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Graduation Test Review Beginning to 1865. 1. Centuries In which century did the year 1607 occur? A. The 15 th century B. The 16 th century C. The 17 th.

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Presentation on theme: "Graduation Test Review Beginning to 1865. 1. Centuries In which century did the year 1607 occur? A. The 15 th century B. The 16 th century C. The 17 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 Graduation Test Review Beginning to 1865

2 1. Centuries In which century did the year 1607 occur? A. The 15 th century B. The 16 th century C. The 17 th century D. The 18 th century (Hint: Add 1 to year to get century) But the 1700s occurred in what century?

3 2. The economy of the colonies of New England in the early 1700s was mainly dependent upon: A. Coal mining B. Maritime (sea) trade C. Tobacco exporting D. Rice farming

4 3. Primary vs. Secondary Sources Primary Source – first person Thomas Jefferson writes an autobiography. Secondary Source – account written by someone who did not observe events, or from primary sources: I read Jefferson’s autobiography and write about it.

5 4. Locate the 13 Colonies and Trace Territorial Expansion 13 Original Colonies: Atlantic Coast, not Florida 13 Colonies: After FI War, to Mississippi but Proclamation of 1763 United States (1783) From Atlantic to Mississippi Louisiana Purchase (1803)--doubled size: Mississippi to Rockies Florida (1819)-- Florida from Spanish (Adams-Onis) Texas Annexation (1845) Mexican Cession (1848)--From Mexican War; Louisiana Purchase to Pacific Ocean (Southwest) Oregon Country (1846)-- Settled dispute with British; Today, Oregon and Washington Gasden Purchase: 1853 Alaska-- purchased 1867—Seward’s Folly Hawaii—annexed, 1870s.

6 5. Key Historical Documents Mayflower CompactMayflower Compact: Pilgrims Establish self-government in colonies Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence: Declares independence from Britain; relies on Locke’s ideas of natural rights, social contract. Purpose is to justify rebellion, increase colonial support, and enlist foreign allies. The Constitution The Constitution (1789): Preamble (popular sovereignty) The Virginia Statute of Religious FreedomThe Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom: Thomas Jefferson wrote, separating religion and government; began movement toward freedom of religion. The Bill of RightsThe Bill of Rights: 1 st ten amendments Washington’s Farewell Address, 1797: avoid foreign alliances; avoid sectionalism and political parties. The Gettysburg AddressThe Gettysburg Address: War of Union and freedom Wilson’s Fourteen Points (WWI): principles for international justice: freedom of seas, freedom of trade, self-determination Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”: leader gave reasons blacks couldn’t wait for civil rights and needed to protest. Political cartoons--TR (cowboy hat), Nixon (peace sign)

7 Which document explains the reasons for the colonies’ act of separation from England? A.Mayflower Compact B.Articles of Confederation C.Declaration of Independence D.Constitution of the United States

8 6. First Discoverers: Paleo- Americans Reach North America by crossing the Bering Strait between Asia and Alaska as early as 30,000 B.C. Over thousands of years, they populated all of North, Central and South America. Culture differentiation –Climate, geography

9 7. Advanced Societies Agriculture occurs first in Mesoamerica Mayas—Mexico—writing, engineering, cities Aztecs—Mexico—5 million empire Inca—Peru—12 million empire

10 8. Columbian Exchange The exchange of goods, people, plants, and ideas between Africa, Asia and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries Native Americans: European diseases, horses, guns—disease killed more Indians than warfare Europeans: tobacco, gold, slaves, potatoes, squash, corn, Africans: slavery

11 9. Spanish Colonization Spanish: 1400s-1500s---colonize Conquistadores—Gold, glory, and God –Cortes: defeats Montezuma of Aztec –Pizarro: defeats Atuhalpa of Inca –Encomedero—enslave Indians –Mission system—convert Indians in Southwest St. Augustine 1565, Santa Fe, NM 1609

12 10. French Colonization French: Fur trade –Quebec, Canada –along Mississippi River –Louisiana

