# Sketching and Lettering

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Sketching and Lettering
Chapter 2 Sketching and Lettering

VOCABULARY Arcs Oblique Sketch Axis (axes) Overlay Composition Plane
Concentric Circles Point Ellipses Proportion Gothic Lettering Radius (radii) Guidelines Tangent arcs Isometric Lines Texture Isometric Sketching Lettering Line Non- Isometric Lines **** YOU SHOULD WRITE THESE DOWN and Define them.... Might be on a test!

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 1: Identify the Problem -- Students should state the challenge problem in their own words. Example: How can I design a __________ that will __________?

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 2: Identify Criteria and Constraints -- Students should specify the design requirements (criteria). Example: Our growth chamber must have a growing surface of 10 square feet and have a delivery volume of 3 cubic feet or less. Students should list the limits on the design due to available resources and the environment (constraints). Example: Our growth chamber must be accessible to astronauts without the need for leaving the spacecraft.

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 3: Brainstorm Possible Solutions -- Each student in the group should sketch his or her own ideas as the group discusses ways to solve the problem. Labels and arrows should be included to identify parts and how they might move. These drawings should be quick and brief.

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 4: Generate Ideas -- In this step, each student should develop two or three ideas more thoroughly. Students should create new drawings that are orthographic projections (multiple views showing the top, front and one side) and isometric drawings (three-dimensional depiction). These are to be drawn neatly, using rulers to draw straight lines and to make parts proportional. Parts and measurements should be labeled clearly.

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 5: Explore Possibilities -- The developed ideas should be shared and discussed among the team members. Students should record pros and cons of each design idea directly on the paper next to the drawings.

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 6: Select an Approach -- Students should work in teams and identify the design that appears to solve the problem the best. Students should write a statement that describes why they chose the solution. This should include some reference to the criteria and constraints identified above.

Chapter 2 The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 7: Build a Model or Prototype -- Students will construct a full-size or scale model based on their drawings. The teacher will help identify and acquire appropriate modeling materials and tools. See the design brief for a sample list.

The Design Process The Design Process

The Design Process STEP 8: Refine the Design -- Students will examine and evaluate their prototypes or designs based on the criteria and constraints. Groups may enlist students from other groups to review the solution and help identify changes that need to be made. Based on criteria and constraints, teams must identify any problems and proposed solutions.

OVERVIEW What is spatial visualization? Isometric Drawings
Sketching Isometric Drawings Coded Plans Visualization of Object Viewpoints Examples

SPATIAL VISUALIZATION
The ability to mentally manipulate, rotate, twist, or invert a pictorially presented object. Important skill for scientific & technical fields, such as: Architects & Engineers Doctors Computer Programmers Anyone needing a creative solution to a problem

Reasons for Sketching Sketching is drawing freehand without the aid of any drafting equipment except paper and pencil. It is a very common form of visual communication that is used in virtually ALL areas of work and life.

1. Uses no drafting equipment - freehand 2. Is an extremely fast form of visual communication. 3. Sketches increase clarity and understanding of concepts, shapes, or directions. 4. Is very convenient - can be done anywhere. 5. Is an extremely valuable organizational tool, which helps to minimize or prevent errors. 6. Is a collection of all necessary information required about an object - including detail, size and shape descriptions.

Reasons for Sketching Critical Factors
A. Key Reasons for Sketching      1) Communicate      2) Organize      3) Realize Ideas B. Key Factors while Sketching      1) Speed      2) Accuracy      3) Clarity

Drawing Methods Construction Lines to Object Lines      1) ALL single lines - NO "fuzzy" art type lines!      2) Point to Point      3) Dash to Dash      4) Draw Left to Right OR Bottom to Top B.

Drawing Methods Block Technique      1) Establish outer proportions of object(s)      2) Divide into areas of major shapes      3) Add detail as required      4) Add text where necessary to clarify (notes or           dimensions)

Drawing Methods Graph Technique (Resizing or Duplicating an Original)      1) Use original photo or drawing OR a xerox copy.      2) Draw Horizontal & Vertical grid lines on top of           object spaced an exact distance apart (ex. ½",           ¼", etc.).      3) On clean sheet of paper reproduce grid at           desired size (enlarge / reduce)      4) Add line detail a block at a time.

Types of Sketches One View Orthographic Projection      1) Always that view which would be considered the           front of the object.      2) Used when only one view is necessary to provide           shape description.

