Draw conclusions about the causes and effects of American involvement in the world wars.
1) SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES 2) IMPERIALISM 3) MILITARISM 4) NATIONALISM
Since the Franco-Prussian War, Germany and France haven’t been able to get along. Because of this and other conflicts, the major countries of Europe take sides, essentially promising to “have each other’s back” if any one of them go to war. TRIPLE ALLIANCE – Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary TRIPLE ENTENTE – Russia, France, Great Britain
Only unified in the 1800s, Germany is the “new kid on the block” when it came to the powerful European nations. Germany had lots of money from being an industrial power, but it did not have all the overseas landholdings of the other European countries. Germany’s becomes jealous and feels like they have “no respect” from the other European countries. This leads Germany to have a chip on their shoulder.
NATIONALISM – A feeling of pride for one’s homeland and a want to be part of a country with people of a similar background. Austria-Hungary was a country made up people from many different ETHNIC backgrounds. Many SLAVIC people in Austria-Hungary felt like they did not belong. They wanted to be part of a country where they could be with people of a similar background. SERBIA wants A-H’s Slavs to be part of their country. A-H says no way. This leads to tension between A-H and Serbia
With the system of alliances, each country is building up its military in case of war. This is especially true in GERMANY and GREAT BRITAIN. When the Germans increase the size of its navy, it scares Great Britain. This race to see who will build the biggest navy leads to MILITARISM.
June 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria- Hungary goes to Bosnia to visit. A Serbian nationalist group – known as the BLACK HAND – assassinates FF. A-H, who was mad at Serbia anyway, goes nuts. A-H gives Serbia an unreasonable list of demands, and when they are not met, A-H declares war.
Because of the SYSTEM of ALLIANCES, a little conflict turns into a big conflict. Germany declares war on Russia, and then two days later, they declare war on France.
Allied Powers France Russia Great Britain Italy Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
BUT…this only meant they stayed out of official military engagement with warring powers… Wilson won his 2 nd Term using the slogan “He Kept us Out of War.”
US also profited from selling war goods to warring powers in Europe Sold to both Central and Allies Not exactly neutrality… US economy was doing poorly prior to WWI…WWI was a way to revitalize it
US begins to sell goods to only Allies after British prevent access to Central Powers Germans become angry that US is selling war goods to its enemies German response: shoot down American merchant ships
Germans use U-Boats (submarines) to attack merchant ships German goal: cut off enemy supply lines American businesses lose money US now has economic interest in assisting Allies to win the war US says Germany was interfering with freedom of the seas
U-Boat shoots down the Lusitania, a British Passenger ship 1,194 people die, 128 Americans included US said these were innocent people-true (BUT Lusitania WAS carrying weapons and ammunition for Britain) Provides US leaders with a MORAL reason to enter war, not just a strictly economic one
January 1917 – U.S. finds out about a message sent to Mexico from a German official named Arthur Zimmerman. The message says that if the U.S. gets into the war, that Mexico should take Germany’s side. Germany promised to give Mexico the states of Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico as thanks for their support.
The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion...We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind.
Total War: all sectors of American society participate in the war effort in some way Government NEEDS the population to cooperate with war effort Problem: a lot of people did not want to cooperate… War was unpopular with many people
Only 73,000 volunteer for military within 6 weeks of war declaration Congress had to institute a draft (Selective Service Act) 300,000 men evaded or refused to enter military once drafted… Socialist Party gained a lot of support due to anti-war platform
Government creates Committee on Public Information Leader: George Creel Purpose: persuade public to support war Use of propaganda to create public support for war
1. Conserve (save) and ration food 2. Conserve (save) and ration gasoline 3. Enlist in military (when insufficient volunteers came forth, draft instituted instead) 4. Buy Liberty bonds- private “loan” to government that would be repaid after the war with interest
Propaganda Technique: Name-Calling NOTE: You do NOT need to rewrite the question for each poster-consult your “Propaganda Techniques” sheet instead. A. Who is the group that the propagandist wants the audience to denounce and what names, words and/or images are used to describe the group? -Germans are denounced. They are referred to as “Brutes” and portrayed as a bloodthirsty ape capturing an innocent woman.
Propaganda Technique: Name-Calling B. What is the propagandist trying to get the audience to do or believe? -The propagandist is trying to convince people to enlist in the US Army to fight against the Germans and the other Central Powers. Why do you think the propagandist used this technique?
Propaganda Technique: Name-Calling C. Why do you think the propagandist used this technique? -The propagandist probably used this technique to make the audience feel angry and aggressive, emotions that might persuade a person that the best way to channel such emotions was to enlist in the military so they could attack the Germans themselves.