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Thursday, 15 May Quiz 3 On line (Blackboard) Chapters 8, 9, & 10

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Presentation on theme: "Thursday, 15 May Quiz 3 On line (Blackboard) Chapters 8, 9, & 10"— Presentation transcript:

1 Thursday, 15 May Quiz 3 On line (Blackboard) Chapters 8, 9, & 10
15 multiple choice and 5 short essay questions 45 minutes On line (Blackboard) Available from 2pm Thursday 15 May to 12am Saturday 17 May We will check: 9am and 5pm Friday

2 Looking Ahead to Monsanto
Read Monsanto Case A and B for background This case is in Strategic Management, Hill and Jones Two copies on reserve in the library Make sure list of group members are submitted Decide who will defend which side Note instructions on website

3 Strategy, Ethics, and Social Responsibility
Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, Ph.D. Troy University-Florida Region

4 Milton Friedman, Nobel Prize-winning economist
“There is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say engages in free and open competition, without deception or fraud.” Milton Friedman, Nobel Prize-winning economist

5 Chapter Roadmap What Do We Mean by Business Ethics?
Where Do Ethical Standards Come From – Are They Universal or Dependent on Local Norms and Situational Circumstances? The Three Categories of Management Morality Do Company Strategies Need to be Ethical? Why Should Company Strategies Be Ethical? Linking a Company’s Strategy to its Ethical Principles and Core Values Strategy and Social Responsibility

6 Stakeholder Impact Analysis
Identify the stakeholders most critical to survival Identify stakeholders. Identify stakeholders’ interests and concerns. As a result, identify what claims stakeholders are likely to make on the organization. Identify the stakeholders who are most important to the organization’s perspective. Identify the resulting strategic challenges.

7 Stakeholders and the Enterprise

8 On a sheet of paper: pick the best answer and provide a short justification
Paying bribes and kickbacks to grease business transactions A. violates ethical principles of right and wrong in all countries. B. is ethically acceptable according to the principle of ethical universalism. C. is acceptable to immoral managers but not to amoral managers. D. should be considered ethically appropriate by a company so long as such payments are normal and customary in the countries where such payments are made. E. may be ethically acceptable according to the principle of ethical relativism if paying bribes and kickbacks is normal and customary practice in a country. Answer: E

9 Linking Strategy to Ethics and Social Responsibility
Should there be a link between a company’s efforts to craft and execute a winning strategy and its duties to Conduct activities in an ethical manner? Demonstrate socially responsible behavior by Being a committed corporate citizen? Attending to needs of non-owner stakeholders? Key Issues

10 What Is Business Ethics?
Business ethics involves applying general ethical principles and standards to business behavior Ethical principles in business are not different from ethical principles in general Business actions are judged By general ethical standards of society Not by a set of rules businesspeople apply to their own conduct

11 Are Ethical Standards Universal or Dependent on Local Norms?
Three schools of thought regarding extent to which ethical standards can be applied . . . Ethical Universalism Ethical Relativism Integrative Social Contracts Theory

12 Concept of Ethical Universalism
According to the school of ethical universalism . . . Same standards of what is ethical and what is unethical resonate with peoples of most societies regardless of Local traditions and Cultural norms Thus, common ethical standards can be used to judge conduct of personnel at companies operating in a variety of Country markets and Cultural circumstances

13 Examples of Universal Ethical Principles or Norms
Honesty Trustworthiness Treating people with dignity and respect Respecting rights of others Practicing the Golden Rule Avoiding unnecessary harm to Workers Users of a company’s product or service Respecting the environment

14 What Is the Appeal of Ethical Universalism?
Draws on collective views of multiple societies and cultures to place clear boundaries on what constitutes Ethical business behavior and Unethical business behavior Regardless of what country a company is operating in Whenever basic moral standards do not vary significantly according to local cultural beliefs, traditions, or religious convictions, a multinational company can Apply a code of ethics more or less evenly across its worldwide operations

