Presentation on theme: "Should The U.S. Draft Be Reinstated?"— Presentation transcript:
1Should The U.S. Draft Be Reinstated? Anthony Holly, Christina Jones, Nicole Lewis, Nicholas Wade
2The U.S. Draft What exactly is it? The US Draft is when the government uses a lottery system to summon most men aged to serve in the militaryOnly occurs when the military needs more troops than they have with volunteersHas to be passed by congress and the presidentThe military is currently all volunteer although most men are required to register for selective service within 30 days of their 18th birthdayThese men could all potentially have to serve in the military should the draft be reinstatedThe US uses a volunteer service, while most other countries use universal conscription, which is mandatory military service to your home country for a specific amount of time. Generally ages and involves everyone.
3Historical Facts about the Draft U.S. Civil War (1862) – white males 17 – 50 years of age21% of the force used in this war was conscriptedEnrollment Act of Conscription - March 3,1863Allowed a "commutation fee" - allowed wealthier and more influential citizens to buy their way out of serviceAllowed for men ages 20 – 45 to be draftedCommutation was later removed and new law allowed religious pacifists alternative ways to serve (1864)New York Draft Riots - July 11,1863Irish immigrants and African Americans competed for jobsLincoln called for a Draft, and within hours, Irish immigrants began a riot in New York$1.5 million in damage and ~20 – 100 were killedwas referencedwas referenced
4Historical Facts about the Draft, con’t. Selective Service Act of 1917Draft during World War IDrafted men agesDid not allow for any type of commutation or substitutionAllowed conscientious objectors to have alternative dutiesAllowed for deferment for workers of industry and agricultureSelective Training and Service Act of 1940Draft during World War IIEstablished the Selective Service as a branch of the governmentFirst time the US had used a draft during peacetimeDraftees only had to serve one year of duty in the Western Hemisphere and U.S. territoriesAfter Pearl Harbor, restrictions were removed and men ages 18 – 38 (extended to age 45) were draftedFrom 1947 – 1948 the Draft was not used
5Historical Facts about the Draft, con’t. Draft was used consistently from during times of both war and peaceActive draft ended on July 1,197316,307,243 men were drafted by the selective service from the beginning of WWI in 1917 through the end of the Vietnam conflict2,810,296 men were drafted for WWI10,110,104 men were drafted for WWII1,529,539 men were drafted for the Korean War1,857,304 men were drafted for the Vietnam Conflict
6VietnamAs the war progressed many “career” soldiers either rotated out, retired, or were killedReplaced with draftees whose leadership skills were questionableMilitary officials blamed the draft policy for the slim talent poolMany argue that if “the Harvard's” (educated middle class) had joined the fight then the military would have better leadersThere were instances where draftees killed their officers
7My Lai MassacreWilliam Calley, an unemployed college dropout, graduated from Officer’s Candidate School and become a Lt.He commanded troops in Vietnam and on March 16, 1968 he ordered the murder of 300 apparently unarmed civilians including women, children, and elderlyThe draft makes it hard to keep people with low intelligence and emotional condition from filling Officer roles
8Changes Since VietnamMen who were full time students used to be able to defer service until finished with school, now they could only defer until the end of their current semester or year in high schoolLocal draft boards are required to have an accurate representation of the racial and ethnic makeup of their particular areasDraft boards no longer use the “quota system,” which made it difficult to ensure fairness within the systemA lottery system is in place that would ensure that men would only spend the year in which they turn 20 in first priority for the draftIf a man wanted to appeal his service in the military he is now guaranteed the right to speak to someone in person
9Current Reinstatement Legislation S.89 and H.R. 163 introduced in 2003Liberal Sponsorship in CongressLiberals feel the Draft will stop senseless warsOpposing Liberals feel that since Bush was re-elected on November 2nd, the Draft will be reinstated for more wars, although he states he will notOctober 6, 2004 – H.R. 163 overturned by a 402 – 2 voteH.R. 487 introduced in 2003Eliminate possibility of any future Draftwas referenced for this slide
10The Current Draft Law What the law says Men between the ages of 18 and 25 are required to register for the selective serviceFailure to register can incur $250,000 in fines and up to five years in prison
11Are there ways to get out of it? PostponementStudent statusMinisterial studentsDefermentEmergency/Health crisis on day to report - ReclassificationReservists - ReclassificationHardshipConscientious objectionExemptionSurviving sons/brothersMinistersElected officialsVeterans (generally during peacetime)People currently in the army are not under a hardship per say – it is a hardship because they are not paid enough, but they chose that lifestyle and being in the army is a job which they chose.
