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The History of Sovereign Nations in dealings with the United States American Indian Policy.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Sovereign Nations in dealings with the United States American Indian Policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Sovereign Nations in dealings with the United States American Indian Policy

2 Sovereignty is: The ability of a group to act as an independent nation Make own laws Conduct own business without approval Sovereignty

3 1770: Sovereign Nation to Sovereign Nation Treaties were signed 1830: Removal 1850: Reservations 1870: Assimilation 1930: Indian self-rule 1950: Termination 1960: Self-determination 1988: Self-determination/self-governance Policy in Stages (1770-Today)

4 Promotion of civilization Open trade Territorial boundaries established Treaties Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) Doctrine of “Discovery” : Sovereignty

5 Broken treaties Removal was voluntary but coerced Cherokee “Trail of Tears” Federalism under attack Who had jurisdiction? Federal gov or State gov? Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Worcester v. Georgia “Domestic Dependent Nations” : Removal

6 Discovery of Gold/Continued Expansion Homestead Act 1862 Reservations Allotment Allotment Act (Dawes Act) 1887 Indian Agents Restrictions Constraints on hunting, ceremonial dances : Reservation

7 Boarding Schools Christian names English Trade Schools Meriam Report Churches/Missions Native American Enlistment in WWI US Citizenship : Assimilation

8 Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) 1934 Attempt to preserve, protect and support tribal art, culture and social organizations and traditions Main goal was to stop the loss of tribal land 25% of Native American men enlist in WWII-highest percentage of any group : Indian Self-Rule

9 the Federal Government terminated 109 tribes. The belief was that tribes were acculturated and no longer needed the government as their ‘trustee’ 1.3 million acres of land and impacted 11,000 + people Terminated benefits and support services for tribes Now under state law Mass movement from tribal family groups to urban centers to seek employment : Termination

10 Fishing rights AIM Occupation of Alcatraz (1969) Trail of Broken Treaties (1973) Occupation of Wounded Knee (1973) Marches, boycotts, demonstration Indian Civil Rights Act (1968) : Self-determination

11 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Obama: Tribal Leaders’ Summit 2009 and today: Self-determination & self-governance


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