15 Concept of Ethical Relativism
According to the school of ethical relativism . . . Different societies/cultures/countries Put more/less emphasis on some values than others Have different standards of right and wrong Have different social mores and behavioral norms What is ethical or unethical Must be judged in light of local customs and social mores and Can vary from one country to another

16 Payment of Bribes and Kickbacks
A thorny ethical problem is faced by multinational companies Degree of cross-country variability in paying bribes as part of business transactions Companies forbidding payment of bribes in their codes of ethics face a formidable challenge in countries where payments are entrenched as a local custom Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits U.S. companies from paying bribes in all countries where they do business

17 Ethical Relativism = Multiple Sets of Ethical Standards
Proponents of the ethical relativism school maintain there are Few ethical absolutes to judge a company’s conduct in various countries Plenty of situations where ethical norms are contoured to fit Local customs and traditions Local beliefs about what is fair Local standards of “right” and “wrong” Ethical problems in business cannot be fully resolved without appealing to the shared convictions of the parties in question

18 Drawbacks of Ethical Relativism
The ethical relativism rule of “when in Rome, do as the Romans do” presents problems When the envelope is pushed, it is tantamount to rudderless ethical standards It is ethically dangerous for company personnel to assume that local ethical standards are an adequate guide to ethical behavior What if local standards condone kickbacks and bribery? What if local standards blink at environmental degradation? From a global markets perspective, ethical relativism results in a maze of conflicting ethical standards for multinational companies wanting to address the issue of what ethical standards to enforce companywide

19 Concept of Integrative Social Contracts Theory
According to the integrative social contracts theory, the ethical standards a company should try to uphold are governed by both A limited number of universal ethical principles that are widely recognized as putting legitimate ethical boundaries on actions and behavior in all situations and The circumstances of local cultures, traditions, and shared values that further prescribe what constitutes Ethically permissible behavior and What does not

20 Appeal of Integrative Social Contracts Theory
Universal ethical principles establish “moral free space” based on the collective view of multiple societies and cultures Commonly held views about morality and ethical principles combine to form a “social contract” with society It is appropriate for societies or companies to go beyond universal ethical principles and specify local or second-order ethical norms Where firms have developed ethical codes, the standards they call for provide appropriate ethical guidance Social contracts theory maintains adherence to universal or first-order ethical norms should always take precedence over local or second-order norms!

21 Three Categories of Management Morality
Moral manager Managerial ethical and moral principles Immoral manager Amoral manager

22 Characteristics of a Moral Manager
Dedicated to high standards of ethical behavior in Own actions How the company’s business is to be conducted Considers it important to Be a steward of ethical behavior Demonstrate ethical leadership Pursues business success Within confines of both letter and spirit of laws With a habit of operating well above what laws require

23 Characteristics of an Immoral Manager
Actively opposes ethical behavior in business Willfully ignores ethical principles in making decisions Views legal standards as barriers to overcome Pursues own self-interests Is an example of capitalistic greed Ignores interests of others Focuses only on bottom line – making one’s numbers Will trample on others to avoid being trampled upon

24 Characteristics of an Intentionally Amoral Manager
Believes business and ethics should not be mixed since different rules apply to Business activities Other realms of life Does not factor ethical considerations into own actions since business activity lies outside sphere of moral judgment Views ethics as inappropriate for tough, competitive business world Concept of right and wrong is lawyer-driven (what can we get by with without running afoul of the law)

25 Characteristics of an Unintentionally Amoral Manager
Is blind to or casual about ethics of decision-making and business actions Displays lack of concern regarding whether ethics applies to company actions Sees self as well-intentioned or personally ethical Typical beliefs Do what is necessary to comply with laws and regulations Government provides legal framework stating what society will put up with—if it is not illegal, it is allowed

