Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8: Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings
2Section 1 Focus Question: How did Jefferson’s philosophy shape policy towards public spending, the judiciary, and Louisiana?Big Picture:Cut down spendingFED controls JudiciaryLA Purchase
3The Revolution of 1800? Jefferson called his election a revolution What is a revolution?
4The Revolution of 1800?How were Jefferson’s views different from John Adams (his predecessor)?
5The Election of 1800 Election of 1800 was viciously contested Federalist threatened a civil war if Jefferson was electedRepublicans accused John Adams of wanting to create a monarchyHowever both Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr received 73 electoral votes
6The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 7352.9%Aaron BurrNew YorkJohn AdamsMassachusettsFederalist6547.1%Charles PinckneySouth Carolina6446.4%John Jay10.7%Total Number of Electors138Total Electoral Votes Cast276Number of Votes for a Majority70
81800 Election Results (Into the House of Representatives!!) 1 vote for each State Thomas JeffersonVirginiaDemocratic-Republican1062.5%Aaron BurrNew York425.0%Blank212.5%
9The Election of 1800 Therefore it was a tie for the President It was up to the House of representatives to decide and after 6 days of deadlock, Jefferson wonT o avoid this in the future, the 12th Amendment was added to the ConstitutionMade electors vote separately for President and Vice President
10Jefferson’s Inauguration How did Jefferson make his election less aristocratic?
11“Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind…every difference in opinion is not a difference in principle…We are all Republicans; we are all Federalists.”What does Jefferson’s address suggest about what happened during the election campaigns?What do you think Jefferson means by the phrase, “We are all republicans, we are all federalists…?”
12The Revolution of 1800: Spending My NotesYour Notes
13The Revolution of 1800: Structure My NotesYour Notes
14The Revolution of 1800: Judiciary My NotesYour Notes
16John Marshall Federalist Judge chosen by Marbury v. MadisonJohn Marshall Federalist Judge chosen byJohn AdamsChief JusticePlaintiffDefendantWilliam MarburyFederalist “midnight judge” appointed by Adams prior to leaving office. TJ ordered Madison to dismiss him, Marbury sued Madison claiming Judiciary Act of 1789.James MadisonSecretary of State under TJ. Dismissed Marbury because Adams was trying to keep Federalist hold on the Supreme Court to rule against TJ.The Supreme Court’s Decision ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Importance of that Ruling__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
17Ruling The Supreme Court’s Decision Judiciary Act of 1789 (SC reviews federal cases) unconstitutional. The act was from Congress and it is the Constitution who gives the SC direction. Marbury kept his apmt.Importance of that RulingEstablished Judicial Review which allowed the SC to review any laws that Congress makes to ensure they are constitutional.
18The Beginnings of the LA Purchase: The Pinckney Treaty By 1800 more than one million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and MississippiMost settler were farmers and relied on Mississippi to ship their crops to the port at New Orleans
20The Pinckney Treaty In 1795 U.S. negotiated the Pinckney Treaty Guaranteed Americans’ rights to ship goods down the Mississippi and store goods in New Orleans
21A Secret DealIn 1801, Spain secretly gave New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory to FranceJefferson worried about how Napoleon Bonaparte would rule the area
221802 the Governor of New Orleans stopped allowing Americans to ship their goods through New Orleans Americans wanted to go to warJefferson decided to send James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans from the French
23Meanwhile on France’s End… Meanwhile in Haiti, a revolution led by Toussaint L’Ouverture had driven the French outWithout Haiti, the French would not be able to defend Louisiana during a warIn France, another war between France and Britain was about to begin and the French needed money to fund it
25Napoleon's OfferFrance offered to sell ALL OF THE LOUISIANA TERRITORY for $15 million (about 4 cents an acre)Because it would take months to get Jefferson’s advice, Monroe accepted the offerThis agreement would almost double the size of the country and give the U.S. control of the Mississippi
29Jefferson’s Predicament Jefferson decided he could purchase the land because the Constitution said the president could make treatiesThe Senate approved the treaty and Congress voted to pay for the land
30PSD: Jefferson to Lewis Please use APPARTS to identify this PSDRead pages 230 to 231 and answer the question in your journal
31The Election of 1804 Background: Candidates Jefferson (DR) & Charles Pinckney (F) ran for office.Thomas Jefferson wins with 92% of EC votesThis victory will be short lived due to the revengeful Aaron Burr who tied Jefferson for EC votes in the Election of 1800During Jefferson’s second term, George Clinton was VP b/c DR feared Burr’s relationship with Federalists.
33Section 2 Focus Question: What led James Madison to go to war with Britain in 1812?Big Picture:American became a pawn to the FR.Jefferson—keep together new land, Burr, & Republicans!
34Web Quest of Aaron Burr Using the website: Which to charges are being brought against Burr?What evidence have you found that would allow John Marshall to convict him?What evidence have you found that might prove his innocence?How will his actions cause problems for Jefferson’s second term?How does his actions lead towards conflict with foreign nations?
