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American Revolution “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” ― Benjamin Franklin By: Ami & Paul 6.1.

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Presentation on theme: "American Revolution “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” ― Benjamin Franklin By: Ami & Paul 6.1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 American Revolution “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” ― Benjamin Franklin By: Ami & Paul 6.1

3  E xplain why some Americans supported the British  D escribe how the British planned to win the war escribe how the Battle of Saratoga marked a turning point of the war At the end of the lesson, each student must be able to…

4  T The British and Americans both expected the war for independence to be short BBritish planned to crush rebellious colonists by force AAmerican Patriots who supported independence believed the British would give up after losing one or two major battles The Early Years

5  T T he British had an overwhelming advantage because they had the strongest navy in the world, an experienced; well-trained army, wealth, and a larger population. AA merican soldiers lacked military experience, weapons, and ammunition were in short supply PP atriots faced another problem. Not all Americans supported independence. SS ome people were neutral, taking neither side in the conflict. Example: The Quakers would not participate in the war because they opposed all armed conflict. The Opposing Sides

6 LL oyalists or Tories remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.  O ne in 5 Americans was a loyalist. Some people changed sides during the war, depending on which army was closer. LL oyalists supported Britain for different reasons. Some depended on the British for jobs, many feared the disorder that would come from challenging established government, others simply could not understand what all the commotion was about. TT he issue of independence disrupted normal relationships. For example, family and friends were divided over loyalty to Britain. One loyalist observed: “Neighbor was against neighbor, father against son and son against father. He that would not thrust his own blade through his brother’s heart was called an infamous villain.” The Loyalists

7 SS ome African Americans also sided with the loyalists. At the start of the war, the British appealed to enslaved Africans to join them. LL ord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia announced that slaves who fought on the British side would be freed, and many men answered his call. EE ventually some of them ended up in Canada, and others settled the British colony of Sierra Leone in Africa. African American in the War

8  S ome Americans possessed advantages and were fighting on their own ground with great determination to protect it  B ritish, on the other hand, had to wage war in a faraway land and were forced to transport soldiers and supplies 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean TT he nature of the British army in America also helped patriots and relied on Mercenaries –hired soldiers-to fight. Also called the mercenaries Hessians after the region in Germany where most of them lived Patriot Advantages

9 PP atriots compared their own troops who were fighting for the freedom of their own land to gain support for the war effort TT he Patriots had a much greater stake in winning the war then the hired soldiers did GG eorge Washington, their leader, was probably the American’s greatest advantage TT he war might have taken a different turn without Washington steering its course

10  T he Americans placed great value on liberty and personal freedom. TT hey hesitated to transfer power to their own Continental Congress after throwing off the rule of British Parliament. TT he American Revolution really was 13 separate wars with each state pursuing its own interests. Congress then had difficulty enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight the war. TT he Congress established the Continental Army, but depended on the states to recruit, or enlist, soldiers. Raising An Army

11 AA t first soldiers signed up for one year of army service, but General Washington appealed longer terms. WW omen also fought with the Patriot forces. MM argaret Corbin of Pennsylvania accompanied her husband when he joined the Continental Army, but after he died she took his place, and treated herself when she was wounded so no one would discover she wasn’t a man. Raising An Army

12 TT he early battles involved few troops. For example, Bunker Hill had about 2,000 British soldiers that fought 1,200 Americans. he British had realized they would need more troops to end the war quickly because they had not yet won victory over the Patriots. he summer of 1776 Britain sent 32,00 troops across the Atlantic to New York. GG eneral William Howe, the British commander hoped the size of his army would convince the patriots to give up, but he was soon disappointed. Fighting in New York

13  A lthough Washington and the Patriots fewer than 20,000 troops, they were determined to fight. LL ate August the two sides clashed in the Battle of Long Island. OO utnumbered and outmaneuvered, the Continental Army suffered a serious defeat from the British forces. NN athan Hale, a Patriot, a teacher from Connecticut, proved himself a hero in Long Island by volunteering to spy on the British troops and disguised himself as a Dutch schoolteacher. Defeat of Long Island

14 HH ale’s immortal last words were, “ I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country,” when the British discovered Hale’s true identity and hanged him. AA lthough the Americans showed no lack of a bravery, they ran short of supplies for the army. AA utumn of 1776, a British officer wrote that many of the Patriot soldiers killed on Long Island had not been wearing shoes, socks, or jackets and were in great need of blankets.