26 Evidence of Managerial Immorality in the Global Business Community
Evidence exists a sizable majority of managers are either Amoral or Immoral Results of the 2005 Global Corruption Report indicate corruption is widespread across the world Corruption extends beyond bribes and kickbacks




30 Do Company Strategies Need to Be Ethical?
Approaches of most company managers Ensure a company’s strategy is legal May or may not ensure all elements of strategies are ethical Approach of senior executives with strong ethical convictions Insist all aspects of strategy fall within ethical boundaries Approach of immoral or amoral senior executives Use shady strategies if they think they can get by with it Use unethical or borderline business practices Hide ethically questionable actions

31 What Are the Drivers of Unethical Strategies and Business Behavior?
Large numbers of immoral and amoral business people Overzealous pursuit of personal gain, wealth, and other selfish interests Heavy pressures on company managers to meet or beat earnings targets Company cultures that place profits and good performance ahead of ethical behavior

32 Overzealous Pursuit of Personal Gain, Wealth, and Selfish Interests
People obsessed with wealth accumulation, greed, power, and status often Push ethical principles aside in their quest for self gain Exhibit few qualms in doing whatever is necessary to achieve their goals Look out for their own best interests Have few scruples and ignore welfare of others Engage in all kinds of unethical strategic maneuvers and behaviors

33 Heavy Pressures on Company Managers to Meet or Beat Earnings Targets
Managers often feel enormous pressure to do whatever it takes to deliver good financial performance Actions often taken by managers Cut costs wherever savings show up immediately Squeeze extra sales out of early deliveries Engage in short-term maneuvers to make the numbers Stretch rules to extreme, until limits of ethical conduct are overlooked Executives feel pressure to hit performance targets since their compensation depends heavily on company performance Fundamental problem with a “make the numbers” syndrome Company does not serve its customers or shareholders well by placing top priority on the bottom line

34 Company Culture Places Profits and Good Performance Ahead of Ethical Behavior
In an ethically corrupt or amoral work climate, people have a company-approved license to Ignore “what’s right” and stretch rules Engage in most any behavior or employ most any strategy they think they can get away with Play down relevance of ethical strategic actions and business conduct Pressures to conform to cultural norms can prompt otherwise honorable people to Make ethical mistakes Succumb to the many opportunities to engage in unethical practices and shady behavior

35 Approaches to Managing a Company’s Ethical Conduct
Unconcerned or non-issue approach Damage control approach Compliance approach Ethical culture approach


37 Characteristics of Unconcerned Approach
Prevalent at companies whose executives are immoral and unintentionally amoral Notions of right and wrong in business matters are defined by government via prevailing laws and regulations — after that, anything goes If the law permits “unethical behavior,” why stand on ethical principles Companies are usually out to make greatest possible profit at most any cost Strategies used, while legal, may embrace elements that are ethically shady

38 Characteristics of Damage Control Approach
Favored at companies whose managers are intentionally amoral but who fear scandal May adopt a code of ethics as window-dressing Adept at using “spin” to “explain away” the use of unethical strategy elements or discount the impact of shady actions Executives look the other way when shady behavior occurs Executives may condone questionable actions that help a company reach earnings targets or bolster its market standing

39 Characteristics of Compliance Approach
From light to forceful compliance is favored at companies whose managers Lean toward being somewhat amoral but are highly concerned about having ethically upstanding reputations or Are moral and see strong compliance methods as best way to impose and enforce high ethical standards Emphasis is on securing broad compliance and measuring degree to which ethical standards are upheld Commitment to eradicate unethical behavior stems from a desire to Avoid cost and damage associated with unethical conduct or Gain favor from stakeholders from having a highly regarded reputation for ethical behavior

40 Pursuing a Compliance Approach: Typical Actions
Make code of ethics a visible and regular part of communications with employees Implement ethics training programs Appoint a chief ethics officer Have ethics committees to give guidance on ethics matters Institute formal procedures for investigating alleged ethics violations Conduct ethics audits to measure and document compliance Give ethics awards to employees for outstanding efforts to create an ethical climate Install ethics hotlines to help detect and deter violations