13 11. English Colonization Along Atlantic coast English: at first gold, glory and God; later agriculture, political and religious freedom –Roanoke, 1585, failed. –Jamestown, 1607, gold, then tobacco. –Plymouth, 1620, Pilgrim Separatists, religion –Massachusetts Bay, 1620, Puritans, religion “city upon a hill”

14 12. The Southern Colonies E.Q. How did the Southern colonies develop? Virginia (1607, Jamestown) Maryland, 1634, haven for Catholics Carolinas, 1664, later separated –S.C.—plantation, slavery –N.C.—yeomen farmers Georgia, 1732—haven for debtors, buffer from Spanish; slavery allowed in Plantation economy (commercial agriculture based on enslaved labor) Cash crops: Tobacco (Md, Va, NC); Rice, indigo (SC)

15 13. Southern Society Gentry controlled government Yeomen (backcountry farmers): Largest group Indentured Servants— harsh terms Religion: Mostly Anglican, Presbyterian Unhealthy climate— shorter life span House of Burgesses, 1619 Wealthy Planters (Gentry) Backcountr y Farmers (Yeomen farmers) Landless Farmers, Servants and Slaves

16 14. Bacon’s Rebellion & Slavery 1676: Bacon leads backcountry farmers to fight Indians and would have taken over Virginia but died. Lesson: There must always be cheap land in the backcountry; colonies will have to fight Indians. Switch to slavery: slaves will not revolt or require land. 10 million Africans over 3 centuries Most go to West Indies Middle Passage—horrible! By 1750 : Blacks 50% of population in South

17 15. New England New England: Massachusetts, Separatists Rhode Island, 1636—Exiled from Mass. Connecticut, 1638—Left Mass. New Hampshire, 1691 Crops: small farming, fishing, whaling, shipping Religion: Puritan/Congregational –Halfway Covenant –Salem Witch Trials— —class conflict Life Span: added 10 years to life over England(70s) Democratic town meetings, legislature Education important—need to read Bible

18 16. Middle colonies NY, NJ, Pa, Delaware Fertile land—food surplus CASH CROPS: Wheat trade easy due to deep rivers Flood of immigrants in 1700s—Pennsylvania Dutch (Germans) More ethically and religiously diverse Wealthy Merchants Artisans & Business Owners Unskilled Laborers, Servants, Slaves

19 17. The Great Awakening Revival of religious beliefs and emotion 1730s and 1740s Jonathan Edwards: “Sinners in the hands of an Angry God”—hell is paved with the skulls of unbaptized children”

20 18. French and Indian War British and French fight over Ohio River Valley— becomes Seven Years War—worldwide Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin proposes that colonies join together for joint defense –1st attempt at colonial unity. Battle of Quebec—British capture French capitol; France surrenders. Treaty of Paris of 1763: British win, pushing France out of North America. Britain controls from Atlantic to Mississippi, including Florida and Canada. Spain controls west of Mississippi River Leads to American Revolution.

21 North America 1763: 1750 After Treaty of Paris of 1763

22 19. Causes of American Revolution Change land policy-- Proclamation of 1763: following Pontiac’s Revolt, Britain bans settlement west of Appalachians to colonists-- colonists angry! Change in taxation policy: Due to war debt, Britain will use revenue taxes to raise money –Navigation Acts: had not been enforced—salutary neglect Violations of colonists’ rights of as Englishmen –Taxation without representation –Trial by jury of peers— admiralty courts –Unreasonable search and seizure—writs of assistance

23 20. Stamp Act, 1765 First direct tax on citizens United opposition –Stamp Act Congress –Sons of Liberty—pamphlets, protests, intimidation –Boycott (most successful) –Tarring and Feathering Stamp Tax agents Declaratory Act 1766—repeals stamp tax but declares that Parliament has the right to tax colonists directly virtual representation—each member of Parliament represents all

24 21. Road to American Revolution 1767-Townshend Acts—import taxes on tea, glass, paint; boycotts successful 1770—Boston Massacre 1773—Tea Act; Boston Tea Party Intolerable (Coercive) Acts: close port, try officials in England, Quartering Act, no assembly in Quebec 1774—First Continental Congress

25 Boycotts : Colonists refused to trade or buy British goods until Stamp Act was repealed. Protests : Led by the Sons of Liberty up and down the colonies from 1765 to Committees of Correspondence: Colonies kept in contact with one another and described British actions through letters exchanged by carriers on horseback.

