SUPPORT 40-45% colonists were Patriots Native Americans who lived near and interacted with the Americans 5000 African Americans served in the army Women- followed camps, cooked, did laundry, were nurses
African Americans in the American Revolution Slave Owners were afraid African Americans who had guns would lead slave revolts, so few states allowed them to enlist
Women and the American Revolution Mary Hays ("Molly Pitcher") carried water to soldiers during battle and Deborah Sampson dressed as a man, enlisted, and fought in several engagements Deborah in Combat
LEADERS GEORGE WASHINGTON Leader of the Continental Army BENEDICT ARNOLD Marquis de Lafayette Horatio Gates
Washington’s Strategy SURVIVE! KEEP AN ARMY ON THE FIELD WIN SOME BATTLES AVOID CRUSHING DEFEAT He avoids situations that might destroy his army. His leadership kept army together event when defeat seemed inevitable.
ARMY Inexperienced- little training! LACKED IMPORTANT SUPPLIES BLANKETS, FOOD, WEAPONS Congress’ inability to provide these supplies angered Washington. MANY DIDN’T STAY LONG WASHINGTON NEVER HAD MORE THAN 17,000 MEN IN THE ARMY (Congress did not require men to serve long terms in the service) LOW MORALE THOMAS PAINE WROTE THE AMERICAN CRISIS NEED A VICTORY…
Struggle for New York After forcing the British out of Boston (chapter 6). Washington hurried to New York. Several months later British troops arrived. The British and the American armies fought for New York state for several months. Finally, the British forced Washington to retreat through New Jersey. The American army was in terrible condition!!
Thomas Paine witnessed the soldiers low spirits on the retreat and the hard condtions. He wrote a series of pamphlets called The American Crisis to urge them to keep fighting Washington’s retreat These are the time that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink form the service of their country; but he that stands it NOW, serves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.” -excerpt from The American Crisis
Things get better: DECEMBER 25, 1776 BATTLE OF TRENTON WASHINGTON SURPRISED THE HESSIANS (German troops paid to fight for the British) THEY WERE SLEEPY DUE TO THEIR CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION Results: MORE THAN 900 HESSIAN CASULATIES PATRIOTS GAINED A MORAL BOOST AND MUCH NEEDED SUPPLIES
Washington and his troops crossed the icy Delaware River to New Jersey
Washington's army won a battle at Princeton 8 days later. Result- his army began to attract new recruits! Date: January 3rd, 1777 Location: Princeton, New Jersey Weather: ~28`F; clear; windy American Casualties: 40 British Casualties: 86 American Leaders: Sullivan/Hand/Mercer British Leaders: Col. Mawhood
SUPPORT 20% OF AMERICANS WERE LOYALISTS NATIVE AMERICANS WHO FEARED THAT IF THE AMERICANS WON THE WAR- THEY(AMERICANS) WOULD TAKE NATIVE AMERICAN LAND AFRICAN AMERICANS – A BRITISH GOVERNOR OFFERED FREEDOM TO THOSE WHO WOULD ENLIST
LEADERS GENERAL GEORGE BURGOYNE GENERAL HOWE LT. COLONEL ST. LEGER LORD CORNWALLIS
ARMY GREATEST ARMY IN THE WORLD (AT THIS TIME) DID NOT THINK THE AMERICAN ARMY WOULD LAST
STRATEGY OCCUPY COSTAL CITIES (so the navy could land troops and supplies) USE HESSIAN MERCENARIES SEIZE THE HUDSON RIVER THIS WOULD CUT OFF NEW ENGLAND FROM THE REST OF THE COLONIES IN ORDER TO DO THIS, 3 ARMIES WOULD RENDEVOUS AT ALBANY, NEW YORK
Howe a no-show Burgoyne expected to meet up with Lt. Colonel St. Ledger and General Howe at Albany New York (rendezvous). Burgoyne received a letter from Howe that he would not be coming because he decided to invade Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. “Success be ever with you” he wrote. Howe did defeat but did not capture Washington in Pennsylvania at the Battle of Brandywine. Howe then occupied Pennsylvania.
At the same time Burgoyne received Howe’s letter….. St. Ledger was trying to defeat a small American force at Fort Stanwix in the Mohawk River valley of New York. Benedict Arnold wanted to chase the British away from the fort, so he sent Iroquois allies to spread a rumor that a large American army was coming. St. Ledger’s army immediately fled NO ONE WAS LEFT TO RENDEZVOUS WITH BURGOYNE!
5Ws of Saratoga Who? BURGOYNE (BRITISH) GATES / ARNOLD (AMERICANS) What? SERIES OF SKIRMISHES (LED BY ARNOLD AND GATES) THAT ENDED AT SARATOGA, THE EXHAUSTED BRITISH MET THE CONTINENTAL ARMY. THE AMERICANS FIRE ON THE BRITISH ALL DAY AND NIGHT UNTIL BURGOYNE SURRENDERS. When?1777 Where?Saratoga, New York Why? ORGINALLY, BURGOYNE’S ARMY WAS RUNNING OUT OF SUPPLIES, SO HE SENT A RAIDING PARTY TO VERMONT (THE BRITISH WERE DEFEATED). BURGOYNE THEN DECIDED TO CONTINUE TO ALBANY. ON HIS WAY, HE MET THE CONTINENTAL ARMY LED BY GENERAL GATES. BURGOYNE DECIDEED TO BREAK THROUGH FORTIFICATIONS AND ATTEMPT TO PROCEED TO ALBANY
Battles of Saratoga Map of British retreat (red+=British) As Benedict Arnold rode around the battlefield “like a madman,” he was shot in the leg.
BENEDICT ARNOLD- MARRIES A LOYALIST AND BECOMES BITTER, EVENTUALLY TRIES TO BETRAY THE ARMY CAUSED EUROPEAN NATIONS TO THINK THAT THE AMERICANS MIGHT WIN THE REVOLUTION. THIS EVENT CASUED EUROPEAN NATIONS, SUCH AS FRANCE, TO SUPPORT THE AMERICANS.