Presentation on theme: "Electrical Safety Compliance Made Easy"— Presentation transcript:
1Electrical Safety Compliance Made Easy A practical approach guide to what you need to know when submitting products for electrical safety testing
2Who Am I? Name Mark Penton Title: Senior Consultant Employer: TÜV Product Service LtdExperience:20 Years experience in Electrical SafetyHistory:Worked for Electrolux, TÜV Product Service, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) & EricssonTelephone:
3Contents What is Electrical Safety? Preparing In advance A brief overview of electrical safety testingPreparing In advanceHow to prepare in advance to ensure things run smoothly when submitting productsSelecting critical components and materials.Guidance on selecting correct components and materials to use in your productsHints and tipsPractical advice to help you avoid problems
5What is Electrical Safety Electrical safety actually covers a range of issues aimed at ensuring the product is safe for the user and does not pose a hazard to the surrounding environment.Considers the following-The design and construction of the productThe product operation under normal operating conditionsWhat happens under fault conditions and component failuresInterconnection with other equipment and networksSelection of materials and componentsDespite the term “electrical safety” it actually covers a whole range of hazards.
6Hazards Addressed by the Standards Type of HazardWhat is addressedElectric ShockVoltages on accessible parts, insulation between circuits and parts, leakage current, protective earthing, safety interlocksEnergyEnergy on accessible parts, interconnection circuits, fault conditionsFireOverloads, component failures, insulation breakdown, selection of materials, fire enclosures, protective devicesHeatTemperature limits, material properties, cooling & ventilation, operator accessible parts, fault conditions, material & component selection, flammable liquids.Mechanical hazardsOperator access, safety interlocks, guarding, mechanical strength & stabilityRadiation hazardsLaser (light) radiation, X-radiation, Radio FrequencyUltraviolet (UV)Chemical HazardsToxic vapours and smoke under fault conditions, dangerous liquids, chemical interaction between materials, warnings
7Types of Safety Testing There are 2 types of approach to safety testing1. Type testing:A one off test on a sample of the product.A report or certificate relating to the product.No production control or factory inspections.No means of ensuring ongoing compliance.A snapshot based on one sample does not guarantee future product quality.Examples of applications for type testing:To support CE Marking (for inclusion in technical file)CB Scheme (as basis for obtaining international acceptance & certification)
8Types of Safety Testing 2. Product certification:An ongoing partnership between manufacturer and certification body.Initial testing of product.Regular factory inspections where the product is made.Certification mark permitted on the product.Ongoing compliance maintained.Assignment of a certification markExamples of the benefits of certification:Market accessConsumer confidenceOngoing production qualityMarketing advantage
9The CB Scheme Internationally recognised There are 46 formally participating countriesRecognised in many more countries (eg: South Africa)And 61 National Certification Bodies - NCBsWith 225 Testing Laboratories – CBTLs50,000 CB certificates issued each yearOver 400,000 CB Certificates currently in circulationMore than 15,000 manufacturers use the CB Scheme
10Formal participating countries ArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBrazilCanadaChinaCzech Rep.DenmarkFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKenyaRep. of KoreaMalaysiaMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSouth AfricaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineUnited KingdomUnited StatesSerbia and Montenegro
14At the Design StageEnsure design engineers are aware of safety requirements.Provide trainingEnsure they have access to the standardsSeek advice from 3rd partiesEnlist a consultantConsider getting a compliance review at an early stage of developmentHighlight any issues with the designAvoid re-design at a later stageAdvice on component and material selection
15At the Design Stage Select already approved components and materials. Know your target marketsReduce testing requirementsAvoid potential failuresAvoid having to change / re-source componentsDon’t design power supplies unless you really need to.They involve extensive testingCan cost more to test than the end productCritical to safety of the product
16Requesting a Quotation Know your marketWhere do you want to sell the product?Is CE marking sufficient?Are international approvals / Certifications required?Ensure that these requirements are defined when requesting quotationsProvide as much information as possibleTarget marketsProduct description / BrochuresPhotos / drawingsDefine power requirementsSpecify other facilities required (water, drainage, compressed air etc..)Fan speed control or air conditioning incorporated in the productTimescales requiredBudget constraints
17Preparing to Submit for testing Collate documentation before submittingCircuit Diagrams & SchematicsParts ListingsMechanical & Exploded drawingsCritical Component Approvals informationUser and service manualsRating label drawingsList all accessories and parts required to be included with the productDefine product familiesList all production facilities
18Preparing to Submit for testing Ensure that the equipment is suitably configured for testingWorst case normal load conditionsProvide worst case configurationPrepare support equipment loads & cablingProvide clear operating instructionsWrite test software
19Preparing to Submit for testing Find out how many samples are requiredComplete productPower suppliesFuses, thermal cut-outs and other componentsPlastic partsIn-Situ testing at your site can often be the most effective way of testing.100% of our engineers attentionAll support facilities availableIssues can be resolved face to faceFix your problems and clear non compliances on-line with the testing
21Safety Critical Components & Materials These guidance notes are intended to explain what information is required to show that a safety critical component holds suitable approval.This will assist you in preparing the correct information in advance of submitting your product for testing.
