Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary List Ration: a fixed allowance of provisions or food War Bonds: a debt issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary List Ration: a fixed allowance of provisions or food War Bonds: a debt issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war Interment: the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, Morale: emotional or mental condition with respect to cheerfulness, confidence Riveter:A person who installs rivets to fasten an object together.
The American Home Front December 7, 1941 - 1945
“We have nothing to fear but fear itself” After the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt read his famous speech to Congress and the U.S. declared war on Japan. This led Germany and Italy to declare war on the U.S. World War II was now at America’s shores. (so much for neutrality).
Executive Order 9066 In the U.S., Americans were afraid that Japan was targeting the west coast. Tanks and soldiers were sent to watch and protect coasts.. In reality, the U.S. could do little to defend itself at this time.
Misfortune on the Home Front Off the East coast, Germany was sinking our merchant ships with its submarines. Germany believed that the U.S. was assisting Great Britain and France. The U.S. was losing battles in Asia.
Enlistment and Patriotism The American military was not prepared for an all out war. It only had 300,000 men. The U.S. calls on American men to enlist. The American people respond. In fact the Government is overwhelmed by the number that decide to join.
ALL AMERICANS FOUGHT Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort: 1,000,000 African Americans 300,000 Mexican- Americans 33,000 Japanese Americans 25,000 Native Americans 13,000 Chinese Americans These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944
Contributions The Americans were asked by the government to ration everything. The government also sold war bonds (borrowed money from its own people to help with the war). They needed money to help the Allies as well as themselves. The U.S. was also not a very rich country and desperately needed money. The goal was to help Allies while the U.S. prepared.
Rationed Goods Rationed Items: sugar, coffee, shoes, meats, and cereals. Farms were producing as much food as possible. Much of the food went to British and Russian soldiers and citizens as a result of starvation.
Shift in Production American Industry had to go from peace time production to war time production (which takes a lot of time). GM, Ford, and Chrysler went from creating cars to tanks. Boeing from regular airplanes to bombers and fighter jets. Gun makers like Colt, from hunting rifles to machine guns, flamethrowers, war rifles.
War Production In full war mode, the U.S. was producing weapons faster than anybody around thought that it would or could. In one month, the U.S. was able to produce up to 4,000 tanks and 4,500 planes. Ship production also increased dramatically to help protect our coasts.
LABOR’S CONTRIBUTION By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941) More than 6 million were women and nearly 2 million were minority.
Unintended Benefit Women joined the workforce. Before the war, only about 3 million worked in the U.S. Most were housewives and raised families. Desperate for workers to produce weapons, women replaced the men that went to war.
WOMEN MAKE GAINS Women enjoyed economic gains during the war, although many lost their jobs after the war Over 6 million women entered the work force for the first time Over 1/3 were in the defense industry.
Success on the Home Front The war provided a lift to the U.S. economy Jobs were abundant and despite rationing and shortages, people had money to spend. By the end of the war, America was the world’s dominant economic and military power.
ECONOMIC GAINS Unemployment fell to only 1.2% by 1944 and wages rose 35% Farmers benefited as production doubled and their income tripled
POPULATION SHIFTS The war triggered the greatest mass migration in American history. More than a million newcomers poured into California between 1941-1944. African-Americans again shifted from south to north.
G.I. BILL HELPS RETURNING VETS To help returning servicemen ease back into civilian life, Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill of Rights) The act provided education for 7.8 million vets.