21. Centuries In which century did the year 1607 occur? A. The 15th centuryB. The 16th centuryC. The 17th centuryD. The 18th century(Hint: Add 1 to year to get century)But the 1700s occurred in what century?
32.The economy of the colonies of New England in the early 1700s was mainly dependent upon:A. Coal miningB. Maritime (sea) tradeC. Tobacco exportingD. Rice farming
43. Primary vs. Secondary Sources Primary Source – first personThomas Jefferson writes an autobiography.Secondary Source – account written by someone who did not observe events, or from primary sources: I read Jefferson’s autobiography and write about it.
54. Locate the 13 Colonies and Trace Territorial Expansion 13 Original Colonies: Atlantic Coast, not Florida13 Colonies: After FI War, to Mississippi but Proclamation of 1763United States (1783) From Atlantic to MississippiLouisiana Purchase (1803)--doubled size: Mississippi to RockiesFlorida (1819)-- Florida from Spanish (Adams-Onis)Texas Annexation (1845)Mexican Cession (1848)--From Mexican War; Louisiana Purchase to Pacific Ocean (Southwest)Oregon Country (1846)-- Settled dispute with British; Today, Oregon and WashingtonGasden Purchase: 1853Alaska-- purchased 1867—Seward’s FollyHawaii—annexed, 1870s.
65. Key Historical Documents Mayflower Compact: Pilgrims Establish self-government in coloniesDeclaration of Independence: Declares independence from Britain; relies on Locke’s ideas of natural rights, social contract. Purpose is to justify rebellion, increase colonial support, and enlist foreign allies.The Constitution (1789): Preamble (popular sovereignty)The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson wrote, separating religion and government; began movement toward freedom of religion.The Bill of Rights: 1st ten amendmentsWashington’s Farewell Address, 1797: avoid foreign alliances; avoid sectionalism and political parties.The Gettysburg Address: War of Union and freedomWilson’s Fourteen Points (WWI): principles for international justice: freedom of seas, freedom of trade, self-determinationMartin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”: leader gave reasons blacks couldn’t wait for civil rights and needed to protest.Political cartoons--TR (cowboy hat), Nixon (peace sign)
7Which document explains the reasons for the colonies’ act of separation from England? A. Mayflower CompactB. Articles of ConfederationC. Declaration of IndependenceD. Constitution of the United States
86. First Discoverers: Paleo-Americans Reach North America by crossing the Bering Strait between Asia and Alaska as early as 30,000 B.C.Over thousands of years, they populated all of North, Central and South America.Culture differentiationClimate, geography
97. Advanced Societies Agriculture occurs first in Mesoamerica Mayas—Mexico—writing, engineering, citiesAztecs—Mexico—5 million empireInca—Peru—12 million empire
108. Columbian ExchangeThe exchange of goods, people, plants, and ideas between Africa, Asia and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuriesNative Americans: European diseases, horses, guns—disease killed more Indians than warfareEuropeans: tobacco, gold, slaves, potatoes, squash, corn,Africans: slavery
119. Spanish Colonization Spanish: 1400s-1500s---colonize Conquistadores—Gold, glory, and GodCortes: defeats Montezuma of AztecPizarro: defeats Atuhalpa of IncaEncomedero—enslave IndiansMission system—convert Indians in SouthwestSt. Augustine 1565, Santa Fe, NM 1609
1210. French Colonization French: Fur trade Quebec, Canada along Mississippi RiverLouisiana
1311. English Colonization Along Atlantic coast English: at first gold, glory and God; later agriculture, political and religious freedomRoanoke, 1585, failed.Jamestown, 1607, gold, then tobacco.Plymouth, 1620, Pilgrim Separatists, religionMassachusetts Bay, 1620, Puritans, religion “city upon a hill”
1412. The Southern Colonies E.Q. How did the Southern colonies develop? Virginia (1607, Jamestown)Maryland, 1634, haven for CatholicsCarolinas, 1664, later separatedS.C.—plantation, slaveryN.C.—yeomen farmersGeorgia, 1732—haven for debtors, buffer from Spanish; slavery allowed in 1752.Plantation economy (commercial agriculture based on enslaved labor)Cash crops: Tobacco (Md, Va, NC); Rice, indigo (SC)E.Q. How did the Southern colonies develop?
