person to lose weight, for example. Studies show that only about 20% of people are actually ready to take action and change their behavior, most are not really thinking about it or are beginning to think about it. The Stages of Change Model has been used very successfully for a variety of health behaviors and has been particularly effective with adolescents. We will briefly discuss each of the stages. It is important to match the intervention programs to the stage. Most interventions are aimed at the action stage. Older people are more likely to quit smoking and abusing alcohol, while younger people are more likely to lose weight and exercise. Johali2nd2015

65 Stages of Change Model the PCPAM
The stages and processes, as described by Prochaska, DiClemente and Norcross (1992), are listed below. Pre-Contemplation: Individual has the problem (whether he/she recognizes it or not) and has no intention of changing. With PC Processes: 1. Consciousness raising (information and knowledge) 2. Dramatic relief (role playing) 3. Environmental Reevaluation (how problem affects physical environment) Contemplation: Individual recognizes the problem and is seriously thinking about changing..With C Processes: Self-reevaluation (assessing one's feelings regarding behavior) Preparation for Action: Individual recognizes the problem and intends to change the behavior within the next month. Some behavior change efforts may be reported, such as inconsistent condom usage. However, the defined behavior change criterion has not been reached (i.e., consistent condom usage). With PA Processes: Self-liberation (commitment or belief in ability to change) Action: Individual has enacted consistent behavior change (i.e., consistent condom usage) for less than six months….With A Processes: 1. Reinforcement management (overt and covert rewards) 2. Helping relationships (social support, selfhelp groups) 3. Counter-conditioning (alternatives for behavior) 4. Stimulus control (avoid high-risk cues) Maintenance: Individual maintains new behavior for six months or more. A variety of behaviors, such as smoking cessation, weight control efforts and mammography screening, have been explored in U.S. populations using the Stages of Change Theory (Prochaska, 1994). Matching (may be ) Johali2nd2015

66 Stages of Change Model the PCPAM
Redraw the Vertical model of ‘Stages of Behavioral Change” in a Self CN Cycle Model, showing the center major five stages and two examples of the sub-stages In SCM. Self reevaluation located between: Action and Maintenance Contemplation and Preparation Stimulus Central is a partion it of the first Source: Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C. and Norcross, J.C. (1992). In search of how people change -- applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), Johali2nd2015

67 Stages of Change Model the PCPAM Model
Redraw Figure 1 Cycle of change (after Prochaska and DiClemente7) in Bondy, C 2004, J R Soc Med. 2004; 97(Suppl 44): 43–47. Johali2nd2015

