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The Magic of Music: Children with Hearing Loss Christine Barton, MM, MT-BC June 28, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "The Magic of Music: Children with Hearing Loss Christine Barton, MM, MT-BC June 28, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Magic of Music: Children with Hearing Loss Christine Barton, MM, MT-BC June 28, 2014

2 Music Experience Today is Saturday, it’s time for music Today is Saturday all day long Today is Saturday, it’s time for music So, won’t you sing along? Christine Barton 20142

3 How did you get here… or… where did your journey start? Christine Barton 20143

4 For me, it began here… C. Barton © 20144

5 Then here… C. Barton © 20145

6 And here… C. Barton © 20146

7 Then here… C. Barton © 20147

8 Finally here! C. Barton © 20148

9 Agenda Introduce music therapy profession Introduce selected current research on deafness and co-existing conditions Highlight key issues in music perception in children who are deaf or hard of hearing Provide music experiences and resources to support communication in children with hearing loss and co-existing conditions 9Christine Barton 2014

10 Music Therapy Defined The clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed a music therapy program. - American Music Therapy Association, 2005 Christine Barton 201410

11 MT-BC Credential Music Therapist-Board Certified Earn a Bachelor, Equivalency, or Master’s in MT from an accredited university Complete a six month internship at accredited site Pass the Certification Board Exam for Music Therapy Earn CEUs or retake exam on 5 year cycle Christine Barton 201411

12 Why Music Therapy? Takes advantage of the child’s innate musical abilities Current meta-analysis reveals music therapy to be effective in developing communication, interpersonal, personal responsibility and play skills (Kern & Humpal, 2013) May involve families in shared music-making experiences which can be carried over in the home Can target gross and fine motor skill development through playing instruments or creatively moving to music The structure and sensory input inherent in music help to establish response and role expectations, positive interactions and organization (AMTA,

13 My Current MT Practice 200+ children/week –D/HH –ASD –Dev. Preschool –Elementary Life Skills –Montessori (PTT) –Private Practice Christine Barton 201413

14 My Current MT Practice Dual Diagnosis: –ASD/HL (5) –Down Syndrome/HL (2) –Mitochondrial Disorder/HL (1) –Bronchio-oto-renal/ASD/HL (1) –Intellectual Impairments/HL (3) –Medically Fragile/HL (1) Christine Barton 201414

15 CDC Prevalence of HL 2014 1 to 3 children per 1000 are born with a hearing loss 9 out of 10 deaf children are born to hearing parents Christine Barton 201415

16 Music/Language Similarities Share terminology –Pitch, timbre, timing, intensity Both have melodic contour Similar strategies used when listening to music or language Early exposure is critical for acquisition of both Both follow a time-ordered sequence of skills or milestones Christine Barton 201416

17 Christine Barton 201417 Children learn their native language by hearing it, then speaking it, and finally reading and writing it. Music learning follows the same sequence.

18 Music/Language Differences Music encompasses a greater spectral range Music can exist without language Language can be altered in music without changing the music itself Spoken language surrounds most children whereas music may not Christine Barton 201418

19 Music and Hearing Loss HA and CI children perceive rhythm nearly as well as their hearing peers (Gfeller, 2000) CI users less accurate than hearing peers in song recognition (Stordahl, 2002) Pitch perception and production more of a challenge For some, music may not be as enjoyable, but for others it is very motivating and desirable 19Christine Barton 2014

20 Music and Hearing Loss A handful of studies have shown that music training for individuals with hearing loss can have positive effects in cognitive, linguistic, memory, and music perception domains. (Abdi, Kahlessi, Khorsandi, & Gholami, 2001; Galvin, Fu, & Nogaki, 2007; Peterson, Mortenson, Gjedde, & Vuust, 2009; Yuba, Itoh, & Kaga, 2007). Christine Barton 201420

21 Deafness and Comorbid Conditions Gallaudet Research Institute (2009-2010) 40% of D/HH children have comorbid conditions 1 in 59 D/HH children receive services for ASD More children (35.4%)with profound loss have the dual diagnosis Result: deaf children receive ASD diagnosis later than hearing peers (Vernon and Rhodes, 2009) Christine Barton 201421

22 Deafness and ASD Rosenhall et al., 1999 1-6% of children who are deaf also have ASD 1.6% unilateral 7.9% mild to moderate 3.5% profound Christine Barton 201422

