2The Early Years Essential Question: What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
3The Opposing SidesBoth sides expected the war for independence to end quicklyWhy do you think this was the case?
4The Loyalists At least one in five Americans were Loyalists (Tories) Strongest Loyalist support in the Carolinas and GeorgiaWeakest Loyalist support in New England
5The Loyalists Some people remained loyal because They were members of the Anglican Church headed by King George IIIThey depended on the British for their jobsThey feared the disorder that would erupt if they challenged an existing governmentThey felt British offenses were not bad enough to cause armed rebellionFriends and families were divided over this issue
6Raising an ArmyThe Americans placed great value on liberty and personal freedom for citizensHesitant to give full power to the Continental CongressAs a result, each state pushed its own interestsDifficult to raise money and a unified army
7Continental ArmyWell trained soldiers who could fight anywhere in the coloniesDepended on the states to recruit or enlist soldiersGeorge Washington wanted mento enlist for the duration of the warMost men enlisted for one year
9Patriot WomenMargaret Corbin took her husband’s place when he died in battleMolly Pitcher joined her husband in battle and was known for carrying pitchers of water to the soldiersDeborah Sampsondisguised herself asa boy and enlisted
10Making ConnectionsThe Revolutionary War was fought on American soil. How do you think this fact influenced the role of women in the war?Spies, dressed up as soldiers, worked as nurses, cooks for the army
12Patriot Defeats and Victories ***Most early battles involved few troops. Britain, realizing they would need more troops to defeat the Patriots sent 32,000 troops to New York under the command of General William Howe. He hoped the sheer size of the British army would convince the Patriots to give up. He was soon disappointed.
14Defeat on Long IslandOutnumbered and outmaneuvered, the Continental Army suffered a serious defeatAmericans showed bravery, but were very low on suppliesContinental Army was forced to retreat to Pennsylvania
15A Low Point – Winter ( )Many Patriot soldiers have completed their service and go homeMany soldiers run awayWashington, fearing they would lose the war, pleaded with the Continental Congress to let free African Americans enlist. They had previously not been allowed to join.Southern States did not want them to joinFeared armed rebellion
16African Americans Join the Fight Many states ignore the ban and enlist African AmericansThey join becauseThey believe in the Patriot causeNeeded moneyThey could earn their freedom
17American Victories in New Jersey Washington catches British off guard in Trenton, NJ on Christmas night 1776 and then pushes the British out of PrincetonWashington’s troops gained confidenceThe Continental Army won badly needed suppliesNew enlistments and reenlistments rose
19British Plan for Victory British planned to separate the New England Colonies from the Middle ColoniesSend troops down from CanadaCapture Albany, NYTake control of the Hudson River
20Patriots Slow the British British capture Philadelphia but don’t make it all the way to AlbanyBritish encountered militia groups on their way to Albany and were short on suppliesPatriots led by General Horatio Gates defeated British General Howe at the Battle of SaratogaTurning point in the war (We might actually win!!)
22Making ConnectionsWhy were African Americans first banned from serving in the Continental Army?Answer the Essential Question: What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
23The War Continues Essential Question: How did they US gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
24Gaining AlliesEven with aid from other nations and individuals, the Patriots had difficulty financing their war for independenceBattle of Saratoga victory encouraged other nations to give support
25France Benjamin Franklin worked hard to get support from France In 1788 – French openly announced support for the AmericansDeclared war on BritainSent money, equipment and troops to America
26Spain Helped American cause because they don’t like the British Attack British from southern and western frontsDo not recognize American independence until after the war
27Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778) Washington and his troops set up camp at Valley Forge and endured terrible conditionsThey lacked decent food, clothing, shelter and medicineBuilt hutsSeveral volunteers, including Martha Washington, made clothes and cared for the sickBiggest challenge was keeping the army together – many men deserted“Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire the incomparable patience and fidelity (faithfulness) of the soldiery.” George Washington, Letter to Governor George Clinton, February 16, 1778
29Money ProblemsContinental Congress had no power to raise money through taxesTo pay for the war, the Congress and the states printed hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of paper moneyThis led to inflationAmount of bills in circulation grew faster than the supply of gold and silver to back those billsTherefore, it took more and more money to buy the same amount of goods
31Life on the Home FrontHAVE YOU EVER TAKEN ON MORE DUTIES AT HOME WHEN ANOTHER PERSON WAS AWAY?