41 Potential Weakness of Compliance Approach
Moral control resides in a company’s code of ethics and in the ethics compliance system rather than in Strong peer pressures for ethical behavior that come from ingraining a highly ethical corporate culture and An individual’s own moral responsibility for ethical behavior

42 Characteristics of Ethical Culture Approach
Top executives believe high ethical principles must Be deeply ingrained in the corporate culture Function as guides for “how we do things around here” Company seeks to gain employee buy-in to Company’s ethical standards Business principles Corporate values Ethical principles in company’s code of ethics are Integral to day-to-day operations Promoted as “business as usual” Strategy must be ethical Employees must display ethical behaviors in executing the strategy

43 Ethical Culture Approach: Control Systems
Compliance approach as a floor Reward and Evaluation systems must reinforce ethical standards Internal transparency Internal audits, for example, all transactions subject to scrutiny Control systems Dual control systems, for example, approval of transactions, expenses

44 “Honest people” vs Systems
The case of the SUNAT, Peru’s “IRS” A subsequent story about policewomen in Lima, Peru

45 Why Should Company Strategies Be Ethical?
An unethical strategy Is morally wrong Reflects badly on the character of company personnel An ethical strategy is Good business In the best interest of shareholders

46 Test Your Knowledge Which one of the following is false when it comes to making a case for why a company’s strategy should be ethical? A. An unethical strategy can put a company’s reputation at risk and do lasting damage, especially when the misdeeds get into the public spotlight and make media headlines. B. An ethical strategy is in the best interest of shareholders. C. An unethical strategy reflects badly on the character of the company personnel involved. D. Shareholders profits are not greatly reduced by using ethical strategies. E. A strategy that is unethical in whole or in part is morally wrong. Answer: D

47 Characteristics of Managers Committed to Ethical Approaches to Strategy-Making
Possess strong moral and ethical characteristics Strongly advocate a corporate code of ethics and strict ethics compliance Display genuine commitment to certain corporate values and business practices Walk the talk in Displaying a company’s stated values Living up to ethical business principles and standards Adopt values statements/ethics codes that truly paint the white lines for a company’s business practices Consciously opt for strategic actions passing moral scrutiny

48 Fig. 10.1: The Business Costs of Ethical Failures

49 Linking Strategy to Ethics and Values
If ethical standards are to have more than a cosmetic role, boards of directors and top executives must work diligently to see they are scrupulously observed in Crafting a company’s strategy and Conducting every facet of a company’s business Two sets of questions must be considered by senior executives when reviewing a new strategic initiative Is what we are proposing to do fully compliant with our code of ethical conduct? Is there anything here that could be considered ethically objectionable? Is it apparent this proposed action is in harmony with our core values? Are any conflicts or concerns evident?

50 For Discussion: Your Opinion
Is it unethical for a high school or college coach to accept a “talent fee” or similar type of payment from a maker of sports apparel or sports equipment when the coach has authority to determine which brand of apparel or equipment to use for his/her team and subsequently chooses the brand of the company making the payment? Is it unethical for the maker of the sports apparel or equipment to make such payments in expectation that the coach will reciprocate by selecting the company’s brand? (Would you answer be different if “everybody” is doing it?) Student responses will vary. You should press students to justify their answers and the explain the “moral ground” on which their answer rests.

