Presentation on theme: "Kansas Becomes A State. January 29, 1861, Kansas became a state. A serious drought took place soon after Kansas grabbed statehood. Crops failed and drinking."— Presentation transcript:
January 29, 1861, Kansas became a state. A serious drought took place soon after Kansas grabbed statehood. Crops failed and drinking water was scarce in some parts of Kansas. People were starving in many parts in Kansas. Citizens appealed for help from the rest of the nation, but the focus was on the national level with the approaching Civil War.
When Kansas became a state, it had to create a state government based on the Wyandotte Constitution. State conditions were as follows: No money in the state treasury. Kansas was in debt. No guns or ammunition in the state armory. To the east, they still had hostile neighbors (MO) To the west was the Indian frontier, where tensions increased due to American’s pushing for more land. Charles Robinson was elected first governor of Kansas, and he wanted the U.S. Government to pay for damages in the state from Bleeding Kansas struggle.
Written in Latin meaning “to the stars through difficulty.” John James Ingalls proposed the motto while he was secretary to the first Kansas Senate. Ingalls’ initial suggestion for the state seal was a single rising star coming out of a cloud. The star would appear moving toward a number of other stars, representing the states of the nation. Ingalls’ idea for the state motto was accepted, but the design for the seal was modified.
Wyandotte Constitution was modeled after the U.S. Constitution. Has a Bill of Rights spelling out those rights considered to be inalienable. Citizens have the right to assemble in a peaceful manner and bear arms for defense. Have the right to freedom of speech and worship according to their beliefs. “All political power is inherent to the people.” Constitution may be amended (change over time according to the people). Bill of Rights in the State Constitution prohibited slavery. In Kansas, women were given the right to vote in school board elections, but it would take another 61 years for the U.S. Constitution to be amended, giving women the right to vote in all elections.
Levels of government in the U.S. Federal (National) government makes laws and provides services to everyone in the country. State governments also make laws and provide services, but still must follow Federal laws. Counties and cities also have governments. They have to follow Federal and State laws, but make laws called ordinances (smoking ban). State government is made up of executive, legislative, and judicial branches. All 3 are identified in the State Constitution and parallel duties to those outlined in the U.S. Constitution.
Governor is head of executive branch (like President). State Constitution gives the governor responsibility of administering laws of the state. Governor elected by people and can serve up to 2 consecutive 4 year terms. Governor works with the legislature to find solutions to problems. Governor oversees the budget of the state. Executive branch maintains and builds roads, protects our food and water supply, provides security, administers parks and historic sites. Also collects taxes.
State Senate and House of Representatives make up the legislature. Make laws for the state. Every January, senators and reps. come together in Topeka for the legislative session. State is divided into Senate and House districts based on population. People in each district elect members to the legislature. This allows people in all areas of the state to have representation.
Any member of the legislature can introduce a bill. Member of the public cannot directly introduce a bill. People must convince elected officials to introduce concerns, which is called representative government (republic). Bill may allocate the budget of a state program, like one that provides money for schools. Sometimes bills increase or decrease taxes based on spending needs. Bills can also propose new laws or change laws. Bills must pass the Senate and House of Reps, and be approved by the governor before it can become law. If governor vetoes a bill, it still may be reconsidered if 2/3 of members of both Senate and House want the bill.
Judicial branch interprets laws. Courts settle disagreements between people, determine if a person broke the law, and answer legal questions. Criminal case involves a crime. Court’s responsibility to decide if a person is guilty of a crime and what the punishment should be. Civil case is between two parties that have a dispute over money or property (Judge Judy). Court has to settle the disputes.
Juries are vital to the court system, which are made up of citizens. Grand Jury is one that determines if there is enough evidence to take a person to court. Job of Jury to determine guilt, judge’s responsibility to make sure Jury does its job in a fair way. Kansas Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Kansas has a unified court system, meaning all courts in state are under the Supreme Court. 7 justices make up the Supreme Court. Governor appoints the justices. Supreme Court interprets laws to make sure they fall under the State Constitution.
Country was splitting apart as Kansas was working to become a state. The issues were disputes over slavery and the rights for states to govern themselves. Southern states began to secede from the Union. Civil War began less than 3 months after Kansas became a state. Most Kansans supported the Union.
Sent to Washington, D.C. as one of Kansas’ first U.S. senators. The situation got violent, and Washington, D.C. was vulnerable to attack because it is between Virginia and Maryland, two states considering seceding. Lane organized 100 Kansans into the Frontier Guard to give special protection for President Lincoln.
Civil War started-Kansas had about 30,000 men between the ages 18-45. More than 20,000 volunteered to fight for the Union. Nearly 8,500 Kansas men died from the Civil War, giving Kansas the highest death rate among the Union. African Americans could not serve at the beginning of the Civil War. The Government changed its mind after the 3 rd year. Nearly 185,000 African American men fought for the Union, and about 38,000 died. Kansas was the first state in the Union to enlist African Americans.
During the war, tensions between Kansas and Missouri were very high. Guerilla warfare took place between the states. Raids took place on both sides of the border instead of full military battles.
Most of 3,000 people were asleep in Lawrence at 5:00 a.m. on August 21, 1863. William C. Quantrill, a Confederate guerrilla, and about 400 men rode into Lawrence killing every man they saw on the streets. They came upon the camp sites of new army recruits, where the men fired into tents. They were determined to burn down the town and kill all the men and boys. Some survived by hiding in wells or disguising themselves in their wives clothing. At least 140 men and boys were dead. Only 1 Confederate died.