Presentation on theme: "Critical Role of Leadership in System Transformation:"— Presentation transcript:
1Critical Role of Leadership in System Transformation: Change ManagementThursday, May 3, 2012Kristen….Good afternoon everyone….Thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedules to be part of this webinar.Today we will be discussing the Critical Role of Leadership in System Transformation, specifically related to Change Management.We want to inform you all of the Critical Role ultimately so that we can improve outcomes in the behavioral health and intellectual disability systems.
2Introductions & Acknowledgements Presenters: Kristen Smith Sharon Burke Wanda SabbThere will be 3 Presenters today who will be covering specific areas around this topic.The Presenters include myself (Kristen Smith), Wanda Sabb and Sharon BurkeWe would like to say a special thank you to our technical team for addressing the technical piece of this webinar and also our development team for gathering all the necessary information on the subject material.
3Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this webinar, participants will be able toDescribe the Stages of Change in System TransformationIdentify the natural process people go through in dealing with changeUnderstand the difference between Traditional and Transformational LeadershipApply The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership toSystem TransformationIdentify key leadership strategies for change managementHere are our Learning Objectives today….At the end of this webinar, participants will be able to….
4DBHIDS SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION MODEL The City of Philadelphia integrated its behavioral health care and intellectual disability services into a comprehensive system. The Department of Behavioral health and Intellectual disAbility Services (DBHIDS) provides services through a network of community provider agencies while collaborating with the Philadelphia School District, child welfare, judicial systems and other key stakeholders. DBHIDS staff embrace and implement a vision of: recovery resilIence self-determinationThe Department of Behavioral Health and Intellectual Disability Services System in Philadelphia has been transforming for the last several years.We have integrated our behavioral health and intellectual disability services into one comprehensive system and also transforming to a Recovery Oriented Systems of Care.The Department also known as DBHIDS provides services through a network of community provider agencies while collaborating with cross systems such as the School District, Child Welfare, Judicial Systems and other stakeholders.DBHIDS embrace and implement a vision of 1) Recovery 2) Resilience and 3) Self Determination
5Recovery & Resilience Oriented System of Care In the ROSC model of treatment, which is Recovery and Resilience Oriented System of Care…clinical treatment is just one of the resources members need to reintegrate successfully into the community…Primary focus is community life including family, housing, work, school, faith, etc.End of Presenter 1….
6Recovery & Resilience Oriented System of Care In the ROSC model of treatment, which is Recovery and Resilience Oriented System of Care…clinical treatment is just one of the resources members need to reintegrate successfully into the community…Primary focus is community life including family, housing, work, school, faith, etc.End of Presenter 1….
7Practice GuidelinesSeeking to align system transformation concepts, practice and context10 Core Values guided the development of transformation principles and strategies, and will continue to guide the implementation process4 Domains in which the strategies will be carried out7 Goals are concrete, action- oriented goals that organize and focus the strategiesWith the Department’s transformation we have sought to align concepts, practice and context. Therefore during this transformation period, we have developed the Practice Guidelines.Together people in recovery, their family members, treatment providers, advocates, and system administrators have developed a shared vision: that includes 10 core values, 4 domains and 7 goals.These Practice Guidelines were developed to help providers implement services and supports that promote resilience, recovery and wellness in children youth, adults and families.Please refer to our website listed below for additional information on the Department’s Practice Guidelines.
