Presentation on theme: "The Haitian revolution 1789-1804. KEY Causes 1. Harsh exploitation of Slaves 1. Harsh exploitation of Slaves -Colony of St. Domingo= most valuable sugar."— Presentation transcript:
KEY Causes 1. Harsh exploitation of Slaves 1. Harsh exploitation of Slaves -Colony of St. Domingo= most valuable sugar Caribbean colony - produced enormous amounts of sugar for the French – plantations ran by slave labor - produced 40% of Europe's and sugar 60% of their coffe -Slaves in Haiti suffered under some of the harshest treatments found in the Caribbean.(The master provided for the barest necessities of life for his slave) so many died from harsh conditions that they had to send 40 thousand new slaves a year -Slaves in Haiti were legally considered to be property of the public -This treatment evoked an often resentful and disobedient demeanor among the slaves
KEY Causes 2. The guidance of the Mulattoes 2. The guidance of the Mulattoes -Mulattoes in Haïti possess limited freedom. -Mulattoes were required to enlist for a mandatory three-year term in the military establishment known as the marechaussée. *gave them military training* -They were then forced to serve in their local militia without compensation *gave them organization* *required to provide their own supplies* -Mulattoes were angered by the fact that they were outlawed from holding office and were totally excluded from Haitian society. (could hold land but govt. restraints disabled them from really doing anything with it) Lead them to begin plotting revenge/an uprising as retribution to the way the whites treated them. *waited for right moment*
KEY CAUSES 3. The French Revolution 3. The French Revolution -The French Revolution furnished the Mulattoes and slaves with an opportunity and an inspiration after having witnessed the successful insurrection in France against the government’s long-standing denial of equal representation of the Commons to that of the Nobility and Clergy. -ideas of social restructuring + Declaration of Rights and Citizens spread like wild fire-provided perfect stimulus the slaves and Mulattoes in Haiti needed to inspire their revolt. *What the Mulattoes were waiting for* -Haitian revolution started before the end of the French revolution- *shows how bad things really were*
Goals First a small revolt broke out, in which the goals of free mulattoes was to achieve a higher status in society but it evolved/escalated into a full fledged revolution in which slaves were fighting for an end to slavery in St. Domingo(their freedom), and later independence.First a small revolt broke out, in which the goals of free mulattoes was to achieve a higher status in society but it evolved/escalated into a full fledged revolution in which slaves were fighting for an end to slavery in St. Domingo(their freedom), and later independence.
Key Figures 1. Toussaint Louverture 1. Toussaint Louverture -the son of an educated slave -inspired by the developments that occurred simultaneously in France -Very inspirational and charismatic -He formed his own army, inspiring hundreds to join him and displayed an impressive talent for designing and leading militaristic strategies and tactics that would enable him to make the slave insurgency one of the most successful in history. -Achieved aid from the Spanish and actually became an officer in the Spanish Military then when the slave were emancipated switched allegiance to French
Key Figures 2. Jean Jacques Dessalines 2. Jean Jacques Dessalines -Born in a sugarcane plantation in the Grande Riviere du Nord, from enslaved African parents whose country of birth place are still unknown. -At about 30 years old, Dessalines escaped and joined the slave revolution. -He was then trained by François Papillon and Georges Biassou in the mountains, who were already training a few escaped slaves. -Dessalines, under the command of his aforementioned mentors, traveled to Santo Domingo, the western part of Hispaniola to fight along side the Spaniards against the French in St. Domingo -There he met Toussaint and became his chief lieutenant – he was an intreped soldier and formidable general, making him an instrumental part of the Haitian Revolution. -He was extremely brutal – killed nearly all wealthy white French men in St. Domingo. -Defeated 60,000 French with only 20,000 Haitians at an important battle
Key figures 3. Napoleon Bonaparte 3. Napoleon Bonaparte -French Consul and then Emperor from 1799-1821 -Dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, to restore French rule, and under secret instructions to later restore slavery.
Key Figures 4. Charles Leclerc 4. Charles Leclerc -French general, brother-in-law of Napoleon, who attempted to suppress the Haitian revolt led by the former slave Toussaint Louverture. -Leclerc played a decisive role in the coup that brought Napoleon to power. -Leclerc, accompanied by 23,000 French troops, landed in Haiti in 1802 and soon took possession of most of the island and made peace with the rebel leaders Dessalines, Henry Christophe, and Toussaint. -By treachery, Leclerc captured Toussaint and sent him to France. This and Napoleon’s restoration of slavery touched off renewed fighting with the black rebels lead by Dessalines. -Leclerc’s army was decimated by yellow fever and he ultimately lost the war and his life.
Key Figures 5. Henri Christophe 5. Henri Christophe -One of Toussaints chief lieutenants -Joined Dessalines in ousting the French -After Dessalines’s assassination he was appointed provisional chief of the nation by a military council. -He later became the first Haitian President (1807-11) and self proclaimed king Henry I (1811-20) of northern Haiti.
Timeline 1789 Saint Domingue (Haiti): First revolts (led by whites, mulattos) 1790 Saint Domingue: “Night of Fire”—well-organized slave revolt 1791 France: National Assembly declares full civil rights for mulattos (free men of color) –Slaves still revolt 1792 Saint Domingue: Commissioner Sonthonax grants freedom to slaves in the North Province who fought for the French Republic, then orders general abolition 1793 France: National Assembly extended freedom to slaves in all its colonies in the Emancipation Decree of 1794. Saint Domingue: Toussaint l’Ouverture leaves alliance with British & Spanish to help France drive them from the island 1799 France: Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power Saint Domingue: British expelled from Saint-Domingue
Timeline 1801 France: Napoleon dispatches General Leclerc to subdue Haiti 1802 France : Reestablishment of slavery (May), Bonaparte named Consul for life -Saint Domingue: Death of LeClerc (November) 1803 Saint Domingue: General Dessalines proclaims independence of Haiti (August 29) -France/U.S.: Signature of treaty of purchase, Louisiana Territory 1804 France: Implementation of the Civil Code; declaration of empire (Dessalines declared independence and renamed the Island Haiti)
Results Successes:Successes: Socially:Socially: Slaves had freedom Slaves had freedom Whites fled or were killedWhites fled or were killed Politically:Politically: Independent countryIndependent country Second independent republic in the AmericasSecond independent republic in the Americas Napoleon unable to control over Haiti -> did not have the money to keep up with Louisiana (French territory) -> sold it to the American governmentNapoleon unable to control over Haiti -> did not have the money to keep up with Louisiana (French territory) -> sold it to the American government Economically:Economically: No longer a country based on a plantation systemNo longer a country based on a plantation system Became small-scale farmersBecame small-scale farmers Racial divides and sectional politics ended the idealism of the Revolutionary period
Comparison The French Revolution lit a fuse for the Haiti RevolutionThe French Revolution lit a fuse for the Haiti Revolution Different from the American Revolution in that the colonies were very differentDifferent from the American Revolution in that the colonies were very different As we have seen in the past chapter, the Caribbean colony had enormous inequality and rampant exploitation which led to more of a slave revolt than the American revolt which was led strictly by white wealthy menAs we have seen in the past chapter, the Caribbean colony had enormous inequality and rampant exploitation which led to more of a slave revolt than the American revolt which was led strictly by white wealthy men
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