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1801-1824. Section 1 Focus Question:  How did Jefferson’s philosophy shape policy towards public spending, the judiciary, and Louisiana? Big Picture:

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Presentation on theme: "1801-1824. Section 1 Focus Question:  How did Jefferson’s philosophy shape policy towards public spending, the judiciary, and Louisiana? Big Picture:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1801-1824

2 Section 1 Focus Question:  How did Jefferson’s philosophy shape policy towards public spending, the judiciary, and Louisiana? Big Picture:  Cut down spending  FED controls Judiciary  LA Purchase

3 The Revolution of 1800?  Jefferson called his election a revolution  What is a revolution?

4 The Revolution of 1800?  How were Jefferson’s views different from John Adams (his predecessor)?

5 The Election of 1800  Election of 1800 was viciously contested  Federalist threatened a civil war if Jefferson was elected  Republicans accused John Adams of wanting to create a monarchy  However both Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr received 73 electoral votes

6 The Election of 1800 Thomas JeffersonVirginia Democratic- Republican 7352.9% Aaron BurrNew York Democratic- Republican 7352.9% John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist6547.1% Charles PinckneySouth CarolinaFederalist6446.4% John JayNew YorkFederalist 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors138 Total Electoral Votes Cast276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70

7 1800 Election Results AdamsJefferson

8 1800 Election Results (Into the House of Representatives!!)  1 vote for each State  1800 Election Results (Into the House of Representatives!!)  1 vote for each State  Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic-Republican1062.5% Aaron BurrNew York Democratic-Republican 425.0% Blank------- 212.5%

9 The Election of 1800  Therefore it was a tie for the President  It was up to the House of representatives to decide and after 6 days of deadlock, Jefferson won  T o avoid this in the future, the 12 th Amendment was added to the Constitution Made electors vote separately for President and Vice President

10 Jefferson’s Inauguration  How did Jefferson make his election less aristocratic?

11  “Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind…every difference in opinion is not a difference in principle…We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists.”  What does Jefferson’s address suggest about what happened during the election campaigns?  What do you think Jefferson means by the phrase, “We are all republicans, we are all federalists…?”

12 The Revolution of 1800: Spending  My Notes  Your Notes

13 The Revolution of 1800: Structure  My Notes  Your Notes

14 The Revolution of 1800: Judiciary  My Notes  Your Notes

15 Revolution of 1800: Land  My Notes  Your Notes

16 William Marbury Federalist “midnight judge” appointed by Adams prior to leaving office. TJ ordered Madison to dismiss him, Marbury sued Madison claiming Judiciary Act of 1789. James Madison Secretary of State under TJ. Dismissed Marbury because Adams was trying to keep Federalist hold on the Supreme Court to rule against TJ. John Marshall Federalist Judge chosen by John Adams The Supreme Court’s Decision ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Importance of that Ruling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

17 The Supreme Court’s Decision Judiciary Act of 1789 (SC reviews federal cases) unconstitutional. The act was from Congress and it is the Constitution who gives the SC direction. Marbury kept his apmt. Importance of that Ruling Established Judicial Review which allowed the SC to review any laws that Congress makes to ensure they are constitutional.

18 The Beginnings of the LA Purchase: The Pinckney Treaty  By 1800 more than one million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi  Most settler were farmers and relied on Mississippi to ship their crops to the port at New Orleans

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20 The Pinckney Treaty  In 1795 U.S. negotiated the Pinckney Treaty Guaranteed Americans’ rights to ship goods down the Mississippi and store goods in New Orleans

21 A Secret Deal  In 1801, Spain secretly gave New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory to France Jefferson worried about how Napoleon Bonaparte would rule the area

22  1802 the Governor of New Orleans stopped allowing Americans to ship their goods through New Orleans  Americans wanted to go to war  Jefferson decided to send James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans from the French

23 Meanwhile on France’s End…  Meanwhile in Haiti, a revolution led by Toussaint L’Ouverture had driven the French out  Without Haiti, the French would not be able to defend Louisiana during a war  In France, another war between France and Britain was about to begin and the French needed money to fund it

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25 Napoleon's Offer  France offered to sell ALL OF THE LOUISIANA TERRITORY for $15 million (about 4 cents an acre)  Because it would take months to get Jefferson’s advice, Monroe accepted the offer  This agreement would almost double the size of the country and give the U.S. control of the Mississippi

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27 Jefferson’s Predicament  The Constitution nowhere states that the President has the power to buy land from a foreign country

28 Democratic Republicans Federalists FarmersNative Americans Costs & Benefits

29 Jefferson’s Predicament  Jefferson decided he could purchase the land because the Constitution said the president could make treaties  The Senate approved the treaty and Congress voted to pay for the land

30 PSD: Jefferson to Lewis  Please use APPARTS to identify this PSD  Read pages 230 to 231 and answer the question in your journal

31 The Election of 1804  Background: Candidates Jefferson (DR) & Charles Pinckney (F) ran for office. Thomas Jefferson wins with 92% of EC votes This victory will be short lived due to the revengeful Aaron Burr who tied Jefferson for EC votes in the Election of 1800 During Jefferson’s second term, George Clinton was VP b/c DR feared Burr’s relationship with Federalists.

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33 Section 2 Focus Question:  What led James Madison to go to war with Britain in 1812? Big Picture:  American became a pawn to the FR.  Jefferson—keep together new land, Burr, & Republicans!

