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Writing Instructional Objectives Prof.(Dr) PK Tulsi Head, Deptt. Of Education & Educational Management, NITTTR, Chandigarh.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing Instructional Objectives Prof.(Dr) PK Tulsi Head, Deptt. Of Education & Educational Management, NITTTR, Chandigarh."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Writing Instructional Objectives Prof.(Dr) PK Tulsi Head, Deptt. Of Education & Educational Management, NITTTR, Chandigarh

3 (Mager, p. 11)

4 INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Descriptive statements regarding what a student will be able to do at the end of a unit of instruction. Examples – Define efficiency – Define programming – Compare diesel engine with petrol engine – Differentiate between deep and shallow foundation – Differentiate between stack and array – Identify the mistake in the programme written in C++ – Design a staircase for three storey residential building – Design an engine for SUV of given specification

5 Characteristics of a good instructional objective Stated in terms of student’s behaviour Specific- Action verb Observable Measurable Realistic Time framed

6 Domains of Objectives Cognitive Psychomotor Affective

7 Domains of Instructional Objectives Cognitive Domain-acquisition of information (Knowledge) Psychomotor-development of skills (Skills) Affective- development of attitudes, values etc.(Attitudes)

8 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives 1950s- developed by Benjamin Bloom Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking Adapted for classroom use as a planning tool Continues to be one of the most universally applied models Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking 1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy As a result, a number of changes were made (Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8)

9 Original Terms New Terms Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)

10 Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering BLOOM ’ S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding

11 Remembering The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. Rote memorization Verbs: List, Name, Enlist, State, Define, Locate, Identify, Repeat Reproduce

12 Understanding The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. – Interpreting – Exemplifying – Summarising – Inferring – Paraphrasing – Classifying – Comparing – Explaining Can you explain ideas or concepts? Verbs: Explain, Give examples, Interpret, Derive, Compare, Classify, Differentiate, Distinguish

13 Applying The learner makes use of information in a context different from the one in which it was learned. – Implementing – Carrying out – Using – Executing Can you use the information in another familiar situation? Verbs: Apply, Compute, Calculate, Implement,Translate Manipulate, Illustrate

14 Analysing The learner breaks learned information into its parts to best understand that information. Can you break information into parts to explore understandings and relationships? Verbs: Analyze, Locate, Find out, Explain, Examine, Investigate, Criticize

15 Evaluating The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. Can you justify a decision or course of action? Verbs: Judge, Evaluate, Appraise, Determine, Measure, Prioritize, Justify, Argue, Defend, Conclude

16 Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. Can you generate new products, ideas, or ways of viewing things? Verb: Design, Construct, Plan, Write, Compose, Assemble, Organize, Invent, Compile, Devise, Prepare, Develop Originate, Generate

17 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN IMITATION MANIPULATION PRECISION ARTICULATION NATURALIZATION

18 AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

19 GRONLUND’S APPROACH GENERAL OBJECTIVES SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES MAGER ’ S APPROACH PERFORMANCE CONDITIONS STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE/CRITERIA

20 INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM General Objectives Understand the concept and types of system Specific Objectives Explain system Differentiate between open and closed system Differentiate between static and dynamic system Give examples of open and closed system Give examples of static and dynamic system

21 DC Machines Understand the construction and applications of DC machines Specific Label the parts of a DC machine Explain the function of various parts of DC machine Write winding scheme for the armature winding Explain the characteristics of different types of DC machine Explain methods for speed control of DC machine

22 Explain the effect of armature reaction in a DC machine Define commutation Describe methods for determining efficiency of a DC without actual loading of the machine List the maintenance task of a DC machine

23 Multi stage Amplifiers Understand the concept and uses of Multi stage Amplifier – Explain multi stage amplifier – Enlist various types of multi stage amplifier (RC coupled, transformer coupled; direct coupled) – Differentiate among various types of multi stage amplifier – Explain gain of multi stage amplifier – State the uses of multi stage amplifier

