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1. 3 Team Jonathan Zaff, Ph.D. Elizabeth Pufall Jones, Ph.D. Sara Anderson, Ph.D. (now at Georgetown) Alexandra Baker Ana Carvalho Amber Rose Johnson.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 3 Team Jonathan Zaff, Ph.D. Elizabeth Pufall Jones, Ph.D. Sara Anderson, Ph.D. (now at Georgetown) Alexandra Baker Ana Carvalho Amber Rose Johnson."— Presentation transcript:

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3 3 Team Jonathan Zaff, Ph.D. Elizabeth Pufall Jones, Ph.D. Sara Anderson, Ph.D. (now at Georgetown) Alexandra Baker Ana Carvalho Amber Rose Johnson Melissa Maharaj Craig McClay Jen Elise Prescott

4 4 What We Know About HS dropouts (and what we can do to support them)

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7 7 “In the words of Martin Luther King – no, Malcolm X, ‘A man that stands for nothing will fall for anything,’ and I’ll be dogged if I don’t stand for anything.” -- Juice

8 8 Graduation Rates Climbing Calculation by the Everyone Graduates Center, 2014

9 9 But, disparities by state Calculation by the Everyone Graduates Center, 2014

10 10 Calculation by the Everyone Graduates Center, 2014 Graduation Rates for CA

11 11 LAUSD= 67.9% San Diego Unified = 87.8% Fresno Unified = 76.2% Large Disparities within States Georgia Department of Education

12 12 Why Should We Care?COSTS Economic (Individual) Economic (Social) Civic National Security Mission: Readiness, 2009

13 13 Average high school dropout: Jobless rate = 54.3% (12.3% with BA+) Annual income = $8,358 ($24,797 with BA+) Sum et al., (2009) Economic Costs (Individual)

14 14 Average high school dropout costs taxpayers more than $290,000 Lower tax revenue Higher cash/in-kind transfer costs Incarceration costs Sum et al., (2009) Economic Costs (Society)

15 15 Among 16 – 24 year-olds: 22% of dropouts are single mothers (2.6% with college degree) 6.3% are institutionalized – 22.9% of Black males Sum et al., (2009) Social Costs

16 16 CIRCLE analysis of Current Population Survey Data Civic Costs (voting)

17 17 Civic Costs (volunteering) -------- = { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4037113/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "17 Civic Costs (volunteering) -------- =

18 18 National Security Costs Approximately three-quarters of 17-24 year- olds unable to enlist in military: No high school diploma Criminal record, and/or Obese Mission: Readiness, 2009

19 19 Focusing on Dropouts Nationally, more than 500,000 students dropout of school each year

20 20 Preventing Dropouts: What Do We Know? Individual: School performance Academic behaviors Attitudes about academics Non-academic behaviors Hammond, Linton, Smink & Drew, 2007; Rumberger & Lim, 2009; Tyler & Lofstrom, 2009

21 21 Preventing Dropouts: What Do We Know? School: Teacher quality Non-supportive climate Lack of high expectations Ratio of teachers to students Hammond, Linton, Smink & Drew, 2007; Rumberger & Lim, 2009; Tyler & Lofstrom, 2009

22 22 Preventing Dropouts: What Do We Know? Family: Single mother household Low-income household Parent having low educational attainment Hammond, Linton, Smink & Drew, 2007; Rumberger & Lim, 2009; Tyler & Lofstrom, 2009

23 23 Preventing Dropouts: What Do We Know? Community: High crime rate Low collective efficacy Non-academic culture Hammond, Linton, Smink & Drew, 2007; Rumberger & Lim, 2009; Tyler & Lofstrom, 2009

24 24 1.Why do young people leave high school before graduating? 2.Why do young people say they want to go back to school or not go back? 3.What opportunities and barriers do young people encounter have to re-engage? Purpose: Derive authentic, lived experience of young people who left school before graduating high school Study Rationale

25 25 Group Interviews: 30 group interviews in 16 cities 212 18-to-25 year-olds Online Survey: 1,942 18-to-25 year-olds who had left school before graduating 1,023 young people who graduated without interruption. Methodology

26 26 Findings 1.Cluster of Factors - Toxic Environment 2.Yearning for Supportive Connection 3.Bouncing Back and Reaching Up

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29 29 Cluster of Factors/ Toxic Environment Marty was, “trying, trying, trying,” [but when exposed to so many risk factors,] “I came to my breaking point.”

30 30 Interrupted EnrollmentContinuous Enrollment # Adverse eventsFrequency% # Adverse eventsFrequency% 017510.1027828.69 121212.23123624.36 221312.29218318.89 323613.62312813.21 423013.274788.05 524814.315232.37 6 +41924.186 +434.43 Cluster of Factors/ Toxic Environment

31 31 Cluster of Factors/ Toxic Environment

32 32 Connectedness “It was me, just me alone.” — Alia

33 33 “First and foremost I came from a gang-related dysfunctional family. My mom and dad were on and off in my life for the first ten years.” — Bertie Being abused: 45% more likely to dropout Parent in jail: 79% more likely to dropout 55% of youth who left school had parents who were proud of them, had high educational expectations, and were involved with their friends and school. Connectedness: Family

34 34 Connectedness: Instability Changing schools: 2X as likely to dropout. Homeless: 2X as likely to dropout. Foster care: “When I turned 18 I [aged out of foster care] and became homeless and that’s where it all started. It just went downhill. I withdrew myself because I had nowhere to go. I was staying in tunnels, under highways, and deserts. I withdrew myself so that way I didn’t have to worry about that and survival. I didn’t have time to go and make what I needed for food and go to school at the same time. It don’t work that way. You can’t do both." — Mandy

35 35 Connectedness: School Teachers pushing youth out: 85% more likely to dropout “My teacher told me to put my money up and he'd put his money up that I'd be in jail in the next five years.” — Ernest

36 36 Connectedness: Peers Friends who graduated HS: 40% less likely to dropout. “The gangs showed me love, showed me the ropes, showed me how to get money. After that I was like, what do I need school for?” — Carl

37 37 Bouncing Back and Reaching Up “I’m trying to make it here, I’m trying to do good. Like it is possible for us to bounce back from negative situations we went through in the past, it’s possible.” - Juice

38 38 Bouncing Back and Reaching Up “I eventually dropped out because the bills weren’t getting paid, I knew I could pay the bills. I wanted to step up, I never took on responsibility like that before in my life.” — Aaron “Ain't nobody going to change my life but me.” — Dennis

39 39 Bouncing Back and Reaching Up Nearly 2/3 of our sample returned to school and obtained a degree. Having parent with higher educational attainment big predictor Adults in community who have high educational expectations important.

40 40 Bouncing Back and Reaching Up Having an individual who reaches out, encourages. “I called her my second mother. She never gave up on me. Even though I called out her name, later we saw each other and she invited me back. I've been going ever since then because of her.” — Rudy “My homies told me about this program. My friends are the only reason why I'm here.” — Marcus

41 41 Key Lessons Strengths Life Struggles Need More On-Ramps Adults Matter

42 42 Key Lessons Listen to the “real” experiences of youth Strengths Life Struggles Need More On-Ramps Adults Matter

43 43 To learn more: www.gradnation.org/notdropouts Questions? [jonz@americaspromise.org]

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