22Which Components are Safety Critical Mains ComponentsOther componentsMains plugs and cordsDC/DC convertersAppliance couplers, EMC filtersFansFuses and fuseholdersEnclosure materialsWiringConnectorsPower suppliesPCB’sCapacitors (Class X, Class Y)Thermistors, PTC’sTransformers
23IEC & EN Investigations Component approvals should be in the form of a current test certificate / report to a relevant IEC / EN standard.The documents should be in English from a CB, CCA or LVD accredited test laboratory (e.g. TÜV Product Service, VDE). The test certificate must be current (some have expiry dates) and must detail all relevant information i.e. some certificates are made up of many pages, all should be supplied.If the test certificate does not give all of the required details then a copy of the test report may be required. This is generally the case, for example, with power supply units where more detailed information is required i.e. maximum rated ambient, classification of outputs, method of mains isolation.Self-declaration in the form of a Certificate of Conformity, component marking, manufacturer’s declaration etc. may also be accepted in some cases. However, the responsibility that the component is suitably approved remains with you (this would be stated in any test report issued).Note: statements like “designed to meet” or “complies with ENxxxx” are not evidence of suitable component approvals.
24IEC & EN Investigations Where Third Party Certification of your product is being sought self-declaration is not acceptable and 3rd approved components should be used (e.g. TÜV PS, UL, CB, VDE). X and Y class capacitors (including discrete components or within filters) - must comply with IEC nd Ed. Mains switches / circuit breakers – the approval documentation must clearly state the voltage and current ratings. Where transformers or motors are to be assessed then we require details of the thermal classification of the winding in accordance with IEC60085 (this also apply to the windings of inductors). The thermal classification of winding insulation is as follows: Class:- A 100ºC; E 115ºC; B 120ºC; F 140ºC; H 165ºC
25Flammability of Materials This refers to plastic or non-metallic materials used in the construction of the unit. Compliance may be based on self-declaration, and/or suitable documentary evidence of compliance with the relevant standard for flammability.This will most commonly be to UL 94.In order for the suitability of the materials used to be assessed the following information is required:- i) The name of the company that holds the UL approval (eg: GE Plastics, 3M).ii) The name and part number of the material (e.g. Lexan, LX437).iii) The UL file number (e.g. E143678).The flammability rating (e.g. V-1, V-2, HB, HF2).Thickness of material usedThe name of the approval holder and material is the most important information required in order for us to confirm compliance. The easiest method of obtaining the information is to obtain a copy of the UL Listing (Yellow) Card, which can be obtained from the approval holder, the manufacturer of the material, or from UL’s website.
27US / Canadian Investigations All safety critical components and materials must have current UL or CSA Recognition and in order to verify this the following information is required:- i) The name of the company that holds the UL or CSA approval ii) The type or model number of the component. iii) The UL file number (e.g. E143678). The easiest method of obtaining the information is to obtain a copy of the UL Listing (Yellow) Card, which can be obtained from the approval holder, the manufacturer of the component/part, or from UL’s website. Where transformers are to be assessed and an insulation Class higher than Class A is to be used the UL require a UL Recognised insulation system (OBJY2) to be employed. (A recognised insulation system is a combination of materials that have been tested together for suitability of use in prolonged high temperature conditions).
33Hints and Tips Know your target markets Provide as much info as possible at the quotation stageGet a copy of the applicable standardSelect already approved componentsGet a compliance review at an early stage of developmentDon’t rely on datasheets as evidence of component approvals (“designed to meet” “in accordance with”)Don’t design your own power supplies unless you really need toConsider In-Situ testing if its practicalCollate all documentation before submitting for test
34Hints and TipsEnsure that the equipment is suitably configured for testing (worst case normal load conditions)Find out how many samples are requiredList all accessories and parts required to be included with the productDefine product familiesCheck the thickness of plastic parts when determining flammability ratingsSupply equipment fully ready for testingloads cablessupport equipmenttest softwareSpecify all manufacturing locations
35Hints and Tips Ensure support is available during testing Select a nominated technical contactAttend on first day to assist with set upRespond to non-compliances as a packageAdvise when you are going to send new samples
36Summary What is Electrical Safety? Preparing In advance Selecting critical components and materials.Hints and tips