24 Data Communication and Computer Network Understand Data Communications System and its components understand basic computer network technology Specific Enlist the basic elements of data communication Differentiate among three data transmission modes (Simplex, half Duplex, Full duplex) Explain three different types of data transmission speeds

25 State advantages and disadvantages of various types of transmission media Distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous transmission Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of digital and analog transmission------------

26 Examples of instructional objectives in psychomotor domain 1.Verify Bernoulli's equation 2.Verify of Ohm ’ s Law 3. Determine friction loss in flow through pipe 4.Calibrate of orifice meter and calculation of Cd, Cv, Ce 5. Calibrate of Venturi meter 6.Determine of discharge coefficient of V-notch 7.Operate lathe machine 8.Drill a hole in the wall 9.Make a lap joint

27 Determine the shape of the electric field around charge configurations on a piece of conductive paper Explore Computer Setup 1. Plug the PASPORT USB Link Interface into the computer’s USB port. 2. Plug the Voltage/Current Sensor into the USB interface. This will automatically launch the PASPortal window. 3. Choose the appropriate DataStudio configuration file entitled

28 Equipment Setup 1. Use a conductive ink pen to draw two "point charges" on a piece of conductive paper. See Note: Place the conductive paper, printed side up, on a smooth hard surface whenever you use the conductive ink pen. 2. Let the ink dry on the paper and then attach the paper to a corkboard using the metalpushpins. 3. Make sure the power supply is "off". Use a pushpin and wire to connect one point charge to the negative terminal of a DC power supply. Connect the other point charge to the positive terminal. 4. Use a pencil to label the two point charges as "-" (negative) and "+" (positive). 5. Tape together the ends of the voltage leads of the Voltage/Current Sensor so that the two tips are a fixed distance apart.

29 6. Use the pencil to draw several arrows pointing away from the "-" (negative) charge as shown. (Make the arrows as long as the distance between the tips of the voltage leads.) 1. Turn on the power supply and adjust the voltage to 10 volts. 2. Hold the voltage leads at an angle so the tip of the black voltage lead touches the conductive paper at the point of an arrow and the tip of the red voltage lead does not quite touch the paper Note: Touch the tip of the voltage leads only on the solid black areas of the paper conductive. Do not touch the grid marks or lines on the paper. 3. In DataStudio on the Experiment menu, click Monitor Data. 4. Tilt the voltage leads upright so both tips touch the conductive paper. Check the voltage in the Digitsdisplay in DataStudi

30 Examples of Instructional objectives in Affective Domain Obey rules Observe safety precautions Attend classes regularly Maintain punctuality Cooperates with others Exhibit honesty Respect others

31 Benefits of writing instructional objectives Monitor progress Help in organizing study material/taking notes Alert students to what is expected of them Expectations are very clearly defined Serve as a basis for the selection of instructional methods, media and materials Determine the appropriate ways to evaluate the learning

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33 Generalized Treatment of Electrical Machines Explain the need for electromechanical energy conversion Differentiate between motor and generator Explain basic principles of generating and motoring action Define/ Explain torque Explain the significance of torque angle State the working principle of electrical rotating machines

34 DC Machines Label the parts of a DC machine Explain the function of various parts of DC machine Write winding scheme for the armature winding Explain the characteristics of different types of DC machine Explain methods for speed control of DC machine Explain the effect of armature reaction in a DC machine Define commutation Describe methods for determining efficiency of a DC without actual loading of the machine List the maintenance task of a DC machine

35 Data Communication and Computer Network Enlist the basic elements of data communication Differentiate among three data transmission modes (Simplex, Half Duplex, Full duplex) Explain three different types of data transmission speeds State advantages and disadvantages of various types of transmission media Distinguish between synchronous and asynchronous transmission Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of digital and analog transmission------------

36 Planning the Computer Programme Explain the purposes of a computer programme Define an algorithm State the characteristics of instructions in algorithm Explain flowcharts with suitable examples Label symbols for flowcharts State the rules for creating flowcharts State/enlist advantages and disadvantages of flowcharts Describe the steps to be followed in constructing decision tables Explain the basic logic structure of a pseudo code


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