1513. Southern Society Gentry controlled government Yeomen (backcountry farmers): Largest groupIndentured Servants—harsh termsReligion: Mostly Anglican, PresbyterianUnhealthy climate—shorter life spanHouse of Burgesses, 1619
1614. Bacon’s Rebellion & Slavery 1676: Bacon leads backcountry farmers to fight Indians and would have taken over Virginia but died.Lesson: There must always be cheap land in the backcountry; colonies will have to fight Indians.Switch to slavery: slaves will not revolt or require land.10 million Africans over 3 centuriesMost go to West IndiesMiddle Passage—horrible!By 1750 : Blacks 50% of population in South
1715. New England New England: Massachusetts, 1620--Separatists Rhode Island, 1636—Exiled from Mass.Connecticut, 1638—Left Mass.New Hampshire, 1691Crops: small farming, fishing, whaling, shippingReligion: Puritan/CongregationalHalfway CovenantSalem Witch Trials— —class conflictLife Span: added 10 years to life over England(70s)Democratic town meetings, legislatureEducation important—need to read Bible
1816. Middle colonies NY, NJ, Pa, Delaware Fertile land—food surplus CASH CROPS: Wheat trade easy due to deep riversFlood of immigrants in 1700s—Pennsylvania Dutch (Germans)More ethically and religiously diverse
1917. The Great Awakening Revival of religious beliefs and emotion 1730s and 1740sJonathan Edwards:“Sinners in the hands of an Angry God”—hell is paved with the skulls of unbaptized children”
2018. French and Indian WarBritish and French fight over Ohio River Valley—becomes Seven Years War—worldwideAlbany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin proposes that colonies join together for joint defense –1st attempt at colonial unity.Battle of Quebec—British capture French capitol; France surrenders.Treaty of Paris of 1763: British win, pushing France out of North America. Britain controls from Atlantic to Mississippi, including Florida and Canada. Spain controls west of Mississippi RiverLeads to American Revolution.
21North America 1763:After Treaty of Paris of 17631750
2219. Causes of American Revolution Change land policy--Proclamation of 1763: following Pontiac’s Revolt, Britain bans settlement west of Appalachians to colonists--colonists angry!Change in taxation policy: Due to war debt, Britain will use revenue taxes to raise moneyNavigation Acts: had not been enforced—salutary neglectViolations of colonists’ rights of as EnglishmenTaxation without representationTrial by jury of peers—admiralty courtsUnreasonable search and seizure—writs of assistance
2320. Stamp Act, 1765 First direct tax on citizens United opposition Stamp Act CongressSons of Liberty—pamphlets, protests, intimidationBoycott (most successful)Tarring and Feathering Stamp Tax agentsDeclaratory Act 1766—repeals stamp tax but declares that Parliament has the right to tax colonists directlyvirtual representation—each member of Parliament represents all
2421. Road to American Revolution 1767-Townshend Acts—import taxes on tea, glass, paint; boycotts successful1770—Boston Massacre1773—Tea Act; Boston Tea PartyIntolerable (Coercive) Acts: close port, try officials in England, Quartering Act, no assembly in Quebec1774—First Continental Congress
25Colonial ResistanceBoycotts: Colonists refused to trade or buy British goods until Stamp Act was repealed.Protests: Led by the Sons of Liberty up and down the colonies from 1765 to 1766.Committees of Correspondence: Colonies kept in contact with one another and described British actions through letters exchanged by carriers on horseback.