51 For Discussion: Your Opinion
Is it unethical for a credit card company to aggressively try to sign up new accounts when, after an introductory period of interest-free or low-interest charges on unpaid monthly balances, the interest rate on unpaid balances jumps to 1.5 percent or more monthly (even though such high rates of 18 percent or more annually are disclosed in fine print)? Student responses will vary, which gives you an opportunity to explore the different core values and the “moral underpinning” upon which the varying answers are based

52 What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?
The notion that corporate executives should balance interests of all stakeholders began to blossom in the 1960s Social responsibility as it applies to businesses concerns a company’s duty to Operate in an honorable manner Provide good working conditions for employees Be a good steward of the environment Actively work to better quality of life in Local communities where it operates and Society at large

53 What Is Socially Responsible Business Behavior?
A company should strive to balance strategic actions To benefit shareholders against any possible adverse impacts on other stakeholders To be a good corporate citizen Socially responsible behaviors include Corporate philanthropy Actions to earn trust and respect of stakeholders for a firm’s efforts to improve the general well-being of Customers Employees Local communities Society Environment

54 Fig. 10.2: Categories of Socially Responsible Business Behavior

55 Linking Strategy and Social Responsibility
The combination of socially responsible endeavors a company elects to pursue defines its social responsibility strategy Management should match a company’s social responsibility strategy to its Core values Business mission Overall strategy Some companies are integrating social responsibility objectives into their Missions Performance targets Strategies

56 The Moral Case for Corporate Social Responsibility
Businesses should promote the betterment of society, acting in ways to benefit all their stakeholders because It’s the right thing to do! Based on an implied social contract, society Grants a business the right to conduct its business affairs Agrees not to unreasonably restrain a business’ pursuit of a fair profit In return for a “license to operate,” a business should Act as a responsible citizen Do its fair share to promote the general welfare

57 Reasons to Behave in a Socially Responsible Manner
Generates internal benefits Enhances recruitment of quality employees Increases retention of employees Improves employee productivity Lowers costs of recruitment and trainings Reduces risk of reputation-damaging incidents, leading to increased buyer patronage Works in best interest of shareholders Minimizes costly legal and regulatory actions Provides for increased investments by socially conscious mutual funds and pension benefit managers Focusing on environment issues may enhance earnings

58 Test Your Knowledge Which one of the following is false as concerns the merits of why acting in a socially responsible manner is “good business”? A. To the extent that a company’s socially responsible behavior wins applause from consumers and fortifies its reputation, a company may win additional patronage. B. Acting in a socially responsible manner reduces the risk of reputation-damaging incidents. C. Acting in a socially responsible manner is in the overall best interest of shareholders. D. Acting in a socially responsible manner is unlikely to have any effect (positive or negative) on a company’s profitability. E. Acting in a socially responsible manner can generate internal benefits (as concerns employee recruiting, workforce retention, training, and improved worker productivity). Answer: D

59 But Do We Really Want “Do-Good” Executives — Is There a Downside?
Four different views exist regarding use of company resources by “do-good” executives in pursuit of a better world Any money authorized for social responsibility initiatives is theft from a company’s shareholders Caution should be exercised in pursuing various societal obligations since this Diverts valuable resources Weakens a company’s competitiveness Social responsibilities are best satisfied through conventional business activities (doing what businesses are supposed to do, which does not include social engineering) Spending money for social causes Muddies decision making by diluting focus on a firm’s business mission Thrusts executives into role of social engineers

60 How Much Attention to Social Responsibility Is Enough?
What is the appropriate balance between Creating value for shareholders? Obligation to contribute to the larger social good? What fraction of a firm’s resources ought to be aimed at Addressing social concerns? Bettering the well-being of society and the environment? Approaches to fund a social responsibility strategy can Allocate a specified percentage of profits Avoid committing a specified percentage of profits No widely accepted standard for judging if a company has fulfilled its citizenship responsibilities exists!

61 Linking Social Performance Targets to Executive Compensation
A surefire way to enlist a genuine commitment to corporate social responsibility initiatives is to Link achievement of social performance targets to executive compensation Key role of board of directors Incorporate measures of a company’s social and environmental performance into its evaluation of top executives Key role of top executives Use compensation incentives to enlist support of down-the-line company personnel to craft and execute a social responsibility strategy

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