23 CDC Prevalence of ASD 2014 Christine Barton 201423 1 in 68 (eight year old) US children identified with ASD Increase of 30% from 2008 Boys 5 times more likely than girls Most not diagnosed until after 4

24 Music and Autism Leo Kanner, 1943 At the age of 1 year "he could hum and sing many tunes accurately.“ About 2 1/2 years, he began to sing. He sang about twenty or thirty songs, including a little French lullaby. Christine Barton 201424

25 Music and Autism Heaton, P. (2005) Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 35, No. 6, December 2005 Experimental investigations have highlighted exceptional pitch discrimination and memory in individuals with ASD. Christine Barton 201425

26 Music and Autism Ehlers, S., & Gillberg, C. (1993). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1327–1350. Absolute Pitch (AP) in ASD individuals was at least 20 times the prevalence of the general population Christine Barton 201426

27 Music and Autism Brenton JN, Devries SP, Barton C, Minnich H, Sokol DK. (2008) Pediatric Neurology 2008;39:137-138. Absolute pitch is thought to be attributable to a single gene, transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The association of absolute pitch with autism raises the speculation that this talent could be linked to a genetically distinct subset of children with autism. Further, the identification of absolute pitch in even young children with autism may lead to a lifelong skill. Christine Barton 201427

28 Music and Autism Whipple, J. (2004) Journal of Music Therapy, Vol 41(2), 2004, 90-106. Meta-analysis revealed: All music intervention, regardless of purpose or implementation, has been effective for children and adolescents with autism. Christine Barton 201428

29 Music Experience for Benjamin Improvisational in nature, incorporating his utterances, name or familiar phrases Drums, guitar in open tuning or pre-tuned xylophones Christine Barton 201429

30 Music Experience for Yeahsen It rained on Yeahsen and Yeahsen got wet Pitter patter, pitter patter, pitter, patter, pat Use other names of family members, neighbors, classmates, baseball team, animals, food Christine Barton 201430

31 Music experience for William Sing the Lings, syllables with xylophone or drum accompaniment Christine Barton 201431

32 Music Experience for Nathan Write a Music Experience Book Write a song Christine Barton 201432

33 Assessment Tools SJI Music Assessment Rubrick, Barton, 2008 Auditory Learning Guide, Developed for First YEARS by Beth Walker FLAQ Parent Survey Gordon PMMA Christine Barton 201433

34 Strategies Utilize the team with the family at the core Enlist and coach parents to help generalize targeted goals across multiple settings Provide structure/routine –Visual schedule/class rules Provide music experiences/instruments that require no formal training Christine Barton 201434

35 Strategies Simple directions (use fingers as mnemonics) Get attention first (“show me you are thinking about me”) Appeal to all the senses Repetition Choices and alternatives Tell them what they can do Do not ask rhetorical questions! Christine Barton 201435

36 Considerations/Observations Each child is unique Hearing loss is usually addressed first Intervention/placement is chosen based upon the most current need Spoken language (and even reading) can occur after 5! Hearing devices make a positive difference in the quality of life for individuals and families Music offers the potential to create relationships and provide life long enjoyment Christine Barton 201436

37 Resources The Listening Room (Advanced Bionics) – Perspectives on Deafness and Autism Webinar Series – anced- bionics/events/details/23774/deafness- with-autism-music-therapy anced- bionics/events/details/23774/deafness- with-autism-music-therapy 37Christine Barton 2014

38 Resources Gallaudette Clerc Center – More Than Meets the Eye: An Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders – /more_than_meets_the_eye_an_introduction_t o_autism_spectrum_disorders.html /more_than_meets_the_eye_an_introduction_t o_autism_spectrum_disorders.html Managing Behavior by Managing the Classroom: Making Learning Accessible for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder – /sharing_autism_research_on_deaf_or_hard_o f_hearing_students.html /sharing_autism_research_on_deaf_or_hard_o f_hearing_students.html Christine Barton 201438

39 Resources Autism Research Institute – American Society for Deaf Children: america america Autism Speaks: 39Christine Barton 2014

40 Resources West Music – American Music Therapy Association – Guidelines for MT Practice in Developmental Care - Chapter 9: Children with Hearing Loss (Barton, 2013) Barcelona Publishers ute=product/product&product_id=269&type=epub ute=product/product&product_id=269&type=epub Christine Barton 201440

41 For More Information … Central Canal Creative Arts Therapies Chris Barton, MM, MT-BC, Director, Music Therapy Services/Consulting Phone: 317-475-9914 E-mail: 41Christine Barton 2014

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