Presentation on theme: "Celia Williamson, Ph.D. University of Toledo 419-530-4084"— Presentation transcript:
Celia Williamson, Ph.D. University of Toledo
Second largest criminal industry in the world and the fastest growing Modern day slavery in which men, women, and children are bought and sold for sexual or labor purposes.
Victims may be U.S. citizens, Legal Permanent Residents, or Foreign Born. The largest group of trafficking victims in the United States is now thought to be children who are U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents.
“Severe Forms” of human trafficking are: (a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. 1
12.3 slaves worldwide Approximately 600,000 to 800,000 victims annually are trafficked across international borders worldwide Between 14,500 and 17,500 of those victims are trafficked into the U.S. (U.S. Department of State). Domestically between 100,000 to 300,000 children are runaways in the U.S. and are at risk of being trafficked. 100,000 domestic minors are trafficked into the sex trade each year in the U.S.
Estimated 783 foreign victims of labor or sex trafficking any given year Massage parlors Nail salons Food buffets/Restaurants Small industrial companies Agricultural work
Recruitment Countries Destination Countries Bi-Directional Countries
Trafficking victim must pay his/her traffickers back for travel, room and board, hygiene and other personal items etc... Amount to be repaid is set by the traffickers.
Organized Crime Networks e.g. Japanese Yakuza, Russia Mafia etc.. Mom and Pop Shops Legitimate businesses Traffickers, Recruiters, Groomers, Connectors, etc..
Do not speak English & are unfamiliar with U.S. culture Confined to a room or small space to work, eat, sleep Fear, distrust health providers, government, police (fear of being deported) Unaware that what is being done to them is a crime (do not consider themselves victims and blame themselves for their situation)
May develop loyalties & positive feelings toward their trafficker as a coping mechanism (May try to protect their trafficker) Sometimes victims do not know where they are because traffickers frequently move them to escape detection Fear for safety of family in home country
Helplessness Shame Humiliation Denial Cultural shock from finding themselves in a strange country
Difficulty communicating because of language or cultural barriers? Accompanied by another person who seems controlling? Have identification? Does person accompanying potential victim insist on hold pertinent documents? Detect physical abuse? Seem submissive or fearful?
Before questioning potential trafficking victim: ◦ Isolate individual from person accompanying her/him without raising suspicion (may be a trafficker posing as a spouse or friend) ◦ Enlist trusted translator ◦ Ask questions in safe, confidential, trusting environment ◦ Limit number of staff that come in contact with victim ◦ Indirectly and sensitively probe to determine if person is a trafficking victim (the term ‘trafficking victim’ will have no meaning
Can you leave your work or job situation if you want? When you are not working, can you come and go as you please? Have you been threatened with harm if you try to quit? Has anyone threatened your family?
What are your working or living conditions like? Where do you sleep and eat? Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep or go to the bathroom? Is there a lock on your door or windows so you cannot get out?
“We are here to help you” “Our first priority is your safety” “If you have been brought here against your will to work, you will not be deported” “We will give you the medical care that you need” “You will receive the assistance that you need to be safe and rebuild your life”
Federal Rescue and Restore Campaign – Trafficking is known as “Modern Day Slavery” Victims who agree to testify against their trafficker will receive a - T-Visa – and not be deported Victims will receive Social Services and Resources Call the National Rescue and Restore Hotline at
(U.S. Citizens trafficked in the U.S.)
3,016 Ohio youth at risk 1,078 domestic minors in the sex trade
Includes victims who are adults or children Trafficked for the purposes of labor or sex
Any person under the age of 18 and involved in a commercial sex act where someone else is economically benefiting off the child. Occurs when children are kidnapped, coerced, forced, manipulated, or appear to have entered the sex industry by choice Includes: Street-level prostitution Strip Clubs / Private Dancing Massage or Escort Services Convention Centers / Sporting Events Tourist Destinations Moved to apartments Truck Stops
Average age of recruitment is between years of age nationally in Ohio Recruited from inner cities, suburbs, and small towns (National Center for Missing & Exploited Children) Approached 48 hours to 2 weeks Vulnerability is the common denominator across trafficked youth.
Pimps are masters at identifying the vulnerabilities of a specific child and exploit them. Once seduced, pimps use physical and psychological torture and control Tactics lead to complete obedience and a breakdown of personal autonomy. Pimps use the increased glamorization of pimp/ho culture, as well as cultural acceptance of demand for child victims, to help maintain control of the child.
Other underage girls Young boys Adult women
Hang out Spots Friends/Family Houses Malls Court Houses/Juvenile Centers Corner Stores Schools
Physically and/or psychologically controlled by pimps Trained by pimps to tell lies and false stories Victims’ distrust of service providers & law enforcement Frequently moved from place to place Traffickers issue victims fake I.D.s
Hotel room keys Numerous school absences False ID’s and lying about age Having large amounts of cash, jewelry, new clothes Recurrent STI’s/STD’s and/or need for pregnancy tests Signs of physical assault including: branding or tattooing, broken bones, black eyes, etc
“Child Prostitutes Sell Themselves on Craigslist” “Sacramento police have nabbed nearly 70 underage girls for child prostitution since 2005.”
Donna M. Hughes Professor & Carlson Endowed Chair University of Rhode Island, Citizens Against Trafficking
DDetect the presence of high risk factors using RESCUE CHILD IIntervene by detaining child long enough to respond VValue the child y recognizing his/her strengths & ability to survive thus far EEducate child about trafficking & your responsibility to report RReport to Child Protection & Police TTrafficking Hotline DDetect the presence of high risk factors using RESCUE CHILD IIntervene by detaining child long enough to respond VValue the child y recognizing his/her strengths & ability to survive thus far EEducate child about trafficking & your responsibility to report RReport to Child Protection & Police TTrafficking Hotline Rescue
A-B-C-D A Complete an “Assessment” to understand needs B Get “Buy in” from the youth C Provide Intensive “Case Management” D Engage youth in “Diversion Programming” that involves trauma treatment and rooted in trauma informed care. A Complete an “Assessment” to understand needs B Get “Buy in” from the youth C Provide Intensive “Case Management” D Engage youth in “Diversion Programming” that involves trauma treatment and rooted in trauma informed care.
Blue (far left) represents those involved in prostitution in Ohio, Red (middle column) represents those victims of sex trafficking involved through manipulation, and Green (far right) represents victims involved by force.
Toledo Blade - May 27, Customers from the suburbs of Toledo arrested for buying sex. Two were 44 years old, one 59, and one 72 years old. One was a member of the Toledo Opera Guild, one was a business man, one was a lawyer, and one was a builder. The two women, age 18 and 28 were sellers.