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A. How did African-Americans participate in the war? B. How did women participate in the war? C. How were the economies of the North and the South changed.

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Presentation on theme: "A. How did African-Americans participate in the war? B. How did women participate in the war? C. How were the economies of the North and the South changed."— Presentation transcript:

1 A. How did African-Americans participate in the war? B. How did women participate in the war? C. How were the economies of the North and the South changed by the Civil War?

2 Freedom to the Slave, 1863 This engraving celebrating the Emancipation Proclamation first appeared in While it places a white Union soldier in the center, it also portrays the important role of African American troops and emphasizes the importance of education and literacy. (The Library Company of Philadelphia) Freedom to the Slave, 1863 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

3  180,000 Blacks enlist in Union by war’s end (10% of forces)  Face discrimination and opposition from N’thern Whites  Receive less pay & used as labor brigades, initially  22 Congressional Medal of Honor winners  2 Regiments raised in Massachusetts by Frederick Douglass (Glory)  Many executed by South as prisoners, as at Fort Pillow  South attempted to enlist blacks in the last month of the war, with little impact/effect

4 Black Troops from Company E Company E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, photographed at Fort Lincoln, Virginia, in Nothing so symbolized the new manhood and citizenship among African Americans in the midst of the war as such young black men in blue. (Chicago Historical Society) Black Troops from Company E Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 Slaves still on plantations “fought” too. How? ◦ “slowdowns” and sabotage slow production ◦ Runaways/contraband hurts labor force ◦ Increasing incidents of violence ◦ Southern men/military forced to stay at plantations to watch for rebellion = fewer soldiers fighting against North

6 Five generation slave family, Beaufort, S.C by T.H. O'Sullivan, 1862 This photograph of five generations of a slave family, taken in Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1862, is silent but powerful testimony to the importance that enslaved African Americans placed on their ever-threatened family ties. (Library of Congress) Five generation slave family, Beaufort, S.C by T.H. O'Sullivan, 1862 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 Ins the SouthIn the North

8 In the SouthIn the North

9 IN THE SOUTH:  Inability to collect taxes/weak central govt.  Customs duties evaporate with Union blockade  Transportation collapses  Cotton Capitalism collapses  SHORTAGES!!! FOOD RIOTS!!!

10 IN THE NORTH:  Boom in manufacturing  Profiteering & creation of a new millionaire class  Integration of labor-saving devices: i.e. McCormick reaper, sewing machine  Introduction of “sizing” for clothing  Women and minorities enter workforce (Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix)  Federal govt. institutes income tax for 1 st time

11 In the SouthIn the North

12 In the SouthIn the North

13 Wounded at Fredericksburg In this photograph, taken outside an army hospital in Fredericksburg, Virginia, one of the many women who served as nurses during the Civil War sits with some of her wounded charges. Medical facilities and treatment for the wounded were woefully inadequate; most of those who were not killed outright by the primitive surgical practices of the day either died from their wounds or from secondary infections. (Library of Congress) Wounded at Fredericksburg Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14  More soldiers die of infections and disease than from wounds received on battle.  Prisons, in particular, are deadly (most famously Andersonville, in the South)  Women establish the United States Sanitary Commission  Clara Barton, “the angel of the battlefield,” pioneers on the battlefield nursing. She later helps founds the American Red Cross.  Belle Boyd, famous as a nurse and spy for the South.  Women in both the North and the South step in to men’s roles in the economy as men are drawn off to war.

15 Carver Hospital, Washington, D.C. by Mathew Brady Clean and gaily decorated, this Union hospital was a vast improvement over unsanitary field hospitals. (National Archives) Carver Hospital, Washington, D.C. by Mathew Brady Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

16 In the SouthIn the North


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