68 May use this model instead of HBM
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69 AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM)
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 The AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), introduced in 1990, provides a framework for explaining and predicting the behavior change efforts of individuals specifically in relationship to the sexual transmission of HIV/ AIDS. A three-stage model, the ARRM incorporates several variables from other behavior change theories, including the Health Belief Model, "efficacy" theory, emotional influences, and interpersonal processes. The stages, as well as the hypothesized factors that influence the successful completion of each stage (please see attached diagram), are as follows (Catania, Kegeles and Coates, 1990): STAGE 1: Recognition and labeling of one's behavior as high risk Hypothesized Influences: l knowledge of sexual activities associated with HIV transmission; l believing that one is personally susceptible to contracting HIV; l believing that having AIDS is undesirable; l social norms and networking. STAGE 2: Making a commitment to reduce high-risk sexual contacts and to increase low-risk activities l cost and benefits; l enjoyment (e.g., will the changes affect my enjoyment of sex?); l response efficacy (e.g., will the changes successfully reduce my risk of HIV infection?); l self-efficacy; l knowledge of the health utility and enjoyability of a sexual practice, as well as social factors (group norms and social support), are believed to influence an individual's cost and benefit and selfefficacy beliefs. STAGE 3: Taking action. This stage is broken down into three phases: 1) information seeking; 2) obtaining remedies; 3) enacting solutions. Depending on the individual, phases may occur concurrently or phases may be skipped. social networks and problem-solving choices (self-help, informal and formal help); l prior experiences with problems and solutions; l level of self-esteem; l resource requirements of acquiring help; l ability to communicate verbally with sexual partner; l sexual partner's beliefs and behaviors. In addition to the stages and influences listed above, the authors of the ARRM (Catania et al., 1990) identified other internal and external factors that may motivate individual movement across stages. For instance, aversive emotional states (e.g., high levels of distress over HIV/AIDS or alcohol and drug use that blunt emotional states) may facilitate or hinder the labeling of one's behaviors. External motivators, such as public education campaigns, an image of a person dying from AIDS, or informal support groups, may also cause people to examine and potentially change their sexual activities. To date, ARRM studies in the United States have examined a variety of populations, including people attending HIV testing clinics, gay and bisexual men, unmarried white, black and hispanic heterosexuals, and adolescent females attending family planning centers. (These are unpublished studies conducted by the Center for AIDS Prevention as described in Catania et al., 1990.) Results from a published study revealed how difficult it was for urban and rural women in Zaire to label their behavior as problematic: only one-third of the study participants felt personally at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS (Bertrand, Brown, Kinzonzi, Mansilu and Djunghu, 1992). Other research has expanded the ARRM to examine the behaviors of injecting drug users, as well as the protective behaviors of women who are already infected with HIV (Malow, Corrigan, Cunningham, West and Pena, 1993; Kline and VanLandingham, 1994). Limitations: A general limitation of the ARRM model is its focus on the individual. For instance, many women in an ARRM-based study in Kampala, Uganda, felt at risk for HIV, not due to their own behavior but because of the behaviors of their sexual partners -- an issue the women reported was outside of their control (McGrath et al., 1993). As a result, the researchers suggested that the ARRM take into greater consideration the sociocultural issues that influence, and may limit, an individual's behavior choices and ability to take action. Stage 1 Johali2nd2015

70 Teaching – Learning Domains - Objectives - Plan Programs\Curriculum\Lessons \ Activities
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71 Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
INTRODUCTION Learn By See & Doing INTRODUCTION Blooms Taxonomy and Lesson Planning Johali2nd2015 CHS282

72 Complex / Independent / Active
THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Learn to behave -design -plan and develop HE Lessons \ Curriculum BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES the Domains Simple / Dependent / Passive COGNITIVE Know – Knowledge AFFECTIVE Think – Value – Response - Judge PSYCHOMOTOR/ACTION Intellectual Skills Behaviors (Doing): Reflect – Adapt - Modify - Decide – Move Complex / Independent / Active Johali2nd2015 CHS282

73 THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES- Learn to behave -design -plan and develop HE Lessons \ Curriculum The BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES Domains Verbs Simple / Dependent / Passive Behavioral Objective Area Class Action/ Psycho Affect Cognitive Reflect/Move Receive Remember Knowledge Communicate Respond Reason Comprehension Act Value/apprise Plan to solve Int. Ability Application Adapt Organize/character Format Analysis Develop Create/Interpret Understand Int. Skills Synthesis Decide Ext Judge Inter Judge Evaluation Complex / Independent / Active / Deep understanding Johali2nd2015 CHS282

74 Plan, Design & Develop ZD HEP Programs\Curriculum\Lessons \ Activities
By Bloom and All Above You Can Plan, Design & Develop ZD HEP Programs\Curriculum\Lessons \ Activities Johali2nd2015 CHS282