34 Web Quest of Aaron Burr  Using the website: Which to charges are being brought against Burr? What evidence have you found that would allow John Marshall to convict him? What evidence have you found that might prove his innocence? How will his actions cause problems for Jefferson’s second term? How does his actions lead towards conflict with foreign nations?

35 The War of 1812  Please read James Madison’s war message and record reasons that would prompt him to go to war with Britain.  In addition, add reasons from your guided reading that would support a war for Britain

36 Causes of the War of 1812  Under TJ  Under Madison

37 Focus Question  How did the War of 1812 influence American domestic policies? Big Picture  Weak AM Navy = land battle in Canada  BR used NA to scare off AM  AM lack of national unity to defend country. Section 3

38 In June 1812, the U.S. Declared War on Britain The U.S. finds itself unprepared!!  Because of Jefferson’s earlier cuts of the government, the U.S. very weak  16 warships and 7,000 soldiers (Britain had over 200 warships) The British are still in a war!!  The British had to fight the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars at the same time

39 The Tactics of Both Sides The U.S.  Invade British Territory in Canada  Gain control of the Great Lakes and keep control of the Mississippi The British  Blockade all U.S. ports to prevent supplies  Enlist the help of the Native Americans

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43 The Invasion of Canada Fort Detroit  Attempted to invade Canada through Detroit  General William Hull began to retreat and was quickly surrounded by British soldiers andNative American warriors  This was a huge defeat for the U.S.-British captured over 2,000 soldiers

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46 The Invasion of Canada Lake Erie  Commander Oliver Hazard Perry led huge victory  British were forced to return to retreat to Canada  First time in history that an entire British Fleet was defeated and captured by the enemy

47 The Invasion of Canada Thames  As British and Native American allies retreated, General William Henry Harrison and his troops pursued them  Followed British into Canada and defeated them

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49 Conflict in the South Horseshoe Bend  Andrew Jackson in command of U.S. forces in Georgia  Creek tribes had attacked American settlements  Jackson defeated them at Horseshoe Bend and forced them to give up millions of acres of land

50 Final Battles Washington  In 1814, the British defeated Napoleon and could bring all their troops to the U.S.  Set fire to many government buildings including the White House

51 Final Battles Fort McHenry  British attacked fort which defended Baltimore’s harbor  British warships bombarded the fort throughout the night but, American fought off the attack

52 Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn’s Early Light… -- Francis Scott Key Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814

53 Gave proof through the night, That our flag was still there…

54 The End of the War Treaty of Ghent  The war was a draw, Britain tired of fighting: too costly  On Dec. 24, 1814 agreed to Treaty of Ghent Agreed to go back to the ways things were before the war Britain never gave the Native Americans the land they had promised The issue of impressment was never mentioned in the treaty  War helped U.S. gain respect as a nation, called “Second War for Independence”

55 People that Didn’t Get the Message The Hartford Convention  There was much opposition to the war  Federalist critics called it “Mr. Madison’s War”  New Englanders especially, were against the war because the naval blockade had hurt trade  December 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, CT

56 People that Didn’t Get the Message The Hartford Convention  Some delegates at the Hartford Convention suggested seccession from the U.S.  When news of peace arrived at the convention the convention quickly ended

57 People that Didn’t Get the Message The Battle of New Orleans  General Andrew Jackson did not get the news of the Treaty  Fought and won stunning victory at New Orleans

58 Effects of 1812

59 Section 4 Focus Question  To what extent did Jefferson’s legacy persist into the Era of Good Feelings? Big Picture  End of Federalist party  Supreme Court rulings  Missouri Compromise  Monroe’s politics

60 Causes  The War of 1812 establishes the U.S as a world power (respect)  There was much more nationalism (pride)  The Federalist Party died out (unity) When James Monroe (Republican) ran for president, he won by a landslide

61 The Election of 1816

62 The Election of 1820

63 Effects Government Takes a Greater Role in the Economy  Second Bank of the U.S. established in 1816  Protective Tariff is passed Protects U.S. goods from foreign competition British had been dumping (selling their goods below market price)

64 WEST  got roads, canals, and federal aide. p WEST  got roads, canals, and federal aide. p EAST  got the backing of protective tariffs from the West. p SOUTH  ??

65 Effects Central Government Strengthened Over States McCulloch v. Maryland  The state of Maryland tried to tax its branch of the National Bank  Court ruled that a state cannot pass any law that violates a federal law

66 Effects Central Government Strengthened Over States Gibbons v. Ogden  Steamboat went from New Jersey to New York  It was considered “interstate commerce” which can only be regulated by Congress, not the states

67 Effects US Takes a Greater Role in the World Florida  Andrew Jackson sent to recapture escaped slaves  Seized two Spanish towns and forced the governor to flee  Adams- Onis Treaty of 1819: Since Spain could not protect Florida, decided to give it up

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69 Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819

70 18101820 US Population Density

71 Effects US Takes a Greater Role in the World Monroe Doctrine  U.S. wanted to protect trade with the newly independent Latin America  Monroe Doctrine U.S. would not allow European nations to interfere with the free nations of Latin America

72 America Getting Patriotic!  Hail to the Chief Hail to the Chief  Yankee Doodle Dandy Yankee Doodle Dandy


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