12Who must register?Most, but not all, male U.S. citizens and resident aliens living in the United States, ages are required to register with the Selective ServiceUS Government's Who Must Register ChartState Compliance Statistics
13Political ExamplesGeorge W. Bush – used political and financial influence to dodge the Vietnam Draft and enlist in the U.S. National GuardJohn Kerry – chose to enlist in the ArmyWilliam Clinton – dodged the Draft and used political ties to enlist in an ROTC programSource needed
14Women and the Draft Current law does not consider women in the Draft In 1981, Rostker v. Goldberg upheld that only men needed to register – Upheld that the Due Process Clause of the Constitution was followedIn 1994, the Department of Defense stated that since the Draft is used for Army ground troops and women cannot be on the front line the Draft remains justifiablewas referenced for this slide
15Do we need a draft? Reservists Exhausting the existing forces Stop-loss orders keeping people inExhausting the existing forcesDrop in reserve forcesO’Hanlon, M. (2004) The need to increase the size of the deployable army. Parameters: 34, 4-14.
16Figure 1. Existing and Planned Active-Duty Force Levels (Thousands of personnel) ServiceAuthorized Strength, 9/03Actual Strength, 9/03Mobilized Reservists, 9/03Request, 05Army480.0499.3127.5482.4Marines175.0177.811.1Navy375.7382.23.5368.1Air Force359.0375.121.2359.8Source: Under Secretary of Defense David Chu, 11 February 2004.
17Minorities and the Draft How they are affectedDraft calls for proportionate ethnic representation from localities that it pulls from“Don’t ask, don’t tell” would likely be scrapped in the event of a draft (Pentagon Policy)Resident Aliens and people with dual citizenships are required to registerContent on this slide from and
18Conscientious Objectors A conscientious objector is anyone who is opposed to serving in the armed forces and/or bearing arms on the grounds of moral or religious principals.If selected for military service the CO is required to appear before the local board to explain his beliefsHow he arrived at these beliefsTheir influence on how he lives his life
19Conscientious Objectors The CO must provide evidence to back up his claim withWritten documentationPersonal appearancesAfter the evidence is presented the Local Board can grant or deny CO statusThe decision can be appealed to a Selective Service District Appeal BoardIf again CO status is rejected, but not by a unanimous vote it can be appealed to the National Appeal Board(uncompensated civilian volunteers)Civilian volunteer boards
20Qualifying Beliefs Acceptable Beliefs Not Acceptable Religious Moral/EthicalNot AcceptablePoliticsExpediency – interferes with school, job, or family plansSelf-Interest
21Alternative ServiceThose whose beliefs allow them to serve in the military, in a noncombatant way, will serve in the Armed ForcesWon’t be assigned training or duties that include using weaponsIf their beliefs oppose any kind of military service then they are assigned to Alternative Service dutiesThe job must make a meaningful contribution to the maintenance of national health, safety, and interest of the citizensTime spent in this service must equal the time spent by others serving in the Armed ForcesTypically 24 months
22Medical Personnel Draft There is a plan ready in case of a national crisisThe Health Care Personnel Delivery System (HCPDS)A special draft that targets only Medical PersonnelSurgeons, doctors, dentists, nurses, paramedics, medical technicians, etc.
23HCPDS Legislation Plan not designed for peacetime implementation Only occur in the wake of a national crisisCongress and the President would have to approve the plan and pass the legislationUnless specifically stated, this draft would include womenHealth care workers ages would have to register
24Special Skills DraftFirst steps being taken in creating a Special Skills draftComputer expertsForeign language specialistsThe plan resembles the HCPDS draft in that once it is created then Congress and the President would have to pass legislation before the draft could happen
25Arguments For the Draft Some Liberals in Congress feel that the Draft would supply the armed forces with a broad mixture of soldiers which would lead to limits on future warsThe current armed forces situation favors accepting the poor and minorities -- a Draft would balance this disproportionwas referenced for this slide
26Arguments Opposing the Draft The U.S. Army already has a large enough volunteer base and keeps enough soldiers on active dutyThe U.S. military is the most powerful military– large scale conflicts are a thing of the pastVolunteers are more motivated leading to a better, more unified ArmyThe current Army’s racial makeup is very close to the current U.S. citizen makeupwas referenced for this slide
27What We FeelOur opinion on the question of “Should the Draft be reinstated?” is …We are not in favor of reinstating the draftWe feel that the volunteer army is sufficient enough for our country’s needsWe feel that the volunteer army is more united and motivated because they choose to be there and therefore it is more effective