75 Johali Saudi HEP Curriculum Planning and Development Models 1379-1423
CHS282 Johali2nd2015

76 Towards a Saudi Arabian Step Up Nursing and Applied Medical Education Developmental Strategy  Eisa Ali Johali PhD EL Health Sciences Hill University 2011 In the Name of God the Most Graceful the Most Merciful Johali SUNHEP the 3RD Millennium Developmental Strategy This study begins by deliberating on the problems of the Saudi Arabian Nursing and Applied Medical Education and Practice (SANAMEP), mainly the debate between the educational institutions, educationists and health services settings and practitioners regarding the quality of the graduates and the worldwide dilemma of the gap between theory and practice. Under the Historical Educational Developmental Research, this paper uses a combination of educational action research approaches, the Documentary Evidence Analysis' and the Reflective Experience (Best, J. and Kahn, J. 1986; Cohen, L. and Manion, L. (1989, 1994). It traced to the early 1991 academic experiential learning. It is a reflection on action research, joint a national reflective experience compare to the international experiences mainly the United Stated experiences in nursing and allied medical education and curriculum development (Johali 1991), and the United Kingdom Advanced Nursing Programme the UK P2000 and beyond ( Johali 1995). It find that while our education and curriculum development based on unplanned selecting and modifying, the USA and UK curriculum and education development based on well strategic planning projects. It assume that "The Western philosophy and science of curriculum, teaching and learning may guide us towards a factual way to overcome our considerable problems and may assure quality as well. . The most common educational philosophies, theories and models of curriculum, teaching and learning development in UK, US, and SA experiences have been explored and compared. Finally based on Poppers' notions of conjectures and refutations (Popper K 1972), the recent literature as well the common curriculum philosophies and sciences were tentatively refuted with regard to Islamic and democratic education, and the relevant philosophies are conjectured. As a part of its conclusion and recommendations, the study endeavors to modify Mieghan's philosophy (Meighan, R. 1989, 2001) into a philosophy of fourteen theories as a base for future developmental studies and set a millennium scientific based framework for step up educational and curriculum development. ABSTRAC SAUDI CAMS P ROGRAMS 10. The Program\Curriculum \Lesson Philosophy (rationale- models- general aim & objectives)- Framework & Syllabi.. Beside luck of qualitative researches regarding quality of CAMS graduates, education and curriculum, there are wide criticisms and long historical debating regarding quantity and quality of applied medical professions. The imbalance and gap between theory and practice is more critical problem that will never solved without clear philosophy and appropriate applied scientific theories. WE HAVE PROBLEMS NOT JUST A PROBLEM PROBLEMS 9: Course Design: the Syllabus Title -Coding –Duration & Location –Teaching staff- Learning Objectives & Outcomes –Content-Preceding & Proceding-Relation&Integration-Teachimg & Learning methodologies & technologies-Evaluation-Resources & References 8: Course Specification - Description Theory-Theory- Theory Practice- Practice -Practice 2. OBJECTIVES Investigate the historical roots of nursing education in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia, as example for all health professions education. Explore and compare the curriculum, teaching and learning philosophical and scientific developmental models in the UK-P2000 and beyond and Saudi Associated Nursing Programme (SANPs)?. Examine and compare wither these programmes are using philosophies and scientific models used to prepare, design, structure and organize theory and practice to assure quality of curriculum, teaching and learning ? Explore how people think about ‘philosophy and science of AME’ ? 6-7 : General Ed. Aims & Objectives Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Knowledge Value Attitudes – Action 4 & 5 : Analysis & Diagnosis of: Community & Culture- Professions.- Clients. and Learners’ Nature & Needs “P ROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES” “Intellectual – Communication- Ethics – Education & Technical……” METHODS New Innovated Approach based on Historical Documentary Educational Development Analysis’ called Johali HiDEDA (johali 1995) used as a guideline, to review and analyze religious - cultural - Professional educational evidences Past Present Future History Documentary Development EL 1 , 2 & 3 : Assessment- Job Reclassification & Specification Community - Population - Cultural and – Professions Nature & Needs “Global – National Situational Experiences PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES” Government – Private National Health Care Services Religions; Culture; Society; Professions * INT NAHPs + NEL = 3RD Millennium SUNAME Its My Vision that "There Is No Quality of Education Without Philosophy and Science" - Do You Support it ? Posted 2 months ago Of the 16 Votes : Totally Agree 11 (68%) Disagree 1 (6%) Totally Disagre 2 (12%) Other please clarify 1 (6%) Agree, to some extent 1 (6%) So, How about us ?! CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION In Nursing, the origins of the modern models of curriculum planning, designing and development began with technocratic traditions as an instrument and train for preparing skilled workforce…..The Technocratic models put forward by (Bobbitt, Tyler, Taba, and Bloom's Taxonomy), emphasis the ‘objectives-centred curriculum.’ These models give an order of stages for deciding the curriculum objectives, which then control the remaining stages of curriculum planning and development. As nursing widely linked to social care, arts and sciences… UK P2000 used Lawton's model of curriculum planning by cultural analysis addresses philosophical, social and psychological questions to guide curriculum planners to select the appropriate curriculum learning experiences. Its main concern is how to select worthwhile and socially interesting curriculum activities to be included in a common core curriculum & Skilbeck's model of situational analysis and the alternative models consist of a combination of objectives, content and process models. They are adapted to be value Free and flexible. Despite the great advanced in nursing and medical practice, education and research more than all other medical and applied medical professions, nursing and medical practice and education planning and development still control by traditional philosophies and sciences such ‘pedagogy the content, subject, know…objectives ….teacher…instructor centred ……Even Problem solving, evidence based… are used in a traditional manner…. 5. Although, the great scientific research regarding the value of ‘andragogy’’ the adult learning, meaningful learning, quality of active students …there is few advances to apply these qualitative concepts, few have its Owen theories…. Nurse have few chance to think, reflect, and create * USA 1991+UK1995+USAUSCAN&JAPGERM NEL MAJOR REFERENCES & RESOURCES (Sample) Reason J. Human error. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990. Johali (2012) Health Education and Promotion for All Health Professions HEPAHP (old: Health Administrator & Technicians HEHAT: A Creative Scientific Educational Book (Under Publication Dar Alawael Pub. Damascus, Syria). Johali, E. A (1995) The Philosophies and Sciences of Teaching Learning and the Curriculum in the United Kingdom Project 2000 and in the Saudi Arabian Nursing Education Programmes: towards a Philosophy of Science-based Saudi Nursing Education. MA (Ed) dissertation, Faculty of Educational studies, University of Southampton, UK. Wagdi, M. N (1999) Exploring the Scientific Miracle of The Holy Qur'an (Dr. Mohammad N. Wagdi, Ph.D.) CHS282 Johali2nd2015