8With the goal being systematic and lasting change… With the goal being systematic and lasting change….this conceptual framework guided the transformation processConscious efforts were made to think aboutHow we want thinking to changeHow we want people’s behaviors to changeHow we want to change the policy, fiscal and administrative to support the behavior and thinking we would like to see in the system…
9The Stages of System Transformation CORE STRATEGIESPre-ContemplationListening Exercises (focus groups with clients/families and providers)ContemplationPro and Con Analysis of change or no changePreparationIncreased availability of training and technical assistanceActionContingency management-making system rewards contingent on pro recovery, resilience and self determination practices and policiesMaintenanceContinued freshening of celebration and recognition ceremoniesRoland Lamb, Arthur Evans and William White wrote an article titled “The Role of Partnership in Recovery Oriented Systems of Care: The Philadelphia Experience.” In this article it was highlighted the stages of System Transformation in Philadelphia as experienced by treatment providers and DBHIDS Staff….In the Pre-Contemplation Stage:The overall attitudes toward system transformation include “everything is fine,” treatment works, we just need more money to do more of what we are currently doing.In the Contemplation Stage:The overall attitudes are “There are significant problems with the current design but obstacles to addressing them are insurmountable.”In the Preparation Stage:Overall attitudes regarding the transformation include: “we have decided and are committed to making major changes in service philosophy and practices. Goals are set to begin within the coming year.In the Action Stage:The overall attitudes include: “we are making the changes to service philosophy, policies and practices. Moving through superficial changes toward achievement of substantial changes. Many change related activities are continuing. The transition from old to new is variable, experienced as overwhelming, chaotic and exhilarating.In The final stage, Maintenance:Overall attitudes “we have come a long way but still have to catch ourselves when we slide into old patterns of thinking and acting, particularly during periods of distress.**It is not unusual for systems to cycle through these stages multiple times before achieving.**Roland Lamb, Arthur Evans, William White: The Role of Partnership in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care: The Philadelphia Experience
10Change is Not Easy…It is important to understand how change affects the people in your organization. Change means letting go of something we are attached to. It triggers fear, anger, resentment and insecurity.
11INDIVIDUAL PROCESS OF CHANGE There are Three Phases of Dealing with ChangeOr How Change is Experienced:EndingsNeutral ZonesBeginningsHere we are going to review the work of William Bridges and discuss individuals process of change and Bridges’ model of “Transition Framework.” This framework is to help people understand and talk with others about the powerful emotions involved.•In the Bridges’ Framework, the inner process of adjustment is referred to as a “Transition;” •Each Transition is made up of three stages: 1. Endings: which produces sadness, anger and remorse; This phase begins with an acknowledgment that the change is needed. The person may be in denial of the need to change. Ending means letting go of the old way to allow for the new. 2. The Neutral zone: which brings fear and confusion along with space for creativity; In this stage the person may be making progress but he or she is feeling uncomfortable or discouraged. This is mainly due to not being use to the change. He/she could slide backwards or he could come up with creative ways to continue to be successful. 3. New Beginning: a mix of confidence over what has been gained and anxiety over sliding backwards. The person is at this stage only when he is ready. He won’t get to this stage without going thru the first two zones. Once a person is in this zone, they have met their objective. They may have mixed feeling of anxiety about sliding backwards.In the 3 phases of transition a person can move back and forth between the phases as feeling associated with the three phases emerge.In the book “The Heart of Change” (2002) Kotter worked with Dan Cohen to look into the core problems people face when implementing change. They concluded that the central issue was changing the behavior of people and that successful change occurs when speaking to people’s feelings.
12INDIVIDUAL PROCESS OF CHANGE Endings: A period when people deal with the losses associated with change and learn more about the change.Neutral Zones: A period of ambiguity and confusion when people open up to the change and orient themselves to the new patterns of behavior.Beginnings: A period when people fully embrace the new patterns of behavior.1. Endings: Produces sadness, anger, remorse, shock, & anxiety. This phase begins with an acknowledgment that the change is needed. The person may be in denial of the need to change. “Ending” means letting go of the old way to allow for the new.2. The Neutral zone: Brings fear and confusion, but allows space for Creativity. In this stage, the person may be making progress but he or she is feeling uncomfortable or discouraged. This is mainly due to them not being use to the change. The individual could slide backwards or he/she could come up with creative ways to continue to be successful.3. New Beginning: A mix of confidence over what has been gained and anxiety over sliding backwards. The person is at this stage only when he is ready. He won’t get to this stage without going thru the first two zones. Once a person is in this zone, they have met their objective. People begin to make a commitment to the change.
13TRANSITION TRAPEZEIn the 3 phases of transition, a person can move back and forth between the stages as feelings associated with the three stages emerge.The moving back and forth can be represented by a trapeze. In viewing these pictures, the individual is not sure whether he/she can shift or jump to the next trapeze? The individual may be afraid and not sure whether someone will be on the next trapeze to catch them! In an organizational change, leadership/management should be available to support the individual through this transition process and have empathy for him/her.