15  I n the winter of 1776 to 1777, Patriots’ was near collapse and the size of the Continental Army had decreased. SS ome soldiers completed their terms of service and went home. Others were deserters, soldiers who ran away. SS till, Washington could not believe that the fight for liberty would truly fail. A Low Point

16  E arly 1776 Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet, Common Sense, that moved many American colonists toward independence.  P P aine published another pamphlet to help boost Americans’ lagging spirits after taking part in the retreat across New York and New Jersey. ““ The harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.” Washington used Paine’s encouraging words to help his troops inspire them to fight. Thomas Paine and The Crisis

17  W ashington pleaded with the Continental Congress for more troops and to enlist African American soldiers.  E arly in the war, the Southern states had persuaded the Congress to bar African American soldiers from the Continental Army, buy many white people felt uncomfortable about giving guns to African Americans. II n Southern states with large enslaved populations, whites feared revolts. Patriots Gains

18  A s the need for soldiers grew, some states ignored the ban and enlisted African Americans. BB y the war’s end, every state except South Carolina enlisted African Americans to fight. AA bout 5,000 African Americans joined the Patriots. African Americans Join the Fight

19 AA mong them were Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem who fought at Conrad.  T hey believed in the patriot cause or they needed the money. SS ome soldiers were enslaved Africans wh0 had run away from slaveholders. Others fought to earn their freedom. African American Join the fight

20  1 to 1777 The British Army settled in New York for the winter leaving some troops in New Jersey at Trenton and Princeton.  A rmies usually called a halt to their wars during the winter, and the British did not expect to fight. WW ashington saw a chance to catch the British off guard while he was stationed across the Delaware River from the British camp in New Jersey on Christmas night WW ashington took 2,400 troops across the icy river and surprised the enemy at Trenton the next day. American Victories in New Jersey

21 TT he Americans captures 900 Hessians at Trenton and Washington called the victory “glorious” TT he British sent reinforcements under Lord Charles Cornwallis, but Washington led his troops away from Cornwallis’s men and marched the army to Princeton where they drove away the British

22  1 777, the British planned a battle to take Albany, New York. And gain control of the Hudson River. This would separate New England from the Middle States GG eneral John Burgoyne would lead 8,000 troops south from Canada that involved a three-pronged attack AA second force, under Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger would move east from Lake Ontario and a third group, under General Howe, would move north from New York City AA ll three British forces would meet at Albany and destroy the Patriot troops A British Plan for Victory

23  B B efore marching to Albany, Howe planned t0 take Philadelphia, the American capital  S eptember 1777, after winning battles at Brandywine and Philadelphia, Howe’s troops captured the city itself without much of a fight TT he Continental Congress fled to the Pennsylvania and in early October, Washington attacked the main British camp at near by Germantown, but was forced to withdraw HH owe decided to spend the winter in Philadelphia, postponing the move north to Albany The British Capture Philadelphia

24  B ritish plans for moving toward Albany were not going well AA ugust, soldiers halted St. Leger’s advance at Fort Stanwix, New York LL ed by Benedict Arnold, the Americans forced the British to retreat, but General Burgoyne’s army was not making much progress toward Albany either JJ uly, Burgoyne captured Fort Ticonderoga, but his army had trouble advancing after that BB urgoyne traveled with 30 wagons of luxury goods and loaded down with these heavy baggage, Burgoyne’s army moved slowly through the dark forests Patriots Slow the British

25 AA mericans were making matters worse by blocking the British at every opportunity they had. BB urgoyne sent 700 British and Hessian soldiers to capture military stores at Bennington, Vermont when they were in need of food and supplies. SS ince the British troops were wearing bright colored uniforms it made the soldiers easy targets. GG reen Mountain Boys, attacked and defeated them BB urgoyne retreated to the town of Saratoga in New York

26  B B urgoyne faced serious trouble at Saratoga TT he British forces were expected to come from the west and south to join Burgoyne, but they had not arrived HH owe’s forces were still in Philadelphia, and the Americans had stopped St. Leger’s army at Fort Stanwix II n addition Americans blocked his path under the command of General Horatio Gates BB urgoyne found himself surrounded by an army about three times as large as his own and made one last desperate attempt on October 7, but the Americans held firm The Battle of Saratoga

27 TT he British were trapped, had no food, and wounded soldiers lay all around  O ctober 17, 1777 General Burgoyne surrendered a Patriot band played “Yankee Doo- doodle,” 5,700 British soldiers handed their weapons to the Americans DD inner with Gates, Burgoyne offered a toast to George Washington TT he plan to cut off New England by the British had failed The Battle of Saratoga


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