The Reformers Part I The Movement to Improve the World
The Second Great Awakening Defined: The religious movement of the early 1800s including revivals and missionary ideals.
“Humanism” Also part of the cultural driving force, but “humanism” has too many meanings today. Just remember, the Reformers fit within a larger movement geared towards the improvement or even perfection of the human condition.
Three Areas of Interest Education Abolition Women’s Rights
Education Early 1800s- Only New England provided free elementary education. Horace Mann- Head of Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837 Lengthened the school year, improved curriculum, doubled teacher salaries, developed new ways to train teachers. 1839- First state supported “normal school”
By 1850s Three Principles are generally accepted 1) School should be free (supported by taxes) 2) Teachers should be trained 3) Compulsory attendance (required)
Higher Education More colleges and universities Oberlin College of Ohio -1833 First to admit women and African-Americans Mount Holyoke- 1837 First permanent Women’s College Ashmun Institute (later Lincoln University) 1854 First African-American college
New Types of Schools Hartford School for the Deaf- 1817 Perkins Institute- School for the Blind
ABOLITIONISTS Those who spoke against the “peculiar institution”
Early Efforts Constitutional Convention of 1787 No abolition, but ended the slave trade in 1808 Gradual abolition in the North New Jersey- Last Northern state to abolish slavery (officially) in 1804. Final thirteen slaves freed by the 13 th Amendment in 1865.
American Colonization Society Founded by group of Virginians in 1816 Sought to emancipate and relocate African-Americans To Africa 1822- First African-Americans arrive in Liberia
The Cause Changes By 1830s, Gradual emancipation is no longer reasonable. More people enlist in the cause to end slavery. White men, women, and African-Americans Frederick Douglass edited the North Star Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Opposition in the North Many Northerners saw abolition as a: Threat to social order. Threat to northern economy. Threat to national peace. Opposition could turn violent Elijah Lovejoy’s print shop was wrecked four times. The fourth time, opposition forces set fire to his shop. Lovejoy was shot.
Opposition in the South Defense of slavery: Essential to Southern economy and culture “Good for slaves” (compared to “wage slavery”) “Providence has placed [the slave] in our hands for his own good”