35The War of 1812Please read James Madison’s war message and record reasons that would prompt him to go to war with Britain.In addition, add reasons from your guided reading that would support a war for Britain
37Section 3 Focus Question How did the War of 1812 influence American domestic policies?Big PictureWeak AM Navy = land battle in CanadaBR used NA to scare off AMAM lack of national unity to defend country.
38In June 1812, the U.S. Declared War on Britain The U.S. finds itself unprepared!!Because of Jefferson’s earlier cuts of the government, the U.S. very weak16 warships and 7,000 soldiers (Britain had over 200 warships)The British are still in a war!!The British had to fight the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars at the same timeWhat should our strategy be?
39The Tactics of Both Sides The U.S.Invade British Territory in CanadaGain control of the Great Lakes and keep control of the MississippiThe BritishBlockade all U.S. ports to prevent suppliesEnlist the help of the Native Americans
43The Invasion of Canada Fort Detroit Attempted to invade Canada through DetroitGeneral William Hull began to retreat and was quickly surrounded by British soldiers andNative American warriorsThis was a huge defeat for the U.S.-British captured over 2,000 soldiers
46The Invasion of Canada Lake Erie Commander Oliver Hazard Perry led huge victoryBritish were forced to return to retreat to CanadaFirst time in history that an entire British Fleet was defeated and captured by the enemy
47The Invasion of Canada Thames As British and Native American allies retreated, General William Henry Harrison and his troops pursued themFollowed British into Canada and defeated them
49Conflict in the South Horseshoe Bend Andrew Jackson in command of U.S. forces in GeorgiaCreek tribes had attacked American settlementsJackson defeated them at Horseshoe Bend and forced them to give up millions of acres of land
50Final Battles Dolly Madison Washington In 1814, the British defeated Napoleon and could bring all their troops to the U.S.Set fire to many government buildings including the White HouseDolly Madison
51Final Battles Fort McHenry British attacked fort which defended Baltimore’s harborBritish warships bombarded the fort throughout the night but, American fought off the attack
52Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814Oh Say Can You See By the Dawn’s Early Light… Francis Scott Key
53Gave proof through the night, That our flag was still there…
54The End of the War Treaty of Ghent The war was a draw, Britain tired of fighting: too costlyOn Dec. 24, 1814 agreed to Treaty of GhentAgreed to go back to the ways things were before the warBritain never gave the Native Americans the land they had promisedThe issue of impressment was never mentioned in the treatyWar helped U.S. gain respect as a nation, called “Second War for Independence”
55People that Didn’t Get the Message The Hartford ConventionThere was much opposition to the warFederalist critics called it “Mr. Madison’s War”New Englanders especially, were against the war because the naval blockade had hurt tradeDecember 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, CT
56People that Didn’t Get the Message The Hartford ConventionSome delegates at the Hartford Convention suggested seccession from the U.S.When news of peace arrived at the convention the convention quickly ended
57People that Didn’t Get the Message The Battle of New OrleansGeneral Andrew Jackson did not get the news of the TreatyFought and won stunning victory at New Orleans
59Section 4 Focus Question To what extent did Jefferson’s legacy persist into the Era of Good Feelings?Big PictureEnd of Federalist partySupreme Court rulingsMissouri CompromiseMonroe’s politics
60Causes The War of 1812 establishes the U.S as a world power (respect) There was much more nationalism (pride)The Federalist Party died out (unity)When James Monroe (Republican) ran for president, he won by a landslide
63Effects Both part of Henry Clay’s American System Government Takes a Greater Role in the EconomySecond Bank of the U.S. established in 1816Protective Tariff is passedProtects U.S. goods from foreign competitionBritish had been dumping (selling their goods below market price)Both part of Henry Clay’s American System
64The American System WEST got roads, canals, and federal aide. EAST got the backing of protective tariffs from the West.SOUTH ??
65Central Government Strengthened Over States EffectsCentral Government Strengthened Over StatesMcCulloch v. MarylandThe state of Maryland tried to tax its branch of the National BankCourt ruled that a state cannot pass any law that violates a federal law
66Central Government Strengthened Over States EffectsCentral Government Strengthened Over StatesGibbons v. OgdenSteamboat went from New Jersey to New YorkIt was considered “interstate commerce” which can only be regulated by Congress, not the states
67US Takes a Greater Role in the World EffectsUS Takes a Greater Role in the WorldFloridaAndrew Jackson sent to recapture escaped slavesSeized two Spanish towns and forced the governor to fleeAdams- Onis Treaty of 1819: Since Spain could not protect Florida, decided to give it up
71US Takes a Greater Role in the World EffectsUS Takes a Greater Role in the WorldMonroe DoctrineU.S. wanted to protect trade with the newly independent Latin AmericaU.S. would not allow European nations to interfere with the free nations of Latin America
72America Getting Patriotic! Hail to the ChiefYankee Doodle Dandy