2622. The War Begins, 1775Battles of Lexington & Concord; Boston & Battle of Bunker Hill (war starts)Bunker Hill—Patriots technically lose due to lack of ammunition but great morale victorySecond Continental Congress; GW heads army
2723. Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine’s Common Sense—changes views about independenceconvinces colonists that King George is a tyrantColonial delegates vote for independenceDeclaration of Independence: Signed on July 4, 1776 – written mostly by Thomas Jefferson (inspired by John Locke)All men are created equalNatural rightsSocial contractReasons: justify rebellion; enlist foreign allies; increase colonial support
2824. Tories and Patriots Loyalists/Tories Patriots/Whigs Loyal to King Wanted independenceStrong in New England and VirginiaAbout 1/3 (1/3 neutral)Loyalists/ToriesLoyal to KingStrong in Georgia, Carolinas and New YorkNot as well organizedAbout 1/3
2925. Britain Americans ARMY AND NAVY HOME TERRITORY RESOURCES AdvantagesARMY AND NAVYRESOURCESSTRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENTHOME TERRITORYDON’T HAVE TO WINFRENCH ALLIANCEMOTIVATED SOLDIERSDisadvantagesFAR FROM HOME/SUPPORTGUERILLA WARFAREUNFAMILIAR TERRITORYTROOPS INDIFFERENTUNTRAINED SMALL ARMYLACK OF FOOD, AMMO, PAYWEAK, DIVIDED GOVT.
3026. Important BattlesWashington knew he couldn’t defeat British head on—survival until British grew tired.Battle of Trenton, 1776: First victory! Crosses Delaware at night to attack Hessians on Christmas—boosts colonial morale!Battle of Saratoga, 1777: turning point of war—French will provide men and support for war.Battle of Yorktown, 1781: British surrender
3127. Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain recognizes independence U.S. territory from Atlantic to MississippiCanada to BritishFlorida to SpainSpain controls west of Miss. River
3228. Articles of Confederation Fail! —Critical period—1st governmentWeaknesses—no executive or judicial branch; no power to tax, no power to regulate interstate commerce, or establish single national currencyStrengths:Land Sales Act --organizes new territory for saleNorthwest Ordinance --how state becomes a territoryShay’s Rebellion --showed weaknesses—calls for new stronger government
3329. Constitutional Convention 1787 George Washington heads-- James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John JayVa. Plan—large state plan (population)vs.NJ Plan—small state plan (equal per state)Great (Connecticut) Compromise—bicameral legislature, one based on population (HR) and one equal (Senate)Compromise on Slave Trade—would continue for 20 years3/5 Compromise: 3/5 of slaves would be counted for representation and taxesCommerce Compromise: no tax on exports
34Constitutional IdeasSeparation of Powers (Adams, Montesquieu)—3 branchesLegislative—Congress—makes lawsExecutive—President—carries out lawsJudicial—Supreme Court—interprets lawChecks and BalancesFederalism: division of power between state and nationalDelegated (federal)—interstate commerceReserved (states)--educationConcurrent (both)--courts
3530. Example: Historical documents “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.”Question: The Preamble of the Constitution expresses the authors’ belief thatA. Citizens are the source of political powerB. Local and national governments should share powerC. Legislative and executive powers should be separateD. Government power should be very limited.THE ANSWER IS
3631. New government begins 1789—George Washington 1st president Bill of Rights, 1791—added 1st 10 amendments in order for states to ratify the constitution.Judiciary Act of 1789—created a federal judiciary.Cabinet: Washington’s advisorsSecretary of State-foreign affairs-Thomas JeffersonSecretary of Treasury—Alexander Hamilton1st Chief Justice—John JayWhiskey Rebellion—Washington used the militia to put down rebellion—Constitution is strong enoughPolitical parties developJeffersonian Republicans—want small governmentHamilton Federalists—want large government
3732. New RepublicAlien and Sedition Acts—Federalists attempt to use power of government to stop opposition; repealed.Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsMarbury v. Madison, 1803—Midnight judges case—Power of Judicial Review--Supreme Court will decide whether a law is constitutional.
