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TOTAL WAR Conscription. CONSCRIPTION CRISIS, 1917 Initial response to the war declaration was enthusiasm by all members of Canada; Initial response to.

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Presentation on theme: "TOTAL WAR Conscription. CONSCRIPTION CRISIS, 1917 Initial response to the war declaration was enthusiasm by all members of Canada; Initial response to."— Presentation transcript:

1 TOTAL WAR Conscription

2 CONSCRIPTION CRISIS, 1917 Initial response to the war declaration was enthusiasm by all members of Canada; Initial response to the war declaration was enthusiasm by all members of Canada; By the end of 1916, there were more casualties than were men enlisting in the armed forces; By the end of 1916, there were more casualties than were men enlisting in the armed forces; Criticisms were made against Quebec that the effort and enlistment was lowest there; Criticisms were made against Quebec that the effort and enlistment was lowest there; Quebeckers were upset at the lack of recognition for the 22 nd Battalion, an entirely French battalion; Quebeckers were upset at the lack of recognition for the 22 nd Battalion, an entirely French battalion; (the “Van Doos”) (the “Van Doos”)

3 CONSCRIPTION CRISIS, 1917 Most vocal opponent of conscription in Quebec; Most vocal opponent of conscription in Quebec; Owned the French paper Le Devoir; Owned the French paper Le Devoir; Wanted Canadian independence from Britain, but without obligations to the Crown; Wanted Canadian independence from Britain, but without obligations to the Crown; HENRI BOURASSA

4 CONSCRIPTION CRISIS, 1917 June 1917 – Military Service Bill June 1917 – Military Service Bill All males between 18 and 45 eligible for service;All males between 18 and 45 eligible for service; Exemptions:Exemptions: Conscientious objectors; Conscientious objectors; Persons in essential war productions; Persons in essential war productions; Persons with specialized qualifications; Persons with specialized qualifications; Persons where military service caused special hardships; Persons where military service caused special hardships;

5 THE HOME FRONT At the beginning of war Canada did not have many factories and were mostly agricultural; At the beginning of war Canada did not have many factories and were mostly agricultural; By 1917, there were 600 factories, employing over 300,000; almost 35,000 of those employees were women; By 1917, there were 600 factories, employing over 300,000; almost 35,000 of those employees were women; By 1918 there were also shipbuilding department; By 1918 there were also shipbuilding department; Natural resources were also important – especially metals; Natural resources were also important – especially metals;

6 THE HOME FRONT Contributions from everyone were expected; Contributions from everyone were expected; The Patriotic FundThe Patriotic Fund Savings BondsSavings Bonds Victory BondsVictory Bonds Thrift StampsThrift Stamps Canadian Red CrossCanadian Red Cross Help in local agricultural regionsHelp in local agricultural regions Volunteer in support groups (Boy Scouts)Volunteer in support groups (Boy Scouts)

7 THE HOME FRONT - PROPAGANDA Primary sources of information came from the press and the government; Primary sources of information came from the press and the government; Government had tight constraints over the information in the Press because of the possibility of sensitive information being leaked; Government had tight constraints over the information in the Press because of the possibility of sensitive information being leaked; Information was “sanitized” (censored) prior to printing to control what the public read; Information was “sanitized” (censored) prior to printing to control what the public read;

8 THE HOME FRONT - PROPAGANDA Early propaganda identified the glamour of war, promoting the heroic and patriotic; Early propaganda identified the glamour of war, promoting the heroic and patriotic; Because the occurrences and realities of war were distorted by the media, the people on the home front never understood the soldiers experiences; Because the occurrences and realities of war were distorted by the media, the people on the home front never understood the soldiers experiences; Newspapers openly shamed those who did not enlist; Newspapers openly shamed those who did not enlist; Newspaper stories identified atrocities and stereotypes in order to demonize the Alliance; Newspaper stories identified atrocities and stereotypes in order to demonize the Alliance; Most of the stories were untrue, but served to encourage those at home and on the front lines; Most of the stories were untrue, but served to encourage those at home and on the front lines;