32Life on the Home Front – Changing Attitudes Thousands of men were away in military serviceWomen took charge of their families and ran their husbands’ or their own businessesThe ideals that inspired the American Revolution also caused some women to question their place and treatment in American societyWomen argued for equaleducational opportunities andwomen’s interests
33Hopes for EqualityRevolutionary War ideals cause some white Americans to question slavery.African Americans fought for the American cause and hoped the Revolution would lead to an end to slaveryVirginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and New Hampshire attempted to abolish slavery but the issue would remain unsettled for many years.
34Making ConnectionsHow did the war for independence affect slavery in the United States?What effects did the war have on women?Answer the Essential Question: How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
35The War Moves West and South Essential Question:How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the War?
36The British and Native Americans Most Native Americans sided with the British because they saw them as less of a threatMohawk Chief Joseph Brant attacked American settlements in southwestern NY and northern PAThe British paid Native Americans for American scalpsAmerican victory at Vincennes strengthened American position in the West
37Glory at SeaGreat Britain set up a blockade to prevent the Patriots and their allies from entering or leaving American harborsPrevented supplies and reinforcements from reaching the American army
38Privateers2nd Continental Congress ordered 13 warships to be made. Only 2 made it to seaThe Congress authorized over 2,000 ships to sail as privateersPrivately owned merchant shipsNot hard to find crews (very profitable)Capture more British ships than the American Navy
39Struggles in the SouthGreat Britain hoped that a strong campaign in the South would help the warBritain began to concentrate their efforts in the SouthInitially, their strategy worked
40British Victories1780 – British General Henry Clinton attacked Charles Town, South Carolina and took thousands of prisonersWorse American defeat of the warClinton left General Charles Cornwallis in command of British forces in the SouthCornwallis soon realized he could not control the area because of Guerilla warfare and because he received less aid from Loyalists than expected
41Guerilla WarfareAs British forces moved through countryside, small forces of Patriots attacked themHit and run technique caught British off guardAppeared suddenlyStruck their blowsDisappeared quickly
42Help From SpainGovernor of Spain gave thousands of dollars to AmericansOpened up the port at New Orleans!Shipped supplies and ammunition up the Mississippi RiverRaised an army to help near the lower Mississippi
44Making ConnectionsWhy did the Americans need to break the British naval blockade?Cause and Effect: Using the diagram below, show why the British lost control in the SouthAnswer the Essential Question: How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War?
45The War Is Won Essential Question: How did the Battle of Yorktown lead to American Independence?
46Change in Plans – The Battle of Yorktown Originally, Washington planned to attack the British in New York CitySecretly, Washington decided to attack the British at Yorktown, Virginia insteadWith aid from French troops, they attacked and trapped 8,000 British troopsCornwallis soon surrendered his troops as wellYankee Doodle was played to annoy the British as they handed over their weaponsBattle of Yorktown convinced the British that the war was too costly to continue
47IndependenceBenjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay were sent to negotiate the treaty of Paris (1783)Great Britain recognized the US as an independent nationBritain withdrew all troopsThe US allowed British merchants to collect their debtsUS gave back property taken from Loyalists
48Washington ResignsAfter persuading the Congress to pay soldiers their pensions that had been refused them, Washington retired“Having now finished the work assigned me I retire…and take my leave of all the employments of public life.”He returned to Mt. Vernon, Virginia to live quietly with his family
49Making ConnectionsWhy were the Americans successful in their fight for independence?Answer the Essential Question: How did the Battle of Yorktown lead to American Independence?Convinced British that the war was too costly to continue