4 What is the environment? The trees, air, & soil around us Our fields, farms & the food we grow Our oceans, lakes, and rivers ALL the places we live, work & play
Environmental Links to Health Concerns Drinking Water Food Land Buildings Indoor Air Out door air Emergencies
Introduction The environment in which we live greatly affects our health. Household, workplace, outdoor and transportation. pose risks to the health in a number of ways from the poor quality of air that many people breathe, to hazards related to unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene. Environmental Health To control the environment with a view to prevent from disease and promote and maintain health.
7 Environment & public health More than 7 million people – one in eight of total global deaths – are due to indoor or outdoor air pollution exposure. 4.3 million people worldwide die every year from household air pollution. 24% of the global disease burden is due to environmental factors. About 36% of this burden affects children from 0 to 14 years of age (12 November 2014)
World Health Organization 3 billion people, in low- and middle-income countries still rely on solid fuels (wood, animal dung, & coal) burned in inefficiently & highly polluting stoves for cooking & heating. In 2012, 4.3 million children & adults died due to household air pollution. Together with widespread use of kerosene stoves, heaters and lamps, these practices also result in many serious injuries & deaths 8
UNICEF 1.1 billion people in the world still do not have access to safe water. This is nearly 15-20% of the population. 20-40 percent of the hospital beds in Pakistan are occupied by patients suffering from water-related diseases. In terms of financial loss, the country is bearing Rs.112 billion per year as water, sanitation and hygiene-related diseases. 10
Facts about Pakistan 62 percent of Pakistan’s urban and 84 percent of its rural population do not treat their water, resulting in 100 million cases of diarrheal diseases registered in hospitals, 40 % of deaths due to drinking polluted water. Estimated 250,000 child deaths occur every year in Pakistan due to water-borne diseases. More than 1.6 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are lost annually due to diarrhea and almost 90,000 as a result of typhoid. 11
Burden Poor water quality is responsible for death of 5 million children in developing countries. In Pakistan poor water quality is responsible – 30% of all diseases –40% of all deaths –Every 5 th citizen suffers from the illness and disease caused by polluted water
Water safety and human health The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. Drinking-water quality management has been a key pillar of primary prevention for over one-and-a-half centuries and it continues to be the foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases.
Water to drink 66% of the human body is made up of water. By just 2% dehydration, your performance decreases by around 20%. We should drink at least 1½ litres of water a day.
Clean water The number of people with access of clean water has doubled in the last 20 year. The UN estimates that by 2025, 75% of the world population won’t have reliable, clean water.
Sources Water pollution Dissolved gasses & impurities Industrial wastes Agricultural pollutants such as fertilizers Sewage Dumping of waste Water is contaminated by human or animal faeces. water within the distribution system through leaky pipes or of stored household water as a result of unhygienic handling. 16
Safe & Wholesome water Drinking water should be safe as well as wholesome. Water is termed safe when it does not harm the consumer even when ingested over prolonged periods. Safe and wholesome water thus, must be: (a) Free of pathogenic organisms (b) Free from harmful chemical substances (c) Acceptable to taste and appearance (d) Usable for domestic purposes
How do we know drinking water is safe or unsafe Through water quality testing Ensure safe drinking water Identify problems Adopt precautionary measures Raise awareness Determine the effectiveness of water treatment technologies Select an appropriate water source Influence policies to supply safe water
WHO standard for safe water Through out the year 95% of sample should not contain any coliform organisms in 100 ml. No sample should contain E. coli in 100 ml. No sample should contain coliform in 100ml 19
WHO Criteria for water Quality A. Acceptability Aspects B.Microbiological Aspects C. Chemical Aspects D.Radiological Aspects
Acceptability Aspects The drinking water should not only be safe but also pleasent in appearance, taste and colour. water is determined by the following factors Turbidity Colour Taste and odour Total dissolved salts (TDS). The palatability of waters with TDS levels below 600 mg/litre is considered to be good
Acceptability Aspects – pH The guideline value for pH of water is 6.5 to 8.5. Water with pH levels below this range may increased levels of certain chemical substances, such as lead, in water. At pH levels above this range, the efficiency of the disinfectant action of chlorine is reduced. Ammonia in water is an indicator of possible bacterial, sewage and animal waste pollution. The guideline value is 1.5 mg/litre
Acceptability Aspects Dissolve O 2: Not less than 5 mg / L Chlorides : Standard is 250 mg / L Hardness: for domestic use, the amount of hardness should not be more than 300 ppm. (Parts per million) caco2 Microbiological aspect Primary indicator coliform Faecal streptococci conform recent faecal pollution. Clostridium perfringens indicate remote contamination.
