Presentation on theme: "ELA 7 Study Guide Mrs. Cooper. 1.) Oral tradition - traditions, stories, and history that are passed down by word of mouth Examples: fables, legends such."— Presentation transcript:
1.) Oral tradition - traditions, stories, and history that are passed down by word of mouth Examples: fables, legends such as Pocahontas, myths
2.) biography - a story about a person's life that is written by another person Ex. Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan (read in class)
3.) non-fiction - the genre of writing that is about real people, events and experiences Ex. Woodsong
4.) autobiography - when an author writes about his/her personal experiences throughout their entire life Ex. The Story of My Life by Helen Keller
5.) memoir - a person that writes a story about one specific part of his or her own life Ex. Woodsong
6.) theme - the central message or lesson learned in the story Ex. Gary's love and passion for dogs
7.) characterization - the author's way of describing both the character's personality and appearance Ex. Paulsen characterizes Charley as terrified of war and that he no longer wants to be a man
8.) direct characterization - when the writer states the character's traits or characteristics Ex. "He could read and write, Charley could, though he hadn't had much schooling." page 8 Soldier's Heart
9.) indirect characterization - when the writer depends upon the reader to draw conclusions based upon dialogue and actions between the characters Ex. "... until he was there, in the trees, a large maple at his back, and finally, sucking air until his lungs seemed to be on fire, finally he stopped and leaned over, his hands on his knees, and vomited, heaving until he was ampty and then heaving more..." page 26 Soldier's Heart
character - a person or animal in the story Ex. Charley in Soldier's Heart, Obeah in Woodsong
11.) setting - when and where the story takes place Ex. Winona, Minnesota, beginning of the Civil War
12.) point of view - the perspective from which the story is told Ex. Soldier's Heart is told in third person
13.) first person p. of v. - when a character within the story is telling the story Ex. Tim tells My Brother Sam is Dead and therefore it is first person
14.) third person p. of v. - when a story is told by an outside narrator Ex. Soldier's Heart is told in third person
15.) antagonist - a character that is in opposition to the main character Ex. Gahko and Makwa from Echohawk
16.) protagonist - the main character in the story Ex. Tim Meeker or Charley
17.) genre - how a work of writing is classified Ex. nonfiction, fiction
18.) historical fiction - when a fictional story is mixed with true events, places, or characters in history Ex. My Brother Sam is Dead
19.) conflict - the problem in the story Ex. the Civil War is an example in Soldier's Heart
20.) internal conflict - a problem within a character Ex. Tim Meeker can't decide if he is a Patriot or Loyalist or whether he sides with his brother, Sam or his father
21.) external conflict - a problem between a character and an outside force Ex. when Gary Paulsen falls over the waterfall and injures his knee
22.) round/dynamic character - a character that changes throughout the story and you see many different sides of them Ex. Tim Meeker goes from being confused and interested about the war to being the head of the household and just wanting the war to end because he sees it as a waste
23.) flat/static character - a character that is one dimensional and does not change during the story Ex. George Hunter remains a ruthless businessman throughout Kavik
24.) flashback - when a story or play interrupts the present and takes you into the past Ex. When Anne remembers her brother James in The Miracle Worker
25.) drama - a piece of literature that tells a story and is performed on stage Ex. The Miracle Worker
26.) dialogue - the words that the character's speak Ex. Keller: "I'll see you to your buggy, Doctor."
27.) playwright - a person that writes a drama Ex. Gibson and Shakespeare
Annie Sullivan determined to teach Helen 21 inexperienced inventive stubborn strict likes things her way
Helen Keller deaf and blind learns to communicate stubborn throws fits spoiled frustrated that she can't communicate
James Keller older half-brother believes Helen is spoiled thinks they need to do something about Helen argues with his father
Kate Keller mom spoils Helen pities Helen because she is blind and deaf frustrated that she can't communicate with her own daughter determined to find help for her daughter willing to do anything to help her daughter
Captain Keller strict argues with James has a belief in the way women should be treated and behave disapproves of Anne and doesn't think she can do it
Jimmy Sullivan Anne's brother disabled in an asylum and died
What is the first word that Annie teaches Helen? Doll Water is the first word Helen learns and has a letter/name association for
What is an asylum? Who spent time there? What happened there? asylum - is a place where disabled people were sent James and Annie James ended up dying
What happens at the garden house? Anne takes Helen there so that H. has to rely on her for everything. She teaches H. manners, how to behave and hopes to reach her in order to teach her how to communicate.
Why does Annie take Helen to the garden house? Annie takes Helen to the garden house so that Helen has to rely on her for everything. She also thinks it is the only way that she will be able to get through to Helen.
Obeah saves Paulsen after he goes over the water fall brings the dog sled team to Gary through the brush and down the bank loves and respects Gary
Storm leader determined to work honest dog wants to carry his weight he starts to bleed from the corn based diet cutting his intestines when he dies he has the stick in his mouth showing that he forgives Gary when he dies facing the wrong direction plays games with Gary with the stick
Columbia shows a great sense of humor during bone wars when he puts a bone just out of another dog's reach made up the bully and the bone joke passive teaches Gary about the cruelness of nature and Gary stops trapping
Hawk banty hen motherly takes care of the baby grouse and eggs attacks Gary's wife aggressive
Cookie Gary's companion trusts her to lead during the Iditarod which was a mistake follows Gary's commands even when she knows he is wrong just to teach him a lesson a sweet dog
Wilson is the one that falls asleep while mushing in the Iditarod
Who saves Gary when he goes over the waterfall? Obeah
Describe Gary's experience level with his dogs at the beginning of the memoir. no experience raising or mushing dogs ignorant in the ways of dogs learns through the many mistakes that he makes doesn't feed them the correct diet learns from each of his dogs
What mistake did Gary make in feeding the dogs a corn based dog food? When dogs are mushing the corn cuts their intestines like a knife and makes the dogs bleed. This is what happens to Storm when he is bleeding.
What does Gary learn about nature? Is it what he expected it would be? Gary learns how cruel nature can be, but that it can be full of beauty as well. He does not expect the cruelness and uncleanliness of nature. He expects more of a Disney version of nature. He does notice the beauty of it as well while mushing the Iditarod in Alaska.
Why does Gary go "phony trapping"? Gary does "phony trapping" in order to continue running the dogs, but not hurt or take something out of nature.
How was Gary Paulsen ignorant when it came to his dogs? He didn't know what to feed and ends up hurting Storm by mistake. He has difficulties when he starts mushing and needs to learn how far he can take them and when to rest. He also learns through trial and error about mushing at night.
Charley Goddard innocent about war too young to enlist hates war when he actually enters battle and doesn't want to be a man scared and frightened by war doesn't listen to his Mom provides for his family
Why can't Charley legally fight in the war? He isn't old enough (not 18) and his Mom won't sign for him to enlist (and he isn't 17 either.)
What is Soldier's Heart? Soldier's Heart is how an individual is different after fighting in the war. It is really the mental damage from the war and how it has changed them.
What is "farming"? stealing cattle, chickens, and produce from Confederate farms
What did Charley call the enemy soldiers? Rebs or Confederates
From what point of view is the story told? third person
Why was it important for the soldiers to care for their feet? They needed to be able to walk and move about. If they couldn't walk than they couldn't run either.
What was Charley's home town? Winona, Minnesota