26 22. The War Begins, 1775 Battles of Lexington & Concord; Boston & Battle of Bunker Hill (war starts) –Bunker Hill—Patriots technically lose due to lack of ammunition but great morale victory Second Continental Congress; GW heads army

27 23. Declaration of Independence Thomas Paine’s Common Sense—changes views about independence – convinces colonists that King George is a tyrant –Colonial delegates vote for independence Declaration of Independence: Signed on July 4, 1776 – written mostly by Thomas Jefferson (inspired by John Locke) –All men are created equal –Natural rights –Social contract Reasons: justify rebellion; enlist foreign allies; increase colonial support

28 24. Tories and Patriots Loyalists/Tories Loyal to King –Strong in Georgia, Carolinas and New York –Not as well organized –About 1/3 Patriots/Whigs Wanted independence Strong in New England and Virginia About 1/3 (1/3 neutral)

29 BritainAmericans Advantages ARMY AND NAVY RESOURCES STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT HOME TERRITORY DON’T HAVE TO WIN FRENCH ALLIANCE MOTIVATED SOLDIERS Disadvantages FAR FROM HOME/SUPPORT GUERILLA WARFARE UNFAMILIAR TERRITORY TROOPS INDIFFERENT UNTRAINED SMALL ARMY LACK OF FOOD, AMMO, PAY WEAK, DIVIDED GOVT. 25.

30 26. Important Battles Washington knew he couldn’t defeat British head on—survival until British grew tired. Battle of Trenton, 1776: First victory! Crosses Delaware at night to attack Hessians on Christmas—boosts colonial morale! Battle of Saratoga, 1777: turning point of war—French will provide men and support for war. Battle of Yorktown, 1781: British surrender

31 27. Treaty of Paris of 1783 Britain recognizes independence U.S. territory from Atlantic to Mississippi –Canada to British –Florida to Spain –Spain controls west of Miss. River

32 28. Articles of Confederation Fail! —Critical period—1 st government Weaknesses—no executive or judicial branch; no power to tax, no power to regulate interstate commerce, or establish single national currency Strengths: –Land Sales Act --organizes new territory for sale –Northwest Ordinance --how state becomes a territory Shay’s Rebellion --showed weaknesses—calls for new stronger government

33 29. Constitutional Convention 1787 George Washington heads-- James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay Va. Plan—large state plan (population) vs. NJ Plan—small state plan (equal per state) –Great (Connecticut) Compromise—bicameral legislature, one based on population (HR) and one equal (Senate) –Compromise on Slave Trade—would continue for 20 years –3/5 Compromise: 3/5 of slaves would be counted for representation and taxes –Commerce Compromise: no tax on exports

34 Constitutional Ideas Separation of Powers (Adams, Montesquieu)—3 branches –Legislative—Congress—makes laws –Executive—President—carries out laws –Judicial—Supreme Court—interprets law Checks and Balances Federalism: division of power between state and national –Delegated (federal)—interstate commerce –Reserved (states)--education –Concurrent (both)--courts

35 30. Example: Historical documents “We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution for the United States of America.” Question: The Preamble of the Constitution expresses the authors’ belief that –A. Citizens are the source of political power –B. Local and national governments should share power –C. Legislative and executive powers should be separate –D. Government power should be very limited. THE ANSWER IS.....

36 31. New government begins 1789—George Washington 1 st president Bill of Rights, 1791—added 1 st 10 amendments in order for states to ratify the constitution. Judiciary Act of 1789—created a federal judiciary. Cabinet: Washington’s advisors –Secretary of State-foreign affairs-Thomas Jefferson –Secretary of Treasury—Alexander Hamilton –1 st Chief Justice—John Jay Whiskey Rebellion—Washington used the militia to put down rebellion—Constitution is strong enough Political parties develop –Jeffersonian Republicans—want small government –Hamilton Federalists—want large government

37 32. New Republic Alien and Sedition Acts—Federalists attempt to use power of government to stop opposition; repealed. –Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Marbury v. Madison, 1803—Midnight judges case—Power of Judicial Review-- Supreme Court will decide whether a law is constitutional.

