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Chapter 10 Civil War From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
Inconsistent Federal Policies Opposition to Lincoln’s Policies Most people in North supported a war to restore Union but not a crusade to end slavery Fear of slave exodus to northern cities and growing competition for jobs heightened hostilities between white and black workers Military draft in 1863 started a four-day riot in New York City; sight of blacks in army uniforms inflamed rioters © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
Inconsistent Federal Policies Militant abolitionists critical of Lincoln and Republican Party for failing to take an uncompromising stand on slavery Upset by inconsistent policy towards slaves who escaped to Union lines in the war’s first year The Confiscation Acts Sanctioned Union army’s seizure of rebel property, including slaves Lincoln concerned; discouraged declarations of freedom for fear of losing loyalty of slave-owning border states © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
4 Group of contrabands at Foller’s house, Cumberland, Virginia, 1862
Inconsistent Federal Policies Lincoln’s Plan In 1862, Lincoln recommended that U.S. government cooperate with any state plan that gradually freed slaves and compensated slave owners Recommendation failed; denounced by both sides Lincoln believed colonization was almost as important as emancipation Until end of the war Lincoln hoped at least a portion of the freed population would be colonized © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
Inconsistent Federal Policies Preliminary Proclamation Summer of 1862 Lincoln began to consider an executive order of emancipation of all slaves Preliminary proclamation issued five days after the Union victory at Antietam Revived possibility of compensated emancipation; continued encouragement of voluntary colonization Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation ordering all those held in slavery in rebel states to be freed from bondage on January 1, 1863 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
Inconsistent Federal Policies General reaction in the North was unfavorable The Emancipation Proclamation Freedom did not come swiftly or fully Only slaves in rebel, not loyal, states freed Rebel slave owners did not feel duty-bound to Lincoln’s decree Many slaves did not know about it for months; some weren’t freed until war’s end Proclamation produced confusion in the South and deprived Confederacy of its labor force © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
8 Emancipation Proclamation
Inconsistent Federal Policies The Thirteenth Amendment The “Great Emancipator” Lincoln actively worked with Congress to establish legislation that abolished slavery On February 1, 1865, Lincoln signed a Joint Resolution submitting the proposed Thirteenth Amendment to the states for ratification © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
Aiding the Contrabands Transition from slavery to freedom presented challenges to both the Union army and the free but destitute blacks coming over federal lines General Saxton’s Plan Abandoned lands to be used for benefit of former slaves Led slaves to believe that land would be available to them as homesteaders Federal government eventually reclaimed land © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
Aiding the Contrabands Challenges to Effective Relief Relief difficult because only a small amount of land that was available for redistribution Dispute between Treasury and War departments over who had primary authority to administer affairs of black people; no coordinated supervision Private Relief Federal relief was so slow that private citizens sought to provide relief for newly freed blacks © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
Aiding the Contrabands Education Private ventures to provide black education began in 1861 Employed many African American teachers Education for blacks extended to most areas occupied by Union troops © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
Black Troops Challenges to Black Recruitment Northern blacks initially rebuffed when trying to enlist Fear blacks would claim citizenship; fear of arming blacks Abolitionists criticized government’s early opposition to black soldiers Lincoln did not seriously consider issue until the unfavorable course of the war forced him to revisit it Did not want to anger border states or alienate North © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Company E, Fourth United States Colored Infantry
Black Troops A Change in Policy In October 1861, the secretary of war ordered army to employ fugitive slaves; used for service roles because leaders refused to arm them Lincoln forced General David Hunter to disband First South Carolina Volunteer Regiment that was made up of former slaves © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
Black Troops The First Black Soldiers Union’s difficulties and Confederacy’s use of black labor changed Lincoln’s views on black enlistment In August 1862, Lincoln authorized War Department to reorganize Hunter’s South Carolina regiment Black enlistment began to swell Northern black community leaders and newspapers championed importance of black soldiers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
Black Troops The Success of Black Enlistment Enlistment of blacks a success; helped to fill northern states’ draft quotas Black Officers Some blacks held Union army commissions Two regiments of the Corps d’Afrique entirely staffed by black officers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
Black Troops Blacks as Spies and Scouts Blacks helped Union cause with knowledge of southern terrain; Union relied on information blacks could get as spies and scouts Women’s Services Many women worked in contraband camps, hospitals, and on naval vessels © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
Black Soldiers’ Service Treatment of Black Prisoners In 1862, President Davis ordered all slaves captured in arms to be delivered to home state and dealt with according to its laws Lincoln declared that for every Union soldier killed in violation of law of war a rebel soldier would be executed, and for every Union soldier enslaved, a rebel prisoner would be put to hard labor Union officials insisted that captured blacks be treated as prisoners of war © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
Black Soldiers’ Service Captured blacks risked enslavement, more often killed Blacks saw action in every theater of the war More than 38,000 black soldiers lost lives; mortality 40 percent greater than white troops Mortality rate explained by excessive fatigue, poor equipment, bad medical care Unequal Treatment Disparity in pay between black and white soldiers Equal pay given in 1864 after much protest © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Fort Pillow Massacre
Slave Disruption Stronger Patrol Laws Southerners called for closer control of slaves and strengthening of patrol laws Many slaves slowly began to understand the implication of the war on their freedom “Running the Negroes” Plantation owners allowed to remove slaves to safety when an area was threatened with invasion by federal troops © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
Slave Disruption Insubordination Slaves became increasingly insolent toward masters Slave men gained new roles because of dearth of white men; gained greater freedom of movement, allowing them to learn about war’s progress Fear of Uprisings White southerners lived in fear of slave uprisings Slaves both indispensable and subversive to Confederate war effort © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
The Confederate Dilemma Impressment In 1863, Confederacy passed a general impressment law under which slaves could be seized at a price set by the government Owners didn’t like policy and neither did slaves because working for military more arduous work Enlisting and Arming Blacks Southern public generally opposed arming blacks Conscription Act of 1862 Required military service of all Southern white men except those who could send twenty slaves © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
The Confederate Dilemma Debate over using slaves as soldiers continued in Confederacy in In 1865, President Davis signed bill authorizing him to call on each state for a quota of additional troops, irrespective of color © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
Victory The Confederate army’s surrender in 1865 brought to an end three centuries of black enslavement in North America Forever Free, Edmonia Lewis © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
11.6 OPPOSITION TO BLACK PEOPLE. THE NYC DRAFT RIOT Northerners remained bitter and hostile toward African Americans Poor Irish workers in NYC became.
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A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, The Coming of Emancipation.
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