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Should The U.S. Draft Be Reinstated?

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Presentation on theme: "Should The U.S. Draft Be Reinstated?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Should The U.S. Draft Be Reinstated?
Anthony Holly, Christina Jones, Nicole Lewis, Nicholas Wade

2 The U.S. Draft What exactly is it?
The US Draft is when the government uses a lottery system to summon most men aged to serve in the military Only occurs when the military needs more troops than they have with volunteers Has to be passed by congress and the president The military is currently all volunteer although most men are required to register for selective service within 30 days of their 18th birthday These men could all potentially have to serve in the military should the draft be reinstated The US uses a volunteer service, while most other countries use universal conscription, which is mandatory military service to your home country for a specific amount of time. Generally ages and involves everyone.

3 Historical Facts about the Draft
U.S. Civil War (1862) – white males 17 – 50 years of age 21% of the force used in this war was conscripted Enrollment Act of Conscription - March 3,1863 Allowed a "commutation fee" - allowed wealthier and more influential citizens to buy their way out of service Allowed for men ages 20 – 45 to be drafted Commutation was later removed and new law allowed religious pacifists alternative ways to serve (1864) New York Draft Riots - July 11,1863 Irish immigrants and African Americans competed for jobs Lincoln called for a Draft, and within hours, Irish immigrants began a riot in New York $1.5 million in damage and ~20 – 100 were killed was referenced was referenced

4 Historical Facts about the Draft, con’t.
Selective Service Act of 1917 Draft during World War I Drafted men ages Did not allow for any type of commutation or substitution Allowed conscientious objectors to have alternative duties Allowed for deferment for workers of industry and agriculture Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 Draft during World War II Established the Selective Service as a branch of the government First time the US had used a draft during peacetime Draftees only had to serve one year of duty in the Western Hemisphere and U.S. territories After Pearl Harbor, restrictions were removed and men ages 18 – 38 (extended to age 45) were drafted From 1947 – 1948 the Draft was not used

5 Historical Facts about the Draft, con’t.
Draft was used consistently from during times of both war and peace Active draft ended on July 1,1973 16,307,243 men were drafted by the selective service from the beginning of WWI in 1917 through the end of the Vietnam conflict 2,810,296 men were drafted for WWI 10,110,104 men were drafted for WWII 1,529,539 men were drafted for the Korean War 1,857,304 men were drafted for the Vietnam Conflict

6 Vietnam As the war progressed many “career” soldiers either rotated out, retired, or were killed Replaced with draftees whose leadership skills were questionable Military officials blamed the draft policy for the slim talent pool Many argue that if “the Harvard's” (educated middle class) had joined the fight then the military would have better leaders There were instances where draftees killed their officers

7 My Lai Massacre William Calley, an unemployed college dropout, graduated from Officer’s Candidate School and become a Lt. He commanded troops in Vietnam and on March 16, 1968 he ordered the murder of 300 apparently unarmed civilians including women, children, and elderly The draft makes it hard to keep people with low intelligence and emotional condition from filling Officer roles

8 Changes Since Vietnam Men who were full time students used to be able to defer service until finished with school, now they could only defer until the end of their current semester or year in high school Local draft boards are required to have an accurate representation of the racial and ethnic makeup of their particular areas Draft boards no longer use the “quota system,” which made it difficult to ensure fairness within the system A lottery system is in place that would ensure that men would only spend the year in which they turn 20 in first priority for the draft If a man wanted to appeal his service in the military he is now guaranteed the right to speak to someone in person

9 Current Reinstatement Legislation
S.89 and H.R. 163 introduced in 2003 Liberal Sponsorship in Congress Liberals feel the Draft will stop senseless wars Opposing Liberals feel that since Bush was re-elected on November 2nd, the Draft will be reinstated for more wars, although he states he will not October 6, 2004 – H.R. 163 overturned by a 402 – 2 vote H.R. 487 introduced in 2003 Eliminate possibility of any future Draft was referenced for this slide

10 The Current Draft Law What the law says
Men between the ages of 18 and 25 are required to register for the selective service Failure to register can incur $250,000 in fines and up to five years in prison

11 Are there ways to get out of it?
Postponement Student status Ministerial students Deferment Emergency/Health crisis on day to report - Reclassification Reservists - Reclassification Hardship Conscientious objection Exemption Surviving sons/brothers Ministers Elected officials Veterans (generally during peacetime) People currently in the army are not under a hardship per say – it is a hardship because they are not paid enough, but they chose that lifestyle and being in the army is a job which they chose.