3833. Nationalism1803 – Jefferson president, buys from France, doubled size of the U.S. – Lewis and Clark explored! SacajaweaWar of 1812 – ( ) British and Americans – Freedom of the seas – Pride and nationalism emerge!Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the Americas.American System- Henry Clay – use protective tariff, national bank, and transportation to grow U.S.
3934. Growth Waves of immigration from Europe Irish, GermansRailroads, canals (mostly in North) built to ship suppliesEli Whitney – Cotton gin – makes cotton King in the South, need for slaves increases
4035. Reform Movements Temperance Movement – against alcohol Education – Horace MannWomen’s Rights – Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady StantonAbolitionists – Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison (The Liberator), Harriet Tubman (Underground RR)Also-- Mental Health – Dorothea Dix – out of prisons
4136. Political PartiesEra of Good Feeling—Federalist Party dies; Democratic-Republicans are only political party fromDemocratic Party forms, Andrew Jackson breaks off from Republicans.1832—Whig Party forms in opposition (nationalists)Jackson – spoils system1854—Republican party forms from antislavery groups, Free Soil Party, and Whig Party
4237. Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny – Destiny of U.S. to spread their ideals across the continent.American Texans rebel against Mexico—brutal treatment on both sides--Remember the Alamo! Not part of U.S. immediately.Mexican War ( ) Issues of Texas – and Mexican territory. Easily defeated; gained southwest territory (Mexican Cession).Gold Rush 1848 – 49ers headed to California to look for gold! Homestead Act – gave land!
43SectionalismStates’ Rights—theory that states had the right to decide slavery and whether they wanted to be part of the U.S.Missouri Compromise – 1820 –Free & slave states –Maine as free state; Missouri as slave stateTariff of Abominations—South Carolina threatens to secede over 1828 high tariff; compromise tariff reached in 1832.Compromise of 1850—California as free state; Fugitive Slave Law.Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854—Popular sovereignty—attempt to solve slavery issue by allowing residents to decide. Failure—led to Bleeding Kansas civil war.
4440. Road to Civil WarUncle Tom’s Cabin—book builds antislavery feeling in North; banned in SouthDred Scott decision, 1857: Supreme Court held that slavery could not be abolished anywhere. Angers north!Bleeding Kansas—civil war in Kansas over slavery issue.John Brown’s Raid on Harper Ferry—fears of slave uprisingMost immediate cause--Lincoln’s Election, 1860—SC and eventually 10 other states secede from Union.
4541. Civil War, 1861-65 First shots – Fort Sumter, April 1861 First big Northern victory – Antietam – Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation—frees slaves in rebelling states only.Gettysburg – Northern most battleSouth surrenders (Lee) to North (Grant) at Appomattox Court House, Virginia in April 1865Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
46Effects of Civil WarMore died than all other U.S. wars combined—600,00013th Amendment abolished slaverySouth in ruins
47Quick Review:1. Paleo-Indians crossed this land bridge to become the first settlers of the Americas.2. The name of the first English settlement in North America.3. This English law caused the first organized protest by Americans against British rule.4. Thomas Jefferson based the Declaration of Independence on the ideas of this Enlightenment philosopher (British).5. The battle that was the turning point in the American Revolution, convincing the French to support the patriots.6. Describe two problems with the Articles of Confederation.7. The year that the Constitution was ratified.8. Jefferson’s act that doubled the size of the United States in 1803.9. How did the Missouri Compromise attempt to resolve the issue over expandingslavery?12. The doctrine that Southerners used to secede from the Union.13. The northernmost battle of the Civil War.14. The term for the belief that the U.S. should expand across the continent.
486. Which best explains the appearance of political parties in the United States shortly after the adoption of the Constitution?A. Washington disliked Jefferson.B. The Constitution required the development of a multi-party system.C. Great Britain had a two-party system.D. Differences arose over economic and political issues.