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10 HALIFAX EXPLOSION December 6, 1917 – Halifax, Nova Scotia December 6, 1917 – Halifax, Nova Scotia The French munitions ship, Mont Blanc, was full of over 3000 tonnes of munitions supplies and explosives; The French munitions ship, Mont Blanc, was full of over 3000 tonnes of munitions supplies and explosives; The Norwegian steam ship, the Imo, also entered the harbour; The Norwegian steam ship, the Imo, also entered the harbour; The two collide and a fire on the Mont Blanc starts as a result; The two collide and a fire on the Mont Blanc starts as a result;

11 HALIFAX EXPLOSION The crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship as soon as possible, knowing what was to happen; The crew of the Mont Blanc abandoned ship as soon as possible, knowing what was to happen; The people in the city of Halifax did not know what was on the ship and what was about to happen; The people in the city of Halifax did not know what was on the ship and what was about to happen; The blast was felt in Truro, NS, Prince Edward Island and Sydney, NS The blast was felt in Truro, NS, Prince Edward Island and Sydney, NS

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13 HALIFAX EXPLOSION The largest non-military explosion in history, until Hiroshima; The largest non-military explosion in history, until Hiroshima; A huge wave swept across the harbour destroying almost all of the buildings or setting them on fire; A huge wave swept across the harbour destroying almost all of the buildings or setting them on fire; Over 1,900 people were killed or would die; (likley more than 3,000 killed or injured) Over 1,900 people were killed or would die; (likley more than 3,000 killed or injured) Glass fragments flew all over the city – many people are blinded by glass; Glass fragments flew all over the city – many people are blinded by glass;

14 HALIFAX EXPLOSION The damages are registered within a 16 mile radius from the harbour; The damages are registered within a 16 mile radius from the harbour; Many people are now homeless and injured; Many people are now homeless and injured; The night of the blast was also one of the worst blizzard in years; The night of the blast was also one of the worst blizzard in years; Aid was sent from other cities in the Maritimes and from some Northeastern American towns and naval ships; Aid was sent from other cities in the Maritimes and from some Northeastern American towns and naval ships;

15 HALIFAX EXPLOSION Watch the following video on the Halifax Explosion: Watch the following video on the Halifax Explosion: Why was this event so disastrous for the Canadians and the war effort? Why was this event so disastrous for the Canadians and the war effort?

16 WOMEN AT WAR The war changed the roles of women in Canadian society; The war changed the roles of women in Canadian society; No longer on the sidelines, they began to work in factories and within branches of the armed forces; No longer on the sidelines, they began to work in factories and within branches of the armed forces; Also played an important role in recruiting men to the armed forces; Also played an important role in recruiting men to the armed forces; Women worked in volunteer organizations; Women worked in volunteer organizations;

17 WOMEN AT WAR Red Cross: Red Cross: Knitting socks, rolling bandages, packing food parcels;Knitting socks, rolling bandages, packing food parcels; Canadian Field Comforts Commission: Canadian Field Comforts Commission: Distributing gifts and supplies sent to soldiers;Distributing gifts and supplies sent to soldiers; Canadian Army Medical Corps: Canadian Army Medical Corps: Nursing Sisters (actually got paid the same rate as officers) over 3,000 women in this position;Nursing Sisters (actually got paid the same rate as officers) over 3,000 women in this position;

18 Hospital ward (Helen Lauder Fowlds personal records)

19 WOMEN AT WAR - RECORDS Filming for medical records

20 WOMEN AT WAR By 1916, there was a developing labour shortage in Canada in the factories as more men were encouraged to enlist; By 1916, there was a developing labour shortage in Canada in the factories as more men were encouraged to enlist; Women, most of whom were unmarried, worked in munitions factories; Women, most of whom were unmarried, worked in munitions factories; Working hours were the same as for men, as women learned trades within the factory; Working hours were the same as for men, as women learned trades within the factory; Pay was still lower than that of men ($.23 to $.45 per hour); Pay was still lower than that of men ($.23 to $.45 per hour); Women’s labour was seen as “a temporary act of patriotism;” Women’s labour was seen as “a temporary act of patriotism;”