Types of Sketches Two View Orthographic Projection      1) Front View and Top View.      2) Used for cylindrical objects when all side views           are identical.

Types of Sketches Three View Orthographic Projection      1) Front View, Top View, and Right Side View      2) Provides the most complete shape and size           description.      3) Is the industry standard for the manufacture of           objects.

Types of Sketches Enlargement / Reduction (Templates)      1) Use of graph paper to enlarge or reduce grid           size      2) Complete sketch square by square, comparing           individual squares as you proceed.

Types of Sketches Realize Ideas / Designing      1) Front View, Top View, and Right Side View      2) Clarity is essential, use text notes whenever           necessary.      3) Be sure finished sketch reflects what is in your           mind.

Chapter 2 The Glass BOX! Does it exist? If it does…. How does it work?
What’s it purpose?

Chapter 2 The Glass BOX! Does it exist? YES If it does….
How does it work? You will see….on next slide What’s it purpose? TO Help one visualize all the views for an object.

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings
Imagine that you have an object suspended by transparent threads inside a glass box. 35

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…
Then draw the object on each of three faces as seen from that direction. Unfold the box (figure 4) and you have the three views. We call this an "orthographic" or "multiview" drawing. 36

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…
Figure 5 shows how the three views appear on a piece of paper after unfolding the box.                                                              37

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…
Which views should one choose for a multiview drawing? The views that reveal every detail about the object. Three views are not always necessary; we need only as many views as are required to describe the object fully. 38

Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued…
For example, some objects need only two views, while others need four. The circular object in figure 6 requires only two views. Figure 6 - An object needing only two orthogonal views 39

To Review

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
Shows the faces of an object Faces are parallel to the viewing plane Frontal Profile Horizontal

VIEWING PLANES

FRONT VIEW

RIGHT SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

MULTIVIEW PROJECTION

UNFOLD THE BOX

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWING Front view shows height & width
Side view shows height & depth Top view shows width & depth Visible edges are solid lines. Non-visible edges are dashed (hidden) lines Views align with each other Rotation from one view to another equals 90°

ROTATION OF VIEWS

SURFACE IDENTIFICATION

Pictorial Sketches A Pictorial Sketch is a picturelike sketch in which the width, height, and depth of a object are shown in one view.

Pictorial Sketches A Pictorial Sketch is a picturelike sketch in which the width, height, and depth of a object are shown in one view. An oblique sketch is a type of pictorial sketch in which two of the axes are at right angles (90 degrees) to each other.

Pictorial Sketches A Pictorial Sketch is a picturelike sketch in which the width, height, and depth of a object are shown in one view. An oblique sketch is a type of pictorial sketch in which two of the axes are at right angles (90 degrees) to each other.

Pictorial Sketches A Pictorial Sketch is a picturelike sketch in which the width, height, and depth of a object are shown in one view. An oblique sketch is a type of pictorial sketch in which two of the axes are at right angles (90 degrees) to each other. An isometric sketch is a type of pictorial sketch that relies on three axes to show width height and depth. However , an isometric sketch, shows the axes spaced equally. (120 degrees)

Pictorial Sketches A Pictorial Sketch is a picturelike sketch in which the width, height, and depth of a object are shown in one view. An oblique sketch is a type of pictorial sketch in which two of the axes are at right angles (90 degrees) to each other.

ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS Used to show 3-Dimensional projection on a 2-Dimensional surface. Projected so that width and length are 30° from horizontal and height is vertical.

Isometric Sketching

Isometric Sketching

Isometric Sketching

Isometric Sketching

CODED PLANS Shows height of each “cube” stack.
Each corner could be a viewpoint of the object. Viewpoint means the direction in which an observer is viewing the object. Similar to a top view in an Orthographic Projection.

VISUALIZE OBJECT 2 1 V = Viewpoint 1 V FOR SKECTHING –
DO NOT SHOW EACH CUBE. SHOW ONLY VISIBLE SURFACES AND EDGES, AS IF CUBES HAVE BEEN COMBINED. V

EXAMPLE #1 2 V = Viewpoint 1 1 V
Note location of viewpoint and coded plan noting height of object. Click to start animation. V

EXAMPLE #2 2 2 3 1 1 V Click to start animation.

VIEWPOINT Viewpoints can make the object appear differently.
Example #2 is redrawn with a different viewpoint.

DIFFERENT VIEWPOINT 2 2 3 1 1 V Click to start animation.

