Presentation on theme: "A. How did African-Americans participate in the war? B. How did women participate in the war? C. How were the economies of the North and the South changed."— Presentation transcript:
A. How did African-Americans participate in the war? B. How did women participate in the war? C. How were the economies of the North and the South changed by the Civil War?
180,000 Blacks enlist in Union by war’s end (10% of forces) Face discrimination and opposition from N’thern Whites Receive less pay & used as labor brigades, initially 22 Congressional Medal of Honor winners 2 Regiments raised in Massachusetts by Frederick Douglass (Glory) Many executed by South as prisoners, as at Fort Pillow South attempted to enlist blacks in the last month of the war, with little impact/effect
Slaves still on plantations “fought” too. How? ◦ “slowdowns” and sabotage slow production ◦ Runaways/contraband hurts labor force ◦ Increasing incidents of violence ◦ Southern men/military forced to stay at plantations to watch for rebellion = fewer soldiers fighting against North
IN THE SOUTH: Inability to collect taxes/weak central govt. Customs duties evaporate with Union blockade Transportation collapses Cotton Capitalism collapses SHORTAGES!!! FOOD RIOTS!!!
IN THE NORTH: Boom in manufacturing Profiteering & creation of a new millionaire class Integration of labor-saving devices: i.e. McCormick reaper, sewing machine Introduction of “sizing” for clothing Women and minorities enter workforce (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix) Federal govt. institutes income tax for 1 st time
More soldiers die of infections and disease than from wounds received on battle. Prisons, in particular, are deadly (most famously Andersonville, in the South) Women establish the United States Sanitary Commission Clara Barton, “the angel of the battlefield,” pioneers on the battlefield nursing. She later helps founds the American Red Cross. Belle Boyd, famous as a nurse and spy for the South. Women in both the North and the South step in to men’s roles in the economy as men are drawn off to war.