14Ways of Coping with Change Say goodbye…TO THE ENDINGSIdentify Benefits and OpportunitiesUse your support systemDeal with the losses through thinking strategies
15Ways of Coping with Change SAY GOODBYE TO THE ENDINGSLetting people take part of their former life with themIdentify “Endings” you have experienced or will experience as a result of your organization’s changes. Remember, the “Endings” stage brought about denial, sadness, anxiety, etc.Ask yourself, “How do I want to say good-bye to each person, situation, place, or event that has been important to me?” Then say good-bye and let go.
16Ways of Coping with Change IDENTIFY BENEFITS AND OPPORTUNITIESWhat benefits and opportunities you have experienced or may experience as part of your organization’s changing dynamics?Eliminate self-defeating attitudes by opening yourself up to the benefits & possibilities afforded by the changes.Search for opportunities that build on your strengths.
17Ways of Coping with Change USE YOUR SUPPORT SYSTEMPeopleThingsActivitiesYour Beliefs/AttitudesPeople (Share feelings with others in your support system. You may even encourage others from your own experiences)Things (Use exercise or quiet time to reduce stress)Activities (Release of stress through participating in your favorite activity (track, swimming, hiking, etc.)Your Beliefs/Attitudes will help carry you through this change.
18Ways of Coping with Change DEAL WITH THE LOSSES THROUGH “THINKING STRATEGIES”ReframingReplacingReinventingReframing – Try to turn a negative situation into something positive by using a different frame of reference to understand it. Ask yourself, “What assumptions are false?” “What can I control in the situation?”Replacing – Think about how you can compensate for the loss in the future whether it’s within or outside the organization. Ask yourself, “Is there any way I can get back what I’m losing?” “Can what I’m losing be fulfilled in some other way?”Reinventing – Thinking creatively about the loss. Ask yourself, “If nothing in the current situation will allow me to fulfill my need, what am I going to do?” “What other opportunities can I find?”
19WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?Leadership is the ability to influence others in a manner that causes them to want to act, become, or be a part of something.With the constant flux in business practices, organizations are predictably in a process of transforming; an event that requires its staff to remain actively open to constant and consistent change. As staff, we expect our leadership to provide direction and assistance as we stay the course of change. Leaders should have intelligence, toughness, determination and vision but more importantly, truly effective leaders are also distinguished by a high degree of emotional intelligence, which includes self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill. Effective leadership follow through on commitments and show others by their actions, how serious they are about the values and standards of the organization. According to leadership expert Daniel Goleman, no matter what leaders set out to do -- whether it’s creating strategy or mobilizing teams to action – their success depends on how they do it. Even if they get everything else just right, if leaders fail in this primal task of driving emotions in the right direction, nothing they do will work as it could or should.
20Critical Role of Leadership There are several factors that are needed to successfullymanage change:□ the ability to communicate appropriately□ effective people management□ empathy□ emotional intelligenceThe critical component of leadership requires one to successfully manage the change process. According to Ken Blanchard, a leadership authority, strong leadership is the backbone of an organization. Leaders create the vision, support the strategies and are the catalyst for developing the individual bench strength to move the organization forward. The ability to communicate appropriately is a fundamental factor for effective leadership as well as valuing of employee input with empathy and understanding emotional intelligence.
