How many slaves were freed? What was the response in the North? What was the response of the Confederacy?
180,000 Blacks enlist in Union by war’s end (10% of forces) Face discrimination and opposition from Northern Whites Receive less pay & used as labor brigades, initially 22 Congressional Medal of Honor winners Soldiers raised by Frederick Douglass are the most famous, known as the 54 th Massachusetts Regiments(this is the story of the movie Glory) Many executed by South as prisoners, as at Fort Pillow South attempted to enlist blacks in the last month of the war, with little impact/effect
Slaves still on plantations “fought” too. How? “slowdowns” and sabotage slow production Runaways/contraband hurts labor force Increasing incidents of violence Southern men/military forced to stay at plantations to watch for rebellion = fewer soldiers fighting against North
More soldiers die of infections and disease than from wounds received on battle. Prisons, in particular, are deadly (most famously Andersonville, in the South) Women establish the United States Sanitary Commission Clara Barton, “the angel of the battlefield,” pioneers on the battlefield nursing. She later helps founds the American Red Cross. Belle Boyd, famous as a nurse and spy for the South. Women in both the North and the South step in to men’s roles in the economy as men are drawn off to war.