21 WOMEN AT WAR Found employment in agriculture as fruit pickers and harvesters, although not as readily accepted into the workforce; Found employment in agriculture as fruit pickers and harvesters, although not as readily accepted into the workforce; Civil service (government) work was found by about 5,000 to 6,000 women; Civil service (government) work was found by about 5,000 to 6,000 women; Streetcar and train conductors;Streetcar and train conductors; Office workers;Office workers;

22 U.S. ENTERS – RUSSIA LEAVES 1917 would be a very important year in the course of the war; 1917 would be a very important year in the course of the war; Although the Americans were remaining out of the European conflict, they were pro-Allies because of the stories of civilian deaths, invasions of neutral areas and other propaganda; Although the Americans were remaining out of the European conflict, they were pro-Allies because of the stories of civilian deaths, invasions of neutral areas and other propaganda; Financial and production help was also provided from American industry and government; Financial and production help was also provided from American industry and government;

23 U.S. ENTERS – RUSSIA LEAVES Germany wanted to distract the US from the war in Europe, so they sent a telegram to Mexico’s government stating support if they decided to invade the US – Zimmerman Telegram; Germany wanted to distract the US from the war in Europe, so they sent a telegram to Mexico’s government stating support if they decided to invade the US – Zimmerman Telegram; The US was still concerned about their ships after the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, and the unrestricted warfare on ships trading with the Triple Entente; The US was still concerned about their ships after the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915, and the unrestricted warfare on ships trading with the Triple Entente; The US declared war in April 1917, under the instruction of President Woodrow Wilson; The US declared war in April 1917, under the instruction of President Woodrow Wilson; Germany wanted to end the war quickly before the Americans could mobilize; Germany wanted to end the war quickly before the Americans could mobilize;

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26 U.S. ENTERS – RUSSIA LEAVES Russian troops on the Eastern Front were poorly equipped and poorly trained, compared to the professional German army; Russian troops on the Eastern Front were poorly equipped and poorly trained, compared to the professional German army; Czar Nicholas II was seen to be a weak leader and was detached from the fighting at the front; Czar Nicholas II was seen to be a weak leader and was detached from the fighting at the front; After the initial losses to the Germans, the soldiers’ morale dropped and resentment toward the Royal Family and their privileged friends increased; After the initial losses to the Germans, the soldiers’ morale dropped and resentment toward the Royal Family and their privileged friends increased;

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28 U.S. ENTERS – RUSSIA LEAVES By 1917, Russian soldiers and sailors mutinied and refused to fight, their slogan became “Land, Bread and Peace;” By 1917, Russian soldiers and sailors mutinied and refused to fight, their slogan became “Land, Bread and Peace;” The Germans saw an opportunity and even helped to transport a Communist leader, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) from Switzerland; The Germans saw an opportunity and even helped to transport a Communist leader, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) from Switzerland; Once in Russia he rallied the people and overthrew the government in the Bolshevik Revolution; Once in Russia he rallied the people and overthrew the government in the Bolshevik Revolution;

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32 U.S. ENTERS – RUSSIA LEAVES Once in power in Russia, Lenin negotiated a peace treaty with Germany (Treaty of Brest- Litovsk) and pulled Russia out of the fighting; Once in power in Russia, Lenin negotiated a peace treaty with Germany (Treaty of Brest- Litovsk) and pulled Russia out of the fighting; The Germans quickly moved their troops to the Western Front; The Germans quickly moved their troops to the Western Front; By this time over 500,000 Americans had landed in Europe and by November 1918 it was obvious to the Germans that they could no longer hold their lines against the Allies; By this time over 500,000 Americans had landed in Europe and by November 1918 it was obvious to the Germans that they could no longer hold their lines against the Allies;

33 AFTERMATH By the end of the war over 8 million soldiers had dies and 20 million more lived with the wounds, shell shock, gassed lungs, lost limbs and sight or hearing loss; By the end of the war over 8 million soldiers had dies and 20 million more lived with the wounds, shell shock, gassed lungs, lost limbs and sight or hearing loss; 30 nations had participated in the fighting; 30 nations had participated in the fighting; The largest nations involved in the war would decide the future for Germany – Britain, France and the US, with Italian participation; The largest nations involved in the war would decide the future for Germany – Britain, France and the US, with Italian participation; Canada would be their own signing member – for the first time. Canada would be their own signing member – for the first time.


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