2120 Best Companies for Leadership As noted in a survey of the 20 best companies for leadership, it is suggested that the emphasis is not only on good leadership but also in how they approach it. Carefully tailoring the development of future leaders, people at the Best Companies for Leadership sense the urgency to develop leaders more than their industry peers. In fact, while 94% of respondents among the Best Companies for Leadership say their organization actively manages a pool of successors for mission-critical roles, only 68.6% of the other organizations surveyed report the same. And respondents from the Best Companies for Leadership are significantly more likely than those from other companies to believe they will emerge stronger from tough times. They say their leaders are more likely to be involved in leadership development. And they are twice as likely to say that everyone at every level of their organization has the opportunity to develop and practice capabilities needed to lead others. Great leadership is more than a perk, it is a necessity.BusinessWeek.com/Hay Group survey 2010
22Traditional vs. Transformational Leadership Traditional LeadershipOccurs when the leader rewards or punishes individuals, depending on the adequacy of performanceExchange relationship; contingent reinforcementDoes not address individuals self-worth, interest or intrinsic satisfactionTransformational LeadershipProvides a better fit when managing change process in System TransformationInspire followers to commit to a shared vision for the organization,Can occur at all levels and by any individual in the organizationEmphasizes intrinsic motivation and focuses on positive development of individuals in the organizationLeaders create an open, trust-based culture so that communication can flow from bottom-up and top-downWhen organizations change, there are typically two models of leadership practices present.First, there is Traditional leadership. In this model, the leadership style is based on the belief that power or control of the organization is solely a right of the established leader. The characteristics of traditional leadership include leadership having control and power of change; leaders are followed due to personal loyalty to the position rather to the leader; employees are seen as a cost and viewed on an impersonal level. Rewards and compensation are based on seniority and job classification. There is a clear chain of command which is controlled by management who ultimately have the authority.The second type of leadership is Transformational leadership. In this model the culture of the organization is more fluid, more adaptable to change. Failure is a part of learning. There is a greater focus on the requirements of the customer and systems are sometimes changed to solve problems based on those needs. Greater emphasis is placed on collaborative relationships and empowerment of staff, who are viewed as an asset who contributes holistically to the culture of the organization. There is a wide use of teams and cross-functional networks.
23Traditional Leadership Transformational Leadership Leadership is responsiveLeadership is proactiveWorks within the organizational cultureWork to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideasTraditional leaders make employees achieve organizational objectives through rewards and punishmentTransformational leaders motivate and empower employees to achieve company’s objectives by appealing to higher ideals and moral valuesMotivates followers by appealing to their own self-interestMotivates followers by encouraging them to transcend their own interests for those of the group or unitAcceptance of the status quoBroad vision- willingness to push boundariesCritique is limited and controlled (closed systems)Critique is used to identify opportunities for improvement (Open Systems)Although both leadership styles has pros and cons, an effective leader knows what makes him/her authentic. A good leader has an accurate self-concept, high self-esteem, appropriate expertise and articulated values. In addition, the leader acts in responsible ways. The leader cares for self and others, is able to make and keep commitments and exhibits concern for the organizational community and higher sense of purpose.
25“Change is the only constant” -Heraclitus, Greek philosopherA very relevant quote for us to remember from a Greek Philosopher by the name of Heraclitus states “Change is the Only Constant.”Important for us to remember this because we live in a world where ‘business as usual” is CHANGE….
26Leadership Strategies for Change Management Important leadership models speak to the role of leadership in reaching to people on an emotional level to inspire the behavioral and organizational cultural changes needed for a large scale system transformation.Two highly recognized models:Eight Step Process for Leading Change5 Practices of Exemplary LeadershipSo how do we “DO” change….Important leadership models speak to the role of leadership in reaching people on an emotional level to inspire the behavioral and organizational changes needed for large scale system transformation.We will be focusing on 2 Highly recognized models on Leadership and Change Management….The first model we will discuss is the work of John Kotter who introduced the 8 Step Process for Leading Change in his book “Leading Change.”The second model that will be discussed is the work of James Kouzes and Barry Posner in the “5 Practices of Exemplary Leadership.”These models are John Kotter’s: 8 Step Process for Leading Change