HEALTH IMPACTS pH values (below 4 or above 10) irritation to the eye, skin. TDS:unpalatability, and corrosion may occur. ( incidence of ca, and cardiovascular disease.) Arsenic skin cancer digestive problems Chloride: Fluoride detectable taste Excess (Dental, Skeletal Fluorosis), Deficit (Dental caries) Coli forms water-borne disease.
. Preventive measures 1. Preventive measures must be taken at all levels to prevent water contamination. 2. Protection of water sources 3. All water distributing agencies must be supplied standards water. All personnel responsible for educate monitoring the quality of water & provided in-service training on a regular basis. Public awareness In this view low cost measures to be applied at a household level (chlorination 0.5 mg/L for 1 hour)
Air Pollution Contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health 26
Air Pollution Dust and smoke particles in Pakistan are generally twice the world average and five times higher than the developed world. Therefore increasing rate of Air Pollution in Pakistan is significantly high. Though some pollution comes from the natural sources, but most pollution is the result of human activities. 27
WORLD BANK REPORT More than 22,600 adult deaths in 2005 were caused by urban air pollution. Outdoor air pollution alone causes more than 80,000 hospital admissions per year; nearly 8,000 cases of chronic bronchitis, & five million cases of lower respiratory cases in children under the age of five. The number of vehicles in Pakistan has increased from around 2 million to 10.6 million over the last 20 years 28
Sources of indoor Air Pollution Respiration chemical(15-18/mint gives 500cc of air at each breath & added/hour 0.6-0.7sft) Physical. Changes are Increase temperature Increase humidity decrease air movement addition of body odours addition of bacteria & viruses Smoke
Sources of Outside Air Pollution Combustion of gasoline and other fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal) Insecticides Herbicides Everyday radioactive Dust from fertilizers Mining operation
Indicators of air pollution Sulphur dioxide Carbon monoxide Lead Carbon dioxide Hydrocarbons Nitrogen dioxide 31
Ozone depletion It present at the distance 15- 50 Km from earth. & protect us from ultraviolet radiation Ozone layer is depleted by aerosol sprays, air conditions & refrigerators & also causes skin cancer. Green houses effects Increases sea level, global worming & flood –Decrease industrial smoke & unfit automobiles Acidic rain. Fuel combustion & organic decomposition causes acidic rain that damage crops, marine life and discoloration of houses 33
STRATEGIE Based on scientific knowledge Using best available, quality-controlled real- world data 1. Forestation & Plantation & green belts 2. Project future emissions and air quality resulting from full implementation of current legislation 3. Replacement burning of wood with electricity 4. Use cost-effective policy 5. Ventilation (comfort zone 69 f) 6. increase political will
Definition Unwanted Sound when it interferes with normal activities, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. Man is living in increasingly noisy environment. 20 th century is a century of Noise
Sources of noise Automobile Industries Factories Air craft Radio, TV 37
Decibel scale (dB) The unit used to measure the intensity of a sound is dB On the decibel scale, the smallest audible sound is 0dB Bed room. 253dB Normal conversation 60-65dB Class room 30-40dB Hospital word 20-35dB Well tolerated 85dB 38
Noise-Related Illnesses Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Studies have shown that there are direct links between noise and health. Auditory effects T dafness Permanent dafness Tympanic membrane perforation
Non auditory effects High blood pressure Speech interference Sleep Disruption Depression Increase intracranial pressure Decrease efficiency 40
Noise control Control at source. Industrial noise can be reduced by installing noise barriers in the workplace Control transmission. –Use absorbing material Protection of expose person Health education Carry out investigations and studies on noise and its effect on the public health and welfare. 41
Housing a physical structure should be comfortable mentally, physically and socially. WHO criteria Provide physical protection Provide adequate space for eating, cooking & washing Protect from communicable diseases promote relation ship & community development. 42
Effect of poor housing on health Respiratory infection Skin diseases Psychological effects Injuries truama 43
Land pollution Land pollution is caused on the earth’s surface by industrial, commercial, domestic and agricultural activities. The most common sources of land pollution include toxic waste residues, chemical and nuclear plants, oil refineries, mining, littering and deforestation. It has hazardous effects on our health and lifestyle. 44
Strategies Use natural fertilizers. Avoid all chemical use, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides Preserve forests and promote reforestation. Plant trees 45
Solid waste The unwanted or discarded waste material from houses, street, industries & agriculture. Health hazard Breeding of flies, rodents & mosquito that causes : –Cholera, diarrhea –Typhoid –Viral hepatitis –Water pollution,. Air pollution & soil pollution 46
Solid waste Always practice the three R’s; recycle, reduce, reuse. Eliminate plastic use Reduce general household waste. Purchase products with minimal packaging. Enforce and obey EP laws. 47