COMPARISON OF VIEWPOINTS
Different look Optical illusion of height Viewpoints can show or exclude details

COMPARE 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 V V

ORTHOGRAPHIC vs. ISOMETRIC
ISOMETRIC DRAWING ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWING

CONCLUSION Spatial Visualization is an important skill
Coded plans help you visualize a solid object Viewpoints change look of object and can hide details

DAY 1 STOP

Proportions in Sketching
Sketches are not usually made to scale (exact measurement). It is important to still show proportions, so that each part of the drawing is roughly the right size in relation to other parts of the drawing.

Dimensioning a Sketch First what is a dimension?
Dimensioning is a way of enhancing the shape description provided by the drawing. By dimensioning the drawing, you are providing a size description to enhance the shape description provided.

Dimensioning a Sketch When dimensioning a drawing, the drafter must keep in mind the final object. Therefore, all information must be included such as sizes and the processes required to make the final piece.

Dimensioning a Sketch All drawings must be made to scale, with that scale indicated either in the title block, or below the detail's title on the sheet.

Dimensioning a Sketch There are many standards or "rules" for dimensioning a drawing. These may differ depending on the type of drawing and the accepted business standards for that discipline.

Learning to Sketch (pg 38)
Rough Sketch Refined Sketch Presentation Sketch Temporary Sketch Permanent Sketch The Overlay

Materials for Sketching
Paper and Pencil

Metric Paper ISO A Drawing Sizes (mm) A4 210 X 297 A3 297 X 420 A2

U.S. Paper Size U.S. Customary Drawing Sizes A 8.5" X 11" B 11" X 17"

Pencils 9H 8H 7H 6H 5H 4H 3H 2H H F HB B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 9B
Hardest Medium Softest

Pencils Tone U.S. World #1 B #2 HB #2½ * F #3 H #4

SKETCHING LINES

OPEN TO PAGE 40

Day 3

Lettering Lettering is used on drawings to give dimensions and other pertinent information needed to fully describe the item. The lettering must be neat and legible if it is to be easily read and understood. 87

Lettering A drawing will be improved by good lettering.
However, a good drawing will look sloppy and unprofessional if the lettering is poorly done. 88

Lettering, Continued… The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) recommends that the Single-Stroke Gothic Alphabet be the accepted lettering standard 89

Lettering, Continued… It can be drawn rapidly and is highly legible because each part of every letter is made by a single stroke.    90

Lettering, Continued… This is because there are no serifs on the letters of this alphabet. A serif is like a tiny foot on a letter; alphabets that have serifs are more difficult to letter by hand. An alphabet without serifs is always called a san serif alphabet. 91

Lettering, Continued… Today, because of computers, there are many different alphabet styles (also called fonts). When lettering a drawing, if the single stroke Gothic alphabet is not available, choose a san serif font and use only upper case letters.    92

Good Lettering, Continued…
Use guide lines Guide lines should be drawn so lightly they will not show up on a print made from the drawing Vertical guide lines may be used to assure that the letters will be vertical Inclined guide lines are drawn at 67 1/20 to the horizontal line when inclined lettering is to be used. INCLINED GUIDE LINES HELP KEEP INCLINED LETTERING UNIFORM

Good Lettering, Continued…
Only one form of lettering should appear on a drawing. AVOID COMbINING SEVERAL fORMS Of LETTERING.

Lettering, Continued… Spacing:
Proper spacing of the letters is important. The letters should be placed so spaces between the letters appear to be about the same. SPACED VISUALLY SPACED BY MEASURING 95

The Design Process Assignment (d2)
Designing new products, adapting or altering existing designs or creating something brand new is always a challenging task. However, if we can follow a process or a plan, we can often times shorten the time required to complete the project as well as ensure that we have not missed any necessary elements or crucial steps.

The Design Process Assignment (d2)
Task Using any available source, research and then write a one page summary / explanation of "the design process." Be sure to include the recommended steps that should be followed. Use the design process to create a new or original product Create 'several' brainstorming sketches as you attempt to work out the final version of your product Sketch a FINAL three view orthographic projection of your finished design. Be sure to include a title and as much detail (and labels) as necessary to communicate your idea to another person. Self evaluate... Staple your papers (Research report, Brainstorming sketches & Final sketch) together and turn in.

Drafting 1 Assignments starting Page 58 Problems 1, 3, 6, 9,10
Due in ONE WEEK Complete on Graph paper