278 Step Process for Leading Change Step 1: Create UrgencyStep 2: Form a Powerful CoalitionStep 3: Create a Vision for ChangeStep 4: Communicate the VisionStep 5: Remove ObstacleStep 6: Create Short-term winsStep 7: Build on the ChangeStep 8: Anchor New Approaches in the CultureThe first step is to Create Urgency:Develop a sense of urgency around the need for changeFor change to happen it helps it whole company really wants it.This may help spark initial motivation to get things movingWhat you can do as leaders:Start honest discussions: give dynamic and convincing reasons to get people talking and thinking.Identify potential threats and develop scenarios around what could happenRequest support from stakeholders, people in recovery, their family members, etc, other systems.**Kotter suggests that for change to be successful 75% of management needs to “buy into” the change***Step 2: Form a Powerful Coalition:To lead change, you need to bring together a coalition or team of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources (title, status, expertise)Identify the leaders in the organizationAsk for emotional commitment from these key peopleWork on team building within the change coalitionCheck team for weak areas and ensure good mix of people from different departments and levels of the organization.Step 3: Create a Vision for ChangeA clear vision helps everyone understand why you are asking them to do somethingWhat to do as leaders:Determine values that are central to changeCreate a strategy to execute the visionEnsure change coalition can describe the vision in 5 minutes of lessStep 4: Communicate the Vision:What you do with your vision after you create it determines your success.Talk often about change vision: talking about it frequently and powerfullyOpenly and honestly address concerns and anxietiesApply vision to all aspects of operations: trainings to performance reviews, etc.Lead by exampleStep 5: Remove Obstacles:If you follow these steps and reach this point in the change process, you’ve been talking about the vision and building buy-in from all levels of the organization. But is anyone resisting?? Are there processes or structures that are getting in the way.Identify the people who are resisting the change and help them see what’s needed.Recognize and reward people for making change happenTake action to quickly remove barriersStep 6: Create Short Term Wins:Nothing motivates more than success. Within a short time frame you’ll wan to have results that your staff can see.Create short term targets that are achievableStep 7: Build on the Change:Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep.After every win analyze what went right and what needs improvingSet goals to continue building on the momentum achieved.Step 8: Anchor the Change in Corporate Culture:To make change stick it should become part of the core of the organization.What to do:Talk about progress every chancePublicly recognize key members of original change coalitionCreate plans to replace key leaders of change as they move onJohn Kotter: Leading Change
28Kotter suggests that for change to be successful 75% of management needs to “buy into” the change. What can leaders do?Start honest discussionsIdentify potential threatsRequest supportSTEP 1. CREATE URGENCY
29STEP 2: FORM A POWERFUL COALITION To lead change, you need to bring together a coalition of influential peopleWhat can leaders do?Identify the leaders in your organizationAsk for emotional commitmentWork on team buildingCheck for weak areasSTEP 2: FORM A POWERFUL COALITION
30STEP 3: CREATE A VISION FOR CHANGE A clear vision helps everyone understand why you are asking them to do something.What can leaders do?Determine values that are central to changeCreate a strategy to execute the visionEnsure change coalition can describe the vision in 5 minutes or lessSTEP 3: CREATE A VISION FOR CHANGE
31STEP 4: COMMUNICATE THE VISION What you do with your vision after you create it determines your success“Walk the Talk”What can leaders do?Talk often about the change visionOpenly and honestly address concerns and anxietiesApply vision to all aspects of operationsLead by exampleSTEP 4: COMMUNICATE THE VISION
32STEP 5: REMOVE OBSTACLES Building buy-in from all levels of the organizationEmpowering people and helping the change move forwardWhat can leaders do?Identify the people resisting the changeRecognize and reward people for making change happenTake action to quickly remove barriersSTEP 5: REMOVE OBSTACLES
33STEP6: CREATE SHORT TERM WINS Nothing motivates more than successWhat can leaders do:Create short term targets that are achievableAnalyze potential pros and cons of your targetsReward people who help meet the targetsSTEP6: CREATE SHORT TERM WINS
34STEP 7: BUILD ON THE CHANGE Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too earlyWhat leaders can do?After every win analyze what went right and what needs improvingSet goals to continue building on the momentum achievedSTEP 7: BUILD ON THE CHANGE
35STEP 8: ANCHOR NEW APPROACHES IN THE CULTURE Make any change stick, it should become part of the core of your organizationWhat leaders can do?Talk about progress every chance you get.Tell success stories about the change processPublicly recognize key members of the original change coalitionCreate plans to replace key leaders as they move onSTEP 8: ANCHOR NEW APPROACHES IN THE CULTURE