77 Johali 10 Step Up Model for
In the Name of God the Most Graceful the Most Merciful Johali 10 Step Up Model for HE Lesson-Curriculum-Program Planning and Development -the SUNHE PModel Johali SUNHEP the 3RD Millennium Developmental Strategy 10. The Program\Curriculum \Lesson Philosophy (rationale- models- general aim & objectives)- Framework & Syllabi.. 9: Course Design: the Syllabus Title -Coding –Duration & Location –Teaching staff- Learning Objectives & Outcomes –Content-Preceding & Proceding-Relation&Integration-Teachimg & Learning methodologies & technologies-Evaluation-Resources & References 2. 8: Course Specification - Description Theory-Theory- Theory Practice- Practice -Practice 6-7 : General Ed. Aims & Objectives Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Knowledge Value Attitudes – Action 4 & 5 : Analysis & Diagnosis of: Community & Culture- Professions.- Clients. and Learners’ Nature & Needs “P ROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES” “Intellectual – Communication- Ethics – Education & Technical……” 1 , 2 & 3 : Assessment- Job Reclassification & Specification Community - Population - Cultural and – Professions Nature & Needs “Global – National Situational Experiences PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES” Government – Private National Health Care Services CHS282 Johali2nd2015

78 The Lecturer Publications Further Future References
Plus; Johali (2014) Health Education and Promotion” In Press 2012 Johali2nd2015

79 Major Text Book & References
Your Smart Note in this Class This Lecture: The Principles of Health Education – The First Step Towards ZDHE - JohaliPHE2013 CHS282 Health Education Goals & Philosophies by By Bonni C. Hodges, Professor, Health Department, SUNY College at Cortland Welle, H., Russell, R., & Kittleson, M. (1995). Philosophical trends in health education: Implications for the 21st century.Journal of Health Education, 26(6), Ref & Souces For Smart Assignments (Can You Answer ….use this courses …get abswer of others ) WHO (2012) Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies: a foundation document to guide capacity development of health. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Johali2nd2015

80 With My Great Best Wishes
Be Excellency - ZD Be Critical Thinkers Be Creative; & Meaningful Assertive Smart Lifelong and Day After HE Learners Johali2nd2015

81 Thank you Johali2nd2015


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