38 33. Nationalism 1803 – Jefferson president, buys from France, doubled size of the U.S. – Lewis and Clark explored! Sacajawea War of 1812 – ( ) British and Americans – Freedom of the seas – Pride and nationalism emerge! Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the Americas. American System- Henry Clay – use protective tariff, national bank, and transportation to grow U.S.

39 34. Growth Waves of immigration from Europe –Irish, Germans Railroads, canals (mostly in North) built to ship supplies Eli Whitney – Cotton gin – makes cotton King in the South, need for slaves increases

40 35. Reform Movements Temperance Movement – against alcohol Education – Horace Mann Women’s Rights – Sojourner Truth, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Abolitionists – Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison (The Liberator), Harriet Tubman (Underground RR) Also-- Mental Health – Dorothea Dix – out of prisons

41 36. Political Parties Era of Good Feeling—Federalist Party dies; Democratic-Republicans are only political party from Democratic Party forms, Andrew Jackson breaks off from Republicans. 1832—Whig Party forms in opposition (nationalists) Jackson – spoils system 1854—Republican party forms from antislavery groups, Free Soil Party, and Whig Party

42 37. Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny – Destiny of U.S. to spread their ideals across the continent. American Texans rebel against Mexico—brutal treatment on both sides--Remember the Alamo! Not part of U.S. immediately. Mexican War ( ) Issues of Texas – and Mexican territory. Easily defeated; gained southwest territory (Mexican Cession). Gold Rush 1848 – 49ers headed to California to look for gold! Homestead Act – gave land!

43 Sectionalism States’ Rights—theory that states had the right to decide slavery and whether they wanted to be part of the U.S. Missouri Compromise – 1820 –Free & slave states –Maine as free state; Missouri as slave state Tariff of Abominations—South Carolina threatens to secede over 1828 high tariff; compromise tariff reached in Compromise of 1850—California as free state; Fugitive Slave Law. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854—Popular sovereignty— attempt to solve slavery issue by allowing residents to decide. Failure—led to Bleeding Kansas civil war.

44 40. Road to Civil War Uncle Tom’s Cabin—book builds antislavery feeling in North; banned in South Dred Scott decision, 1857: Supreme Court held that slavery could not be abolished anywhere. Angers north! Bleeding Kansas—civil war in Kansas over slavery issue. John Brown’s Raid on Harper Ferry—fears of slave uprising Most immediate cause--Lincoln’s Election, 1860—SC and eventually 10 other states secede from Union.

45 41. Civil War, First shots – Fort Sumter, April 1861 First big Northern victory – Antietam – Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation—frees slaves in rebelling states only. Gettysburg – Northern most battle South surrenders (Lee) to North (Grant) at Appomattox Court House, Virginia in April 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.

46 Effects of Civil War More died than all other U.S. wars combined—600, th Amendment abolished slavery South in ruins

47 Quick Review: 1. Paleo-Indians crossed this land bridge to become the first settlers of the Americas. 2. The name of the first English settlement in North America. 3. This English law caused the first organized protest by Americans against British rule. 4. Thomas Jefferson based the Declaration of Independence on the ideas of this Enlightenment philosopher (British). 5. The battle that was the turning point in the American Revolution, convincing the French to support the patriots. 6. Describe two problems with the Articles of Confederation. 7. The year that the Constitution was ratified. 8. Jefferson’s act that doubled the size of the United States in How did the Missouri Compromise attempt to resolve the issue over expanding slavery? 12. The doctrine that Southerners used to secede from the Union. 13. The northernmost battle of the Civil War. 14. The term for the belief that the U.S. should expand across the continent.

48 6.Which best explains the appearance of political parties in the United States shortly after the adoption of the Constitution? A.Washington disliked Jefferson. B.The Constitution required the development of a multi-party system. C.Great Britain had a two-party system. D.Differences arose over economic and political issues.

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