36FIVE PRACTICES OF EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP Inspire a Shared Vision HOW TO LEADModel the WayInspire a Shared VisionChallenge the ProcessEnable Others to ActEncourage the HeartNow onto the Second model:The 5 Practices of Exemplary Leadership was developed based on the work of James Kouzes and Barry Posner.The 5 Practices resulted from an intensive research project to determine leadership competencies that are essential to getting extraordinary things done in organizations.Kouzes and Posner collected thousands of “Personal Best” stories-true experiences people recalled when asked to think of a peak leadership experience.Despite differences in individuals’ stories their “Personal Best” Leadership Experiences revealed similar patterns of behavior. The study found that when people are at their best they….Model the WayInspire a Shared VisionChallenge the processsEnable others to ActEncourage the HeartIn Model the Way: Exemplary leaders stand up for beliefs, live by their values; their behavior earns them the respect of their constituents to build credibility.In Inspire A Shared Vision: Exemplary leaders envision the future by imagining exciting and enabling possibilities. Dialogue, share dreams and learn about their team members dreams, hopes and aspirations. Communicate passion through vivid language and expressive style.In Challenge the Process: Exemplary leaders welcomes opportunities to test their abilities; look for innovative ways to improve work and their organization. They experiment and take risks.In Enabling others to Act: Exemplary leaders know they can’t do it alone. Foster collaboration by building trust and facilitating relationships. They nurture self esteem in others and make them feel strong and capable.Build teams with spirit, cohesion and true sense of community.Lastly, in Encourage the Heart: Exemplary leaders inspire others with courage and hope. Show genuine appreciation for individual excellence. Expect the best of people. Leaders make everyone feel like everyday heroes.James Kouzes and Barry Posner: "The Leadership Challenge Workshop"
37MODEL THE WAY • Leaders’ actions speak louder than words • Stand up for beliefs• Set the example by aligning actions with shared values•Live by their values
40INSPIRE A SHARED VISION □ Envision the future by imaging exciting and ennobling possibilities□ Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations
41CHALLENGE THE PROCESS ○ Challenge is the opportunity for greatness ○ Leaders welcome opportunities to test their abilities○ Search for opportunities to change the status quo○ Look for innovative ways to improve work and their organization
42Jill Cleveland, Finance Manager of Apple, Inc ENABLE OTHERS TO ACT“The best way for me to give power to other people…is to allow creativity and freedom to explore new ideas and ways of thinking.”Jill Cleveland, Finance Manager of Apple, Inc
43ENABLE OTHERS TO ACT ● Leaders don’t travel alone ● Strength and develop others by sharing power and information● Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust
44Lindsay Levin, Whites Group Chairman ENCOURAGE THE HEART“If everyone is doing a great job, what’s the problem in letting them know that?Lindsay Levin, Whites Group Chairman
45ENCOURAGE THE HEART □ Expect the best □ Personalize Recognition □ Create a spirit of community□ Be personally involved
46In Successful Transformations… Build a guiding team powerful enough to guide big changeGuiding team develops the right vision for the change effortCreate a pattern of winningStrengthen and develop others by sharing power and informationStructure situations so that people can take risksCreate Rewards SystemIn Successful Transformations…the key leadership strategies include…Leaders building a guiding team powerful enough to guide big change. Those in position to guide change must show behavior that is trustful and shows enthusiasm and commitment. Leaders model the trust and teamwork needed so that the team operates with trust, emotional commitment and teamwork needed to do the job. Ex) Use New employee orientation to compellingly show what the organization really cares aboutA guiding team develops the right vision for the change effort: Without a good vision you’ll never get the energy needed to sustain a transformationCreate a pattern of winning that attracts people who want to be allied with a successful venture. Carefully select initial projects for fast enough success to win over cynics. Wins provides momentum and credibility to the effort. The more visible the wins, the more they help the change process. Ex) bullentin boards, web-basedStrengthen and develop others by sharing power and information and by giving others visibility and credit. Through coaching, develop competence.Structure situations so that people can take risks to deal with bureaucratic and political problemsLastly, Create rewards systems that are congruent with the direction of the needed change.
47CONCLUSION:Leadership is the most essential element needed to lead changeSuccessful change occurs when speaking to people’s feelingsTransformational Leaders motivate and empower employeesLeadership is critical to successful and lasting system transformation
48Arlene Blum, PH.D in Biophysical Chemistry “The real dividing line is passion. As long as you believe what you’re doing is meaningful, you can cut through fear and exhaustion and take the next step.”Arlene Blum, PH.D in Biophysical Chemistry
49CRITICAL ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND PARTICIPATION IN THIS WEBINAR!QUESTIONS?COMMENTS?