12 Who must register? Most, but not all, male U.S. citizens and resident aliens living in the United States, ages are required to register with the Selective Service US Government's Who Must Register Chart State Compliance Statistics

13 Political Examples George W. Bush – used political and financial influence to dodge the Vietnam Draft and enlist in the U.S. National Guard John Kerry – chose to enlist in the Army William Clinton – dodged the Draft and used political ties to enlist in an ROTC program Source needed

14 Women and the Draft Current law does not consider women in the Draft
In 1981, Rostker v. Goldberg upheld that only men needed to register – Upheld that the Due Process Clause of the Constitution was followed In 1994, the Department of Defense stated that since the Draft is used for Army ground troops and women cannot be on the front line the Draft remains justifiable was referenced for this slide

15 Do we need a draft? Reservists Exhausting the existing forces
Stop-loss orders keeping people in Exhausting the existing forces Drop in reserve forces O’Hanlon, M. (2004) The need to increase the size of the deployable army. Parameters: 34, 4-14.

16 Figure 1. Existing and Planned Active-Duty Force Levels (Thousands of personnel)
Service Authorized Strength, 9/03 Actual Strength, 9/03 Mobilized Reservists, 9/03 Request, 05 Army 480.0 499.3 127.5 482.4 Marines 175.0 177.8 11.1 Navy 375.7 382.2 3.5 368.1 Air Force 359.0 375.1 21.2 359.8 Source: Under Secretary of Defense David Chu, 11 February 2004.

17 Minorities and the Draft
How they are affected Draft calls for proportionate ethnic representation from localities that it pulls from “Don’t ask, don’t tell” would likely be scrapped in the event of a draft (Pentagon Policy) Resident Aliens and people with dual citizenships are required to register Content on this slide from and

18 Conscientious Objectors
A conscientious objector is anyone who is opposed to serving in the armed forces and/or bearing arms on the grounds of moral or religious principals. If selected for military service the CO is required to appear before the local board to explain his beliefs How he arrived at these beliefs Their influence on how he lives his life

19 Conscientious Objectors
The CO must provide evidence to back up his claim with Written documentation Personal appearances After the evidence is presented the Local Board can grant or deny CO status The decision can be appealed to a Selective Service District Appeal Board If again CO status is rejected, but not by a unanimous vote it can be appealed to the National Appeal Board (uncompensated civilian volunteers) Civilian volunteer boards

20 Qualifying Beliefs Acceptable Beliefs Not Acceptable Religious
Moral/Ethical Not Acceptable Politics Expediency – interferes with school, job, or family plans Self-Interest

21 Alternative Service Those whose beliefs allow them to serve in the military, in a noncombatant way, will serve in the Armed Forces Won’t be assigned training or duties that include using weapons If their beliefs oppose any kind of military service then they are assigned to Alternative Service duties The job must make a meaningful contribution to the maintenance of national health, safety, and interest of the citizens Time spent in this service must equal the time spent by others serving in the Armed Forces Typically 24 months

22 Medical Personnel Draft
There is a plan ready in case of a national crisis The Health Care Personnel Delivery System (HCPDS) A special draft that targets only Medical Personnel Surgeons, doctors, dentists, nurses, paramedics, medical technicians, etc.

23 HCPDS Legislation Plan not designed for peacetime implementation
Only occur in the wake of a national crisis Congress and the President would have to approve the plan and pass the legislation Unless specifically stated, this draft would include women Health care workers ages would have to register

24 Special Skills Draft First steps being taken in creating a Special Skills draft Computer experts Foreign language specialists The plan resembles the HCPDS draft in that once it is created then Congress and the President would have to pass legislation before the draft could happen

25 Arguments For the Draft
Some Liberals in Congress feel that the Draft would supply the armed forces with a broad mixture of soldiers which would lead to limits on future wars The current armed forces situation favors accepting the poor and minorities -- a Draft would balance this disproportion was referenced for this slide

26 Arguments Opposing the Draft
The U.S. Army already has a large enough volunteer base and keeps enough soldiers on active duty The U.S. military is the most powerful military– large scale conflicts are a thing of the past Volunteers are more motivated leading to a better, more unified Army The current Army’s racial makeup is very close to the current U.S. citizen makeup was referenced for this slide

27 What We Feel Our opinion on the question of “Should the Draft be reinstated?” is … We are not in favor of reinstating the draft We feel that the volunteer army is sufficient enough for our country’s needs We feel that the volunteer army is more united and motivated because they choose to be there and therefore it is more effective

28 References

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