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Developments of Various European Nations Alexa Burger Taylor Vann.

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1 Developments of Various European Nations Alexa Burger Taylor Vann

2 Europe in the 16 th and 17 th Century Following the Thirty Years’ War, absolute rulers rose to power in European countries Spain quickly lost its place as a world power Two German states came to power amongst the 300+ original states Control of Italy changed from Spain to Austria Russia rose to prominence in Europe

3 Spain The reigns of Philip II and III left Spain bankrupt due to overspending on their military Spain’s international settlements no longer returned precious materials The nobility was only concerned with living in luxury, rather than helping the country maintain power

4 Philip IV Attempts a Spanish Revival Decrees aimed at domestic reform limited the power of the Catholic Church and landed aristocracy Political reform worked to centralize the Spanish government Spanish aristocrats were able to limit the success of these reform attempts Internal revolts and massive expenditures in the Thirty Years’ War permanently ended Philip’s hopes of returning Spain to greatness

5 The German States Peace of Westphalia left each of the 300+ German states completely independent Of these 300+ states, Brandenburg-Prussia and Austria gained power over all others

6 Brandenburg-Prussia Hohenzollern dynasty, established in the 15 th century, systematically gained land in western, central, and eastern Germany Disconnected territories were united by Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-1688) Frederick built a strong standing army and introduced heavy taxes to provide funding for the army By being the first German state with a standing army, Prussia rose to considerable power Frederick built a strong mercantilist industrial economy that favored nobles and allowed them the create monopolies –He constantly made decisions in favor of nobles that had adverse effects for the lower and middle classes Frederick was able to introduce taxes through his agreement with the Prussian nobility –They allowed him to run the government in any way that he pleased, and in return they were exempted from taxes, given the highest ranks in the military, and had unlimited power over their peasants

7 Austria Following the Thirty Years’ War, the Austrian Habsburgs changed their tactics to attempting to gain power in the lands east of Germany, rather than the nucleus of Europe to the west These efforts were challenged by the Ottoman Empire –When the Ottomans occupied Vienna in 1687, an Austrian army defeated them, leading to Austria’s control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia Following the War of the Spanish Succession, Austria gained possession of the Netherlands, and several Italian states Due to the fact that Austria contained territories of many different nationalities, it never became a centralized absolutist state –However, Austria possessed much military and political power by the beginning of the 18 th century

8 Italy When Charles V of France took control of Italy in 1530, he allowed the Italian states to self-govern under the condition that they recognized his dominance When his son Philip II gained the Duchy of Milan, control of Italy went to Spain –Only Florence, the Papal States, and Venice were able to remain mostly independent from Spanish rule –The Inquisition from the Papacy at this time brought much oppression to Italians As Spain began to suffer and the War of the Spanish Succession broke out, Austria eventually came to be the dominant country in Italy

9 Russia Ivan IV the Terrible (1533-1584) became the first tsar of Russia He expanded Russian territory westward by blocking the powerful Swedish and Polish states –Ivan increased his power by crushing the Russian nobility, known as the boyars When Ivan’s dynasty came to an end, the Time of Troubles, a period of anarchy, ensued

10 17 th Century Russian society The Time of Troubles ended when Michael Romanov was chosen by the Zemsky Sobor as the new tsar of Russia in 1613 The tsar headed Russian society, claiming to be divinely ordained Landed aristocrats dominated society by binding their peasants to the land they worked –Merchants needed government permission to move between cities –Many merchant and peasant revolts occurred in addition to the splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church At this time, Renaissance ideals from the West were beginning to reach Russian society –However, Russia remained largely secluded from the intellectual movements occurring throughout Europe in the 16 th, 17 th, and 18 th centuries

11 Peter the Great (1689-1725) Peter was a brutal leader with a commanding physical stature and demeanor Following his trip to the West in 1698, Peter attempted to westernize Russia One of the first things he did was create a powerful army and navy –Peasants were forced to enlist for 25 years –These efforts gave Russia a standing army of 210,000 men All Russians were required to enlist –There were fourteen levels of ranks that a soldier could achieve –Achieving the 8 th rank would make a non-noble become a noble

12 Peter’s Military Conquests Peter attacked Sweden in hopes of gaining control of the Baltic Sea –This would allow Russia a “window to the west” Sweden’s young king, Charles XII outwitted Peter and led his army of 8,000 men to victory of Peter’s army of 40,000 Peter regained victory over Charles at the Battle of Poltava Following the Peace of Nystadt, Peter was officially recognized as having gained control of Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia –Sweden fell from power in European affairs –Russia became the dominant country in Eastern Europe Before his death, Peter built the new capital of Russia, St. Petersburg, on the coast of the Baltic Sea

13 Peter’s Reform of Russian Government Created the Senate in 1711 Its purpose was to oversee the political actions of his administrators while he was away on military campaigns Peter later divided Russia into 8, and later 50 provinces –Each state was supposed to be self-governing and law- abiding –The fear of Peter’s wrath made Russians incapable of making their own decisions for fear of a swift and brutal punishment

14 Funding Peter’s Russia Peter adopted mercantilist policies to fund his military efforts Attempted to increase exports and develop industry When mercantilism was insufficient, Peter raised taxes

15 Peter’s Effects on Russian Society Peter abolished the title of patriarch and created the Holy Synod to make decisions for the church –The procurator was the head of the Holy Synod Peter also introduced many western customs, including social etiquette –Had a book published that taught western manners Ordered all beards to be shaved Peter declared that women be included in social events that were to be held three times